2nd Arkansas Infantry Regiment

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2nd Arkansas Infantry (Confederate)
Flag of Arkansas.svg
Arkansas state flag
Active June 1, 1861–April 26, 1865
Country Confederate States of America
Allegiance Dixie CSA
Branch Infantry
Size Regiment
Engagements

American Civil War

Battle honours Southern Cross of Honor
Ten soldiers for the Battle of Murfreesboro[3]
Disbanded April 26, 1865
Arkansas Confederate Infantry Regiments
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1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment (Trans-Mississippi) 2nd Arkansas 30 Day Volunteer Regiment

The 2nd Arkansas Infantry (June 1, 1861 – May 26, 1865) was an army regiment of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War. The regiment was raised in May 1861 under Colonel Thomas C. Hindman. It served throughout the war in the western theater, in the Confederate Army of Tennessee, seeing action in the Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia campaigns. Following its depletion in numbers the regiment was consolidated several times with other Arkansas regiments, finally merging in 1865 into the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment. The regiment is separate from and has no connection with the 2nd Regiment, Arkansas State Troops, which participated in the Battle of Wilson's Creek and is also separate from the 2nd Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment which was formed in 1864 from remnants of regiments surrendered at Vicksburg and Port Hudson.

Organization[edit]

The regiment was organized at Helena, Arkansas in the spring of 1861 at the expense of Thomas Carmichael Hindman, who had only recently resigned from the United States Congress because of the Arkansas secession and the formation of the Confederate States of America.[4] By June 1, 1861, Hindman had raised ten companies from eastern and central Arkansas which would eventually become known as the 2nd Arkansas Infantry.[5] The regiment was composed primarily of men from the following counties:[4][6]

    • Company A – of Phillips County commanded by Captain T.C. Anderson:,[7]
    • Company B – of Phillips County, commanded by Captain John Kane.[8]
    • Company C (old) – of Phillips County.[9]
    • Company C – of Phillips County commanded by Captain John J. Foreman.[10]
    • Company C (new) – of Phillips County.[11]
    • Company D – of Phillips County, commanded by James E. Richards.[12]
    • Company E – of Phillips County.[13]
    • Company E (old) – of Phillips County, commanded by Barton Y. Truner.[14]
    • Company E (new) – of Transfers from 11th Arkansas Infantry.[6][15]
    • Company F – of Phillips County, originally commanded by Daniel C. Govan,[16] later commanded by Captain Richard S. Boyd.[17]
    • Company G – of Bradley County, commanded by Captain William D. Mackey.[18]
    • Company H – the "Southern Guards", of Jefferson County, commanded by Captain Joseph W. Bocage.[19][20] This company was orgionally organized on December 18, 1860 as a volunteer company in the 24th Regiment, Arkansas State Militia.[20]
    • Company I – of Bradley County, commanded by W.J. McKinney.[21]
    • Company K – of Saline County, commanded by Captain M.D Brown.[22]

Colonel Hindman asked the state to provide muskets, clothing and ten days rations so his men could "fight for our country."[23] Hindman also asked to be ordered to march to Virginia. His requests were not complied with, so he stopped steamers loaded with sugar for Cincinnati and Pittsburgh, and sold their cargo.[4] He then purchased such arms all the arms available took his command to Memphis. Other organizations joined him: Lieutenant Colonel John S. Marmaduke's battalion of eight companies, which would eventually become 3rd Confederate Infantry; 6th (Phifer’s) Arkansas Cavalry Battalion, under Major C.W. Phifer, and Captain Swett's Mississippi battery of four guns. This combined force, known temporarily as "Hindman's Legion", was ultimately ordered to assemble with the other Arkansas troops assembling at Pocahontas, where they were mustered into Confederate service by companies between May 26 and June 26, 1861 and assigned to Hardee's Division.[6]

The regiment was commanded by Colonels Daniel C. Govan, T. C. Hindman, J. W. Scaife, and E. Warfield; Lieutenant Colonels Jos. W. Bocage, E. G. Brasher, R. F. Harvey, and Charles Patterson; and Major A. T. Meek.

