2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)

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2nd Infantry Regiment
Active 1808 – present
Country  United States
Branch Army
Type Infantry
Role 1st Bn — inactive
2nd Bn - light infantry
Garrison/HQ 1st Bn — inactive
2nd Bn - Fort Knox, Kentucky
Nickname Ramrods
Motto "Noli Me Tangere" (Do Not Touch Me)
Engagements War of 1812
Indian Wars
Mexican War
American Civil War
War with Spain
Philippine Insurection
World War II
Vietnam War
Kosovo Campaign
Global War on Terrorism
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Hugh Brady
Bennett C. Riley
James Wilkinson
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia 2 Inf Rgt DUI.png
U.S. Infantry Regiments
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The 2nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the United States Army that has served for more than two hundred years. It was constituted on 12 April 1808 as the 6th Infantry[1] and carries with other regiments the battle honors[2] of the original 2nd Infantry Regiment extending back to March 1791. What follows is a history of that original regiment and the new regiment still in existence. Since the formation of the original 2nd Infantry Regiment in 1791, an active unit bearing the name "2nd Infantry" has served under every president from President George Washington until the present.

Original 2nd Infantry[edit]

Although the present regiment was formed 12 April 1808, on 3 March 1791 Congress added to the Army a "Second Regiment of Infantry" to aid in combating Indian attacks in the Northwest Territory.[3] On 4 March 1791 John Doughty was appointed lieutenant colonel commandant of the regiment but he resigned from the Army on 12 March 1791 in protest of the reduction of enlisted pay. Before resigning he appointed John Toomy as the first sergeant major of the regiment. Sergeant Major Toomy and Sergeant Pollesey, who was appointed regiment quartermaster, were charged with establishing the regiment's headquarters at Fort Pitt in Pennsylvania.[4] On 22 October 1791 Lieutenant Colonel James Wilkinson was then appointed lieutenant colonel commandant of the regiment but he did not take command until January 1792. The regiment was to be made up as follows: a lieutenant colonel commandant, two majors, eight captains, eight lieutenants, eight ensigns, one surgeon, two surgeon's mates, and eight companies of about 100 men each.

Recruiting began almost immediately in Connecticut, Delaware, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Hampshire. The companies were known by their commanding officer's name and the first one formed was under the command of Captain Robert Kirkwood. Between March 1791 and May 1792 all recruits passed through New Brunswick recruit barracks in New Jersey for outfitting and then on to Fort Pitt.

From Fort Pitt the regiment moved down the Ohio River by barge to Fort Washington (Cincinnati) in the Northwest Territory, where Governor Arthur St. Clair had established his headquarters. On 4 October 1791, the Army under the command of St. Clair commenced a campaign against the Miami Indians. On 4 November 1791 about 60 miles from Fort Washington the Indians, numbering not more than one thousand, surprised the Army and forced it to retreat and suffer many casualties. The American Army numbered 1,483, of these 38 officers and 593 men were killed or missing and 31 officers and 252 men were wounded, many of whom later died. Of the 2nd Infantry approximately 101 enlisted were killed, 54 wounded and 50 missing, presumed dead. Seven officers, including Major Jonathan Heart who was in command of the regiment and Captain Robert Kirkwood, were killed and one wounded. On the day of the battle St. Clair's army consisted of the following: US Battalion of the 5th Artillery, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 1st and 2nd Regiment of Levies, a company of Pennsylvania militia, and a Kentucky militia regiment. The original 1st Infantry Regiment was not present at the battle having been sent by St. Clair to prevent desertions from the main force.[5]

Legion of the United States[edit]

In 1792 Congress created the Legion of the United States which was a combined force of infantry, cavalry, and artillery under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne. This Legion consisted of four sub-legions of which the Second Infantry became the "Second Sub-Legion". At this time only the 1st and 2d Infantry were actually organized, therefore it was necessary to recruit infantry for the 3d and 4th Sub-Legions.[6] The new force was reformed and trained at the United States' first basic training facility at Legionville in Pennsylvania during the winter of 1792-93. The Legion fought in the Northwest Indian War finally defeating the Indians decisively at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in the Northwest Territory on 20 August 1794. The conflict with the Indians ended with the signing of the Treaty of Greenville on 2 August 1795. On 1 November 1796 the Legion was discontinued and the Second Sub-Legion again became the Second Regiment of Infantry. The unit colors of the 2nd Sub-Legion were red and white.

Motto[edit]

The regiment's motto, "NOLI ME TANGERE" (Do Not Touch Me), was first applied in 1792 when Major General Anthony Wayne requested Secretary of War Henry Knox to send the newly formed Legion of the United States a legion standard and a standard for each of the four sub-legions. Each standard was to have this motto on a ribbon on the flag. This motto was carried over following the 1815 consolidations and was applied to the regiment's distinctive unit insignia in 1936.

