28th Army (Soviet Union)

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28th Army
Active June 1941 – August 10, 1941
1941
September 1942–1993
Country Soviet Union
Branch Red Army
Size several corps
Engagements Battle of Smolensk (1941), others
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Lieutenant-General Vladimir Kachalov

The 28th Army was a field army of the Red Army and the Soviet Ground Forces, formed three times in 1941-42 and active during the postwar period for many years in the Belorussian Military District.

Initial formation[edit]

The army was formed first in June 1941 on the basis of the Arkhangelsk Military District. It included the 30th and 33rd Rifle Corps, 69th Motorised Division, artillery and several other units. The Army Commander was Lieutenant General Vladimir Kachalov (previously commander of the Arkhangelsk Military District), member of the Military Council army Brigadier Commissioner Basil T. Kolesnikov, Chief of Staff army Major General Paul G. Egorov.

On 14 July 1941, the order creating the Reserve Front gave the 28th Army's composition as nine divisions, one gun, one howitzer, and four corps artillery regiments, and four anti-tank artillery regiments.[1]

It participated in the Battle of Smolensk. Encircled[clarification needed] the environment, on 10 August the army headquarters was disbanded, and emerged from an environment of given parts to form Reserve Front.

General Kachalov was killed by artillery fire on 4 August 1941 during the breakout of the encirclement. He was buried in the village of Stodolische, Pochinkovsky District, Smolensk Oblast.[2] Lacking accurate information regarding his death, Stalin allowed him to be named as a traitor and sentenced to death in absentia in accordance with Order № 270. Only on December 23, 1953, well after the war ended, did the Supreme Court overturn the order.

Second and third formations[edit]

The army was subsequently reformed again in November 1941 and September 1942.

On 1 July 1944 the army comprised the 3rd Guards Rifle Corps (50th, 54th and 96th Guards Rifle Divisions), 20th Rifle Corps (48th and 55th Guards Rifle Divisions, 20th Rifle Division), the 128th Rifle Corps (61st, 130th, and 152nd Rifle Divisions) artillery including 3 кабр, 157 пабр, 377 пап, 530 иптап, 1 минбр (5 адп), 133 гв. минп, 316 гв. мп, 12th Anti-Aircraft Division (836, 977, 990, 997th Anti-Aircraft Regiments), 607th Anti-Aircraft Regiment (зенап), tank forces, engineers, and other troops.[3]

Third formation and postwar[edit]

In September 1945, the 28th Army established its headquarters in Baranavichi military district. From 1945 to 1947, the number of rifle units were reduced, and their qualitative composition increased.

In September 1954, the 12th Guards Mozyrskaya Mrechanised Division and the 50th Guards. Stalin Rifle Division, part of the troops of the 128th Gumbinnenskogo Rifle Corps were the basis of the test units utilised at Totskoye during the test of a 40-kiloton nuclear bomb.

In 1957, rifle corps headquarters were abolished, rifle divisions reorganized into motor rifle, and mechanized divisions into tank divisions:

  • 8th Mechanized Division - 28th Panzer Alexandria Red Banner Order of Kutuzov Division (Slonim);
  • 12th Guards Mechanized Division - in the 33rd (1965 - 15th) Mozyr Guards Tank Division of the Red Banner Order of Suvorov (Brest).

In August 1968, the 15th Guards Tank and 30th (up to 1965 - 55th) Guards Motor Rifle Division of the 28th Army were sent to Czechoslovakia, where they remained as part of the Central Group of Forces. In turn, as part of the 28th Army was formed the 76th Tank Division (Brest), and in 1979 was stationed in Grodno, returning from GDR 6th Guards Tank Division of the Kiev-Berlin. Thus, in the 1980s as part of the 28th Army had 3 tank (6th Guards., 28th, 76th) and one motor rifle (50th Guards) division. In the late 1980s, the 28th Tank Division was disbanded, and the 76th Tank Division was reorganized as the 5356th Base for storage of weapons and equipment.

On the dissolution of the Soviet Union the 28th Army, headquartered at Grodno, included the 6th Guards Tank Division (Grodno), 28th Tank Division (Slonim), 50th Guards Motor Rifle Division (Brest), and the 76th Tank Division (possibly a Category 'V'[4] cadre formation), also at Brest.

Either before or after the dissolution of the Soviet Union the army was disbanded by being redesignated the 28th Army Corps.

References[edit]

  1. ^ STAVKA Order 003334, Collection of Combat Documents of the Great Patriotic War, ('SBDVOV'), Moscow, Voenizdat, 1958(?), Issue 37, p.13, cited in David Glantz, Stumbling Colossus, p.215
  2. ^ Cooperative database «Memorial», via Russian wikipedia, Ruwiki accessed August 2014.
  3. ^ Combat composition of the Soviet Army (BSSA)
  4. ^ Feskov et al. 2004

External links[edit]

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