Colonel Thomas C. Hindman
Daniel Chevilette Govan, began his service by raising a Volunteer Company in Phillips County, Arkansas, he would eventually command a brigade under General Patrick Cleburne, Army of Tennessee

Two of the regiment's officers, Thomas C. Hindman and Daniel C. Govan,[24] were promoted to general. Hindman would later be wounded in action[25] and receive a promotion to major general, ending the war as Arkansas' highest-ranking officer.[26]

Battles[edit]

The unit first moved from Pittman's Ferry to Kentucky where Hardee's Division became the Army of Central Kentucky, and Colonel Hindman was reassigned to brigade command.[27] The unit was involved in an engaged at Rowlett's Station, Kentucky on December 17, 1861. After the losses of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson in February 1862, Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston withdrew his forces into western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and Alabama to reorganize. and then retreated through western Tennessee to northern Mississippi. On March 29, 1862, the Army of Central Kentucky was merged into the Army of Mississippi in preparation for the Battle of Shiloh.[28]

Assigned to Hindman's (later Liddell's) brigade, Army of Mississippi in March, 1862 where it participated in the Battle of Shiloh on April 6–7, 1862 and in the Corinth Campaign from April through June of that year. As a result of losses in the Battle of Shiloh, Companies C and E were disbanded and consolidated with other companies. A new Company C was recruited from Marianna, Arkansas and a new Company E was formed from members of the 11th Arkansas Infantry Regiment who had escaped capture at the fall of Island Number Ten.[6]

In early May 1862 the Confederate forces underwent an army-wide reorganization due to the passage of the Conscription Act by the Confederate Congress in April 1862.[29] All twelve-month regiments had to re-muster and enlist for two additional years or the duration of the war; a new election of officers was ordered; and men who were exempted from service by age or other reasons under the Conscription Act were allowed to take a discharge and go home.[30] Officers who did not choose to stand for re-election were also offered a discharge. The reorganization was accomplished among all the Arkansas regiments in and around Corinth, Mississippi, following the Battle of Shiloh.[31]

In the reorganization of Confederate forces before the start of the Kentucky Campaign, the 2nd Arkansas, now under the command of Colonel Daniel C. Govan was assigned to Brigadier General St. John Richardson Liddell's 1st Brigade of Major General Simon Bolivar Buckner's 3rd Division of Major General William Joseph Hardee's Corps of the Army of Mississippi. The regiment participated in Battle of Perryville, Kentucky in October 1862.[32]

In November 1862, following the Kentucky Campaign, General Bragg united his Army of Mississippi and the General Kirby Smith'sArmy of Kentucky to create the Army of Tennessee. In the reorganization, Liddell's brigade, of Arkansas troops was assigned to Cleburne's Division and fought in the Battle of Stones River, December 31, 1862-Jan 3, 1863. The regiment lost 15 killed, 94 wounded, and 9 missing at Murfreesboro.[32]

The regiment took part in the Tullahoma Campaign in June, 1863; and the Battle of Liberty Gap, June 24–26, 1863. In September, 1863, the 2nd was consolidated with the 15th Arkansas, and the consolidated regiment participated in the Battle of Chickamauga, September 19–20, 1863.[citation needed]

In December 1863 the 24th Arkansas Infantry was added to the consolidated 2nd/15th Arkansas and the 2nd/15th/24th totaled 295 men and 202 arms in December 1863. On December 29, 1863, Colonel Daniel Govan of the 2nd Arkansas was promoted to the rank of brigadier general.[33] The consolidated unit participated in all the battles of the Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign including the Siege of Chattanooga September to November 1863; Battle of Chattanooga, the Battle of Ringgold Gap.[34]

When General Joseph E. Johnston assumed command of the Army of Tennessee to oppose General Sherman's Atlanta Campaign, Govan's Brigade was reorganized and only the 2nd and 24th were united. The 2nd/24th Arkansas participated in the battles of Dalton, Resaca, New Hope Church, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta, and the Siege of Atlanta. The consolidated 2nd/24th Arkansas reported 130 casualties during the campaign.[32][35][36]

The regiment and it colors were captured, along with much of Govan's Brigade at the Battle of Jonesboro, Georgia on Sept. 1, 1864.[4] Due to a special cartel between Union General Sherman and Confederate General John B. Hood, the unit was quickly paroled and exchanged for Union prisoner held at Andersonville Prison. The regiment re-entered service approximately a month later.[37]

