|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||4th century BC – 3rd century BC – 2nd century BC|
|Decades:||290s BC 280s BC 270s BC – 260s BC – 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC|
|Years:||271 BC 270 BC 269 BC – 268 BC – 267 BC 266 BC 265 BC|
|268 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||268 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||486|
|Bahá'í calendar||−2111 – −2110|
|English Regnal year||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
2429 or 2369
— to —
癸巳年 (Water Snake)
2430 or 2370
|Coptic calendar||−551 – −550|
|Ethiopian calendar||−275 – −274|
|- Vikram Samvat||−211 – −210|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2834–2835|
|Igbo calendar||−1267 – −1266|
|Iranian calendar||889 BP – 888 BP|
|Islamic calendar||916 BH – 915 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2179 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||276|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 268 BC.|
Year 268 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Sophus and Russus (or, less frequently, year 486 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 268 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Roman denarius coin is minted for the first time.
- The Romans found a colony at Malventum which they, for superstitious reasons, call Beneventum (since male means bad and bene means good in Latin).
- Chremonides, an Athenian statesman and general, issues the Decree of Chremonides, creating an alliance between Sparta, Athens, and Ptolemy II of Egypt. The origins of this alliance lay in the continuing desire of many Greek states, notably Athens and Sparta, for a restoration of their former independence, along with the desire of Ptolemy II to create troubles for his rival Antigonus II, King of Macedonia. Ptolemy II's ambitions in the Aegean Sea are threatened by Antigonus Gonatas' fleet, so he carefully builds up a coalition against Macedonia in Greece. He especially cultivates Athens by supplying the city with grain.