War of 1812[edit]

In the War of 1812 units of the 2nd Infantry fought several engagements with the British. The regiment defended Fort Bowyer, in Alabama, on 15 September 1814 when 120 2nd infantrymen held off four British vessels and a force of 130 Royal Marines, 100 Spanish infantrymen, and some 600 Indians. The 2nd Infantry suffered 4 killed and 4 wounded while the British suffered 32 killed and 40 wounded and the loss of one ship. Major William Lawrence, who was in command of the fort, was brevetted for gallantry in this action, together with Captains Chamberlain, Brownlow, and Bradley. Lieutenants Villard, Sturgis, Conway, H. Saunders, T. R. Saunders, Brooks, Davis, and C. Saunders, were all mentioned by General Andrew Jackson in dispatches.[7]:415

Captain John M. Davis of the regiment was made a brevet major for gallantry at the siege of New Orleans in December 1814 and several companies of the 2nd Infantry were in New Orleans at the time of the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815.

On 11–12 February 1815, before learning of the 24 December 1814 signing of the Treaty of Ghent, the British attacked Fort Bowyer again. Major William Lawrence of the 2nd Infantry was still in command there. Jackson had reinforced Lawrence, who now commanded some 370 troops from the regiment, and had three long 32-pounders, eight 24s, six 12s, five 9s, a mortar and a howitzer. After a five day siege the wounded Major Lawrence surrendered Fort Bowyer. The British had captured the regiment's colors, which are on display at the Royal Hospital Chelsea, England.[8] This battle is considered the last land battle of the War of 1812.[9]

In the spring of 1815 the 2nd Infantry Regiment was consolidated with the 3rd, 7th and 44th Infantry Regiments, all located in Military District #7, to form a new 1st Infantry Regiment. Thus the chronicles of the original Second Infantry came to an end.

Origin of present 2nd Infantry[edit]

At the end of the War of 1812 an act of Congress dated 3 March 1815 reduced the size of the Regular Army to a maximum of 10,000 men.[10] Eight infantry regiments, one rifle regiment and an artillery regiment were formed from the remains of the 46 existing regiments, while the cavalry was eliminated. This was done with no regard for the traditions of the existing regiments. The old regiments which happened to be closest together were pooled to form new regiments and the numbers assigned the regiments were based on the seniority of the colonels commanding them.

In accordance with the act, on 17 May 1815 a new 2nd US Infantry was created by the consolidation of the 6th, 16th, 22nd, 23rd, and 32nd Regiments of Infantry, all then located in upper New York and Vermont. The date of organization of the present 2nd Infantry is that of the original 6th Infantry, 12 April 1808. The regiment's headquarters was in the cantonment at Sackett's Harbor. Colonel Hugh Brady became the regiment's commanding officer with Henry Leavenworth as major and Ninian Pinkney as lieutenant-colonel.[7]:415 The regimental number was "2" because Brady was the second most senior regimental commander in the United States Army. Colonel Brady was in command of the 22nd Infantry at the time of the consolidation and, though he served in several other commands and reached the rank of major general, he remained colonel commandant of the 2nd Infantry Regiment from his residence in Detroit until his death on 15 April 1851.[11]

The War Department ruled that the present 2nd Infantry bear upon its colors the campaign honors of the regiments consolidated into its organization. Thus, the colors bear the campaign streamers for Canada, Chippawa and Lundy's Lane, even though the original/old 2nd Infantry did not participate in any of the battles in Canada during the War of 1812. The present 2nd Infantry also bears the two battle honors earned by the original/old 2nd Infantry for the Miami Campaign (1790-1795) and Alabama 1814.[2]

Military service[edit]

First Indian War period[edit]

In the ensuing years the regiment was primarily concerned with manning and constructing forts around the Great Lakes. When the Black Hawk War of 1832 erupted the 2nd Infantry was sent to Illinois but did not participate in any fighting. The regiment returned to its posts on the Great Lakes. During the Second Seminole War, from 1838 to 1842, the regiment was in Florida, where it was on the move daily, fighting and building roads and installations. In April 1840 with Colonel Brady attending to other duty assignments Lieutenant Colonel Bennett C. Riley assumed command of the regiment. Lieutenant Colonel Riley remained in command of the regiment until January 1850. In 1843 the regiment returned to its posts on Lakes Ontario and Champlain in upstate New York.[7]:423

Ramrod[edit]