The 2nd Arkansas and the rest of Govan's Brigade were released and exchanged just in time to participated in General John B. Hood's disastrous Franklin-Nashville Campaign. Due to the appalling losses suffered by Govan's Brigade during the Atlanta Campaign, the 1st/15th, 5th/13th and 2nd/24th Arkansas Regiments were consolidated into one regiment, which was commanded by Colonel Peter Green of the 5th/13th (specifically of the 5th). The other officers of the consolidated regiment were Major Alexander T. Meek, of the 2nd/24th Arkansas, Captain Mordecai P. Garrett and Sergeant Major Thomas Benton Moncrief of the 15th Arkansas. The consolidated regiment fought under the colors of the consolidated 5th/13th Arkansas Regiment, because this was one of the only colors not captured when Govan's Brigade was overrun at the Battle of Jonesboro. The flag of the combined 5th/13th Arkansas was issued in March 1864 and was captured by Benjamin Newman of the 88th Illinois Infantry at the battle of Franklin.[38] The consolidated regiment numbered just 300 rifles and sustained 66% casualties during the Battle of Franklin.[39]

The remnants of Govan's Brigade that survived the Tennessee Campaign remained with the Army of Tennessee through its final engagements in the 1865 Carolinas Campaign.[40] The 2nd Arkansas Infantry took part in the following engagements:[35]

Consolidation and Surrender[edit]

