From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||2nd century – 3rd century – 4th century|
|Decades:||250s 260s 270s – 280s – 290s 300s 310s|
|Years:||280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 280s, ordered by year.
- Proculus, Roman usurper, starts a rebellion at Lugdunum (Lyon, France) and proclaims himself emperor.
- Emperor Probus drives the Alans off to Asia Minor and suppress the revolt in Gaul, Proculus is executed.
- The Germans destroy the Roman fleet on the Rhine, Bonosus is proclaimed emperor at Colonia Agrippina (Cologne).
- Probus defeats the army under Bonosus, he sees no way out and hangs himself. His family is treated with honours.
- Julius Saturninus, governor of Syria, is in Alexandria charged with the defense of the East. He is declared emperor and withdraws to Apamea. Probus besiege the city and puts him to death.
- Roman territory is under constant threat of raids from Franks. The cities in Gaul are reinforced with defensive walls.
- Emperor Sima Yan occupies most of the southern Kingdom of Wu and unites the Chinese Empire under one rule, he founds the Western Jin Dynasty. Ending the periode of the Three Kingdoms, the capital becomes the old and prosperous city of Luoyang. It is a thriving centre of commerce, and ambassadors from throughout the world arrive there.
- King Bahram II of the Sassanid Empire (Persia) send envoys to seek peaceful relations with Rome.
- The Gupta Empire (India) is founded (approximate date).
Arts and sciences
- Emperor Probus returns to Rome, where he celebrates his triumph over the Vandals and the usurpers (Bonosus, Julius Saturninus and Proculus).
- Emperor Probus travels towards Sirmium (Serbia). He tries to employ his troops in peaceful projects as draining the swamps in Pannonia.
- Probus is murdered by his discontented troops. Marcus Aurelius Carus, an Illyrian and praetorian prefect, is proclaimed new emperor.
- Carus defeats the Quadi and Sarmatians on the Danube, for his victories he is given the title Germanicus Maximus.
- Carus appoints his oldest son Marcus Aurelius Carinus, Caesar and co-emperor of the western Roman Empire.
- A new city is constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye (the main street of the city has remained unchanged since that time).
- The Patriarch Theonas of Alexandria becomes one of the first bishops to use the title Pope.
- Emperor Carus travels through Thrace and Asia Minor, he invades Syria and Mesopotamia. After a long march he conquers Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian kingdom, and pressed on with the Roman army beyond the Tigris.
- Carus receives for his victories in Persia the title of Persicus Maximus.
- Carus dies in mysterious circumstances during the war against the Sassanids, during a violent dust storm he is killed by a stroke of lightning.
- Marcus Aurelius Carinus succeeds his father Carus.
- December – Numerian is proclaimed Emperor by his soldiers.
- The Bagaudae, a group of peasant insurgents, revolt in Gaul against the Roman Empire. The Dardani, a region located in Illyria, becomes a Roman province.
- Emperor Numerian travels through Bithynia (Asia Minor) and is murdered on his way home to Rome. After reports from his staff, he dies from an inflammation of the eyes and soldiers found his decaying corpse in a closed litter.
- November 20 – Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, age 39, is proclaimed new emperor. He establish himself at Nicomedia (modern İzmit, Turkey) and accepts the purple imperial vestments.
- Diocletianus carries out reforms; the Roman army returns to conscription, and admits large numbers of barbarian volunteers. The old organisation of Roman legions and auxilia is abandoned.
- Sabinus Julianus, Roman usurper against Emperor Carinus, revolts in Pannonia. He invades northern Italy and declares himself emperor.
- Winter – Diocletianus advanced with his army across the Balkans.
- Patriarch Rufinus I succeeds Patriarch Dometius as Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Emperor Carinus marched from Roman Britain to northern Italy and defeats the army under Sabinus Julianus at Verona.
- Summer – Battle of the Margus: Emperor Diocletian defeats the forces of Carinus in the valley of the Margus (Serbia).
- July 21 or July 25 – Diocletian appoints his fellow-officer Maximian to the office of Caesar, or junior co-emperor.
- Carausius, naval commander at Bononia (modern Boulogne), is given the task to clear the English Channel of Frankish and Saxon pirates.
- Maximian is sent to pacify Gaul. Here the Bagaudae, a band of peasants, revolt against the Roman Empire.
- Late summer – Diocletian defends the Danube against Sarmatian raids. He transfers his capital to Nicomedia (Turkey).
- April 1 – Emperor Diocletian elevates his friend Maximian to co-emperor, giving him the title Augustus. The Bagaudae are crushed, after their revolt in Gaul.
- Carausius, commander of the Classis Britannica, is accused of piracy and sentenced to death. He responds by declaring himself emperor of Britain and Northwestern Gaul. His forces consist of the newly built Roman fleet and three legions in Britain. The Carausian Revolt is supported by Gaulish merchant ships and barbarian mercenaries.
- Diocletian divides the empire in two, after economic and military problems. He gives Maximian control over the Western Roman Empire and appoints himself ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire (later known as the Byzantine Empire).
- Emperor Diocletian and Maximian become Roman Consuls.
- Diocletian signs a peace treaty with Bahram II, king of Persia, and installs Tiridates III as king of Armenia.
- Diocletian re-organized the Mesopotamian frontier and fortifies the city of Circesium (modern Busayrah) on the Euphrates.
- September – The first Indiction begins.
- Emperor Diocletian conducts a military campaign in Raetia (Switzerland).
- Maximian builds in Gaul a Roman fleet to fight Carausius, usurper of Britain.
- Emperor Diocletian gains several victories along the Danube against the Sarmatians. He is given the honorable title of Sarmaticus Maximus.
- Maximian attempts to reconquer Britain from the usurper Carausius, but fails due to bad weather. He loses his fleet and accepts a peace treaty.
- Constantius Chlorus divorces his wife (or concubine) Helena, mother of Constantine I, and marries emperor Maximian's stepdaughter, Theodora.
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