In 1843, Lieutenant Colonel Riley, who commanded the 2nd Infantry through the Seminole and Mexican Wars, presented the regiment with a drum major's baton made from either a cannon rammer or Cyprus wood with a silver knob inscribed with the date of presentation, the name of the officer giving it and the regimental motto, "Noli Me Tangere", At the time Headquarters and Companies C, D, F and K were stationed at Buffalo Barracks, New York. During the assault to capture the fortress at Chapultapec, Mexico in September 1847 Sergeant Major Samuel C. Green broke the baton when he struck an enemy soldier in the head.[12] The flagstaff from that fortress was used to replace the broken wood on the baton, with the silver mountings transferred to it. Additional silver bands made from a tea set captured at the fortress were placed on the baton, one of them inscribed that the baton was made from the flag staff captured at Chapultapec. The baton had been in the constant possession of the regiment from 1843 until sometime in the 1990s when it was placed in the 1st Infantry Division Museum at Würzburg, Germany. In 2007 it was transferred to the 1st Infantry Division Museum at Fort Riley, Kansas and in late 2012 it was transferred to the Patton Museum at Fort Knox, Kentucky.[12]

War with Mexico[edit]

When war broke out with Mexico in 1846, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was sent to Camargo, Mexico and joined General David E. Twiggs' Brigade. From September 1846 to December 1847 the regiment campaigned from the Rio Grande to Mexico City, fighting in battles at Veracruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras, Churubusco, Moline del Rey and Chapultepec. The regiment suffered 29 killed and 132 wounded in the war.

Second Indian War period[edit]

In September 1848 because of conflicts with the Indians in Oregon and California the regiment was sent west. The regiment sailed via Rio de Janeiro, Cape Horn and Santiago, Chile, to California. Between 1849 and 1853 the regiment was in California occupying stations from Goose Lake on the north to Fort Yuma on the south and the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Sierra Nevada Mountains on the east, scouting, providing protection for the '49ers and fighting throughout the entire area. The regiment returned to New York in 1853 only to be sent to the Western Plains where it constructed or reconstructed forts, built roads and scouted the hills and plains along the Missouri River as far west as Fort Kearny, Nebraska and Fort Laramie, Wyoming.

American Civil War[edit]

During the Civil War the 2nd Infantry fought in the early Battle of Wilson's Creek in Missouri and the first Battle of Bull Run. The regiment was assigned to the Army of the Potomac and fought in engagements such as Manassas, Antietam, Chancellorsville, Fredericksburg, and Gettysburg. By June 1864 the commissioned and enlisted strength of the regiment had reached such a low figure, less than 100 men, that at the request of the regimental commander the remaining enlisted men were transferred to Company C, and that company was given a full complement of officers and non-commissioned officers. From then until December 1864 the entire regiment consisted of just Company C. On 18 April 1869 the 2nd Infantry was consolidated with the 16th Infantry and the consolidated unit was designated as the 2nd Infantry. The regiment suffered 102 killed and 326 wounded during the Civil War.

Between the end of the war in 1865 and 1877 the regiment was deployed throughout the south enforcing Reconstruction laws. On 10 February 1877 2nd Lieutenant Augustine McIntye was killed in Gelnier County, Georgia while in command of a detachment acting as a posse with two U.S. Marshals and revenue officers engaged in arresting illicit distillers.[7]:430

The 2nd Infantry bears nine battle honors from the Southern Campaign through its 1869 consolidation with the 16th Infantry. These honors were earned by the 16th Infantry Atlanta, Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Georgia 1864, Kentucky 1862, Mississippi 1862, Murfreesboro, Shiloh and Tennessee 1863

Third Indian War period[edit]

From 1877 to 1886 the regiment was in Washington, Oregon and Idaho Territory campaigning against the Nez Perce, then the Bannocks and then a band of the Eastern Shoshones called the Sheepeaters. During this period, the regiment suffered one soldier killed, two wounded, ten deaths by other causes, and one death by drowning. In 1886 it moved to Fort Omaha, Nebraska to help fight the Sioux. The 2nd Infantry was on the Pine Ridge Reservation on 29 December 1890 when the Wounded Knee Massacre occurred and, although the regiment was not involved, one officer from the regiment was wounded there. On the same day, in a separate attack by the Sioux Indians, three soldiers from the regiment were wounded. The regiment remained on the western plains until 1898.

Spanish–American War[edit]

In 1898 the regiment was deployed to Cuba at the start of the Spanish–American War, with Headquarters, Band, and Companies C and G sailing on the same ship with the Rough Riders. The regiment, under the command of LTC William Wherry, (regimental commander COL John C. Bates had been promoted to brigadier general of volunteers) fought in battles along the road to San Juan Heights and the battle of Santiago, where it fought on the extreme left of San Juan Heights. In August 1898, the regiment returned to the United States only to return to Cuba in January 1899. The regiment stayed in Cuba until September 1899 when it returned to the United States to prepare for deployment to the Philippines. The regiment suffered 22 dead and 50 wounded during their campaign in Cuba.