The remnants of ten depleted Arkansas regiments, along with one mostly-Arkansas regiment, in the Army of Tennessee were consolidated into a single regiment at Smithfield, North Carolina, on April 9, 1865.[35][44] The 1st Arkansas, was lumped together with the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 15th, 19th and 24th Arkansas Infantry Regiments and the 3rd Confederate Infantry Regiment as the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry on April 9, 1865.[45] On April 26, 1865 the 1st Arkansas Consolidated Infantry Regiment was present with the Army of Tennessee when it surrendered in Greensboro, North Carolina.[46][47][48]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5, page 78
  2. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 20, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1887, Page 173; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154629/m1/183/?q=Arkansas%20Infantry : accessed February 17, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  3. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 20, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1887, Page 974; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154629 : accessed February 07, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  4. ^ a b c d "Arkansas Confederate Regimental Histories". Internet Archive Wayback Machine. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 
  5. ^ Moodey, John Sheldon; George Breckenridge Davis, Leslie J. Perry, Joseph William Kirkley, Henry Martyn Lazelle, Robert Nicholson Scott, Fred Crayton Ainsworth (1881). The War of the Rebellion: Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies. Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office. pp. 1st series, Vol. 3, p588–590. 
  6. ^ a b c d Howerton, Bryan R. "THE HISTORY OF THE 2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinf__hist.html
  7. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY A", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoa.html
  8. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY B)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcob.html
  9. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY C (OLD)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoc_old.html
  10. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY C", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoc.html
  11. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY C(new)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoc_new.html
  12. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY D", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcod.html
  13. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY E", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoe.html
  14. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY E(old)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoe_old.html
  15. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY E(new)", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoe_new.html
  16. ^ Col. John M. Harrell, "Confederate Military History, a library of Confederate States", Military History: Volume 10.2, Arkansas Clement Anselm Evans, Ed., Page 309, Accessed 21 July 2011, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A2001.05.0254%3Achapter%3D11%3Apage%3D292
  17. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY F", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcof.html
  18. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY G", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcog.html
  19. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY H", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoh.html
  20. ^ a b Arkansas Military Department Records, Spanish American War, List of Commissioned Officers of the Militia 1827–1862, Arkansas History Commission, Microfilm Roll 38-8
  21. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY I", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcoi.html
  22. ^ Howerton, Bryan R. "2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT, COMPANY K", Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, Accessed 5 November 2011, http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinfcok.html
  23. ^ Arkansas State Gazette, June 1, 1861.
  24. ^ Wright, Marcus J., General Officers of the Confederate Army, J. M. Carroll & Co., 1983, ISBN 0-8488-0009-5., Page 117
  25. ^ Moneyhon, Carl H. "Thomas Carmichael Hindman (1828–1868)". The Central Arkansas Library System. Retrieved 2007-05-31. 
  26. ^ Little Rock Arkansas State Gazette, September 29, 1868.
  27. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 7., Book, 1882; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154610/m1/858/?q=Army of Mississippi : accessed June 27, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  28. ^ Boatner, Mark Mayo, III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: McKay, 1959; revised 1988. ISBN 0-8129-1726-X, Page 445.
  29. ^ UPTON, EMORY, Bvt. Maj. Gen., United States Army; "THE MILITARY POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES" WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1912, Page 471, Congressional edition, Volume 6164, Google Books, Accessed 4 November 2011, http://books.google.com/books?id=2-tGAQAAIAAJ&pg=PA471&lpg=PA471&dq=Confederate+conscription+law+reorganization+regiment&source=bl&ots=7ptDBF0n2D&sig=-K_6PQoHglmh_SOzuobv_JyNWUw&hl=en#v=onepage&q=Confederate%20conscription%20law%20reorganization%20regiment&f=false
  30. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 10, In Two Parts. Part 2, Correspondence, etc., Book, 1884; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154614/m1/500/?q=Army of Mississippi : accessed June 17, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  31. ^ Howerton, Bryan, "14th Arkansas Regiment, No. 1", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Accessed 29 July 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=14705
  32. ^ a b c National Park Service, Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, Confederate Arkansas Troops, 2nd Regiment, Arkansas Infantry. Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  33. ^ Wright, Marcus J., General Officers of the Confederate Army, J. M. Carroll & Co., 1983, ISBN 0-8488-0009-5, p. 117.
  34. ^ a b The war of the rebellion: a compilation of the official records of the Union and Confederate armies. ; Series 1 - Volume 31 (Part II), page 755, Accessed 26 June 2012. http://ebooks.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/pageviewer-idx?c=moawar;cc=moawar;q1=Govan;rgn=full%20text;idno=waro0055;didno=waro0055;node=waro0055%3A5;view=image;seq=757;page=root;size=100
  35. ^ a b c Edward G. Gerdes Civil War Page, THE HISTORY OF THE 2D ARKANSAS INFANTRY REGIMENT CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, Accessed 3 January 2010. http://www.couchgenweb.com/civilwar/2dinf__hist.html
  36. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 38, In Five Parts. Part 3, Reports., Book, 1891; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154634/ : accessed June 26, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  37. ^ "General Sherman Burning Atlanta". Son of the South. Retrieved May 24, 2012. 
  38. ^ Wernick, John. "Re: 5th Arkansas Infantry", The Civil War Flags Message Board, Posted 10 January 2008, Accessed 15 February 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/cwflags/webbbs_config.pl?read=5234
  39. ^ White, Lee "Re: Govan’s Brigade at Franklin", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 28 August 2004, Accessed 26 June 2012, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/arch_config.pl?read=8306
  40. ^ Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5, page 71
  41. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 20, In Two Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1887; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154629 : accessed February 06, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  42. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 30, In Four Parts. Part 1, Reports., Book, 1890; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth152978/ : accessed June 27, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  43. ^ United States. War Dept. The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union And Confederate Armies. Series 1, Volume 38, In Five Parts. Part 3, Reports., Book, 1891; digital images, (http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth154634/ : accessed June 27, 2012), University of North Texas Libraries, The Portal to Texas History, http://texashistory.unt.edu; crediting UNT Libraries, Denton, Texas.
  44. ^ Howerton, Bryan "1st Arkansas Consolidated", Arkansas in the Civil War Message Board, Posted 4 January 2009, Accessed 2 October 2011, http://history-sites.com/cgi-bin/bbs53x/arcwmb/webbbs_config.pl?noframes;read=19339
  45. ^ Sikakis, Stewart, Compendium of the Confederate Armies, Florida and Arkansas, Facts on File, Inc., 1992, ISBN 978-0-8160-2288-5, page 93.
  46. ^ 1st Arkansas Infantry Regiment, CSA
  47. ^ 2nd Arkansas Infantry Battalion
  48. ^ James River Publications - Arkansas Regiments cox.net/jreb/civilwar.htm

External links