Philippine Insurrection[edit]

In August/September 1900 the 2nd Infantry was deployed to deal with the Philippine Insurrection during which it fought in over 25 engagements on several of the islands. Three soldiers were killed and twelve wounded between 4 November 1900 and 10 February 1902. In May 1903 the regiment returned to duty in the western United States, it was stationed at Fort Logan, Colorado and Fort D. A. Russell, Wyoming. In February 1906 the regiment was redeployed to the Philippines and remained there until returning to the United States in March 1908. The 3rd Battalion went to Fort Assinniboine, Montana and the balance of the regiment to Fort Thomas, Kentucky for training and garrison duties until deploying to Hawaii in 1911.

World War I[edit]

When war broke out, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was on security duty in the Hawaiian Islands guarding interned German ships and sailors, as well as various U.S. installations. On 18 November 1917, the regiment, less Machine Gun Company and a detachment from Company H, turned out for the funeral of Hawaii's ex-queen Lilioukalani. In July 1918, it returned to the United States and was assigned to the 19th Division at Camp Dodge, Iowa. The war ended just as the regiment was about to deploy to France. In 1919, the regiment was relieved from the 19th Division and resumed as a separate regiment.

Post World War I[edit]

In September 1919, following the 2nd Infantry Regiment's release from the 19th Division, it was stationed at Camp Sherman, Ohio. In October 1921 the 2nd Infantry Regiment was ordered to Fort Snelling, Minnesota and Fort Sheridan, Illinois but as they reached their destinations the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were eliminated and Headquarters and 1st Battalion were at Fort Sheridan as a training battalion. In August 1922 the 2nd Infantry Regiment was redesignated a combat regiment and the 2nd and 3rd Battalions were reorganized using personnel from the 54th Infantry. In March 1923 the regiment was assigned to the 6th Division. Headquarters and 1st Battalion stayed at Fort Sheridan, 2nd Battalion was at Fort Wayne (Detroit), Michigan and 3rd Battalion was at Fort Brady, Michigan. Between August 1922 and October 1939 no major changes were made and the 2nd Infantry Regiment participated in garrison training, maneuvers, field training and other duties.

World War II[edit]

In 1939 prior to World War II, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was assigned to the 5th Infantry Division. In February 1942 the regiment was sent to Iceland for training, to provide security for U.S. bases located there, and to load and unload supply ships. It was then sent to England and then Ireland for training. In July 1944 the 2nd Infantry Regiment along with the 5th Infantry Division landed in Normandy, France. It became part of General George Patton's Third United States Army, leading the way in the breakout from the beaches of Normandy in Operation Cobra, capturing Rheims and then seized Metz after a major battle at Fort Driant. On 13 July 1944 SSGT Robert Bass was killed by enemy artillery fire. He was the first member of the 2nd Infantry and also the 5th Division killed in action in the war.

When the Battle of the Bulge began the 2nd Infantry Regiment moved to the battle zone in the area of Nideranven, Luxembourg. In January 1945 the 2nd Infantry Regiment forced a crossing of the Sauer River and attacked into the Siegfried Line. The regiment then crossed the Rhine River near Oppenheim and secured the crossing for other Third Army units. The unit then spearheaded the attack into Czechoslovakia and was located near the town of Volary when the word came to cease all forward movement at 08:31 on 7 May 1945. In 276 days of combat the regiment captured 275 cities and towns, crossed 20 rivers, and captured 22,103 of the enemy. The regiment suffered 906 killed, 2,736 wounded and 295 missing or prisoner of war. 12 Distinguished Service Crosses, 184 Silver Stars and 664 Bronze Stars were awarded to soldiers of the regiment.

Post World War II[edit]

Following World War II the 2nd Infantry Regiment returned to the United States and was inactivated and activated several times and returned to Germany for a period. During the Korean War the regiment was stationed at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania with the 5th Infantry Division training recruits for deployment to Korea. In June 1957, at the time of the Pentomic reorganization, the 2nd Infantry Regiment was stationed at Fort Ord, California with the 5th Infantry Division, serving as a training regiment. The 2nd Battalion was reorganized and redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Battle Group, 2nd Infantry and released from assignment with 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division. At this time both the 1st and 3rd Battalions were inactivated.

In January 1959 the 2nd Battle Group was reassigned to the 24th Infantry Division in Germany. In February 1962 the 1st Battalion was activated and assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 5th Infantry Division. The 2d Battle Group, 2nd Infantry was reorganized and redesignated and concurrently relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and also assigned to the 2nd Brigade, 5th Infantry Division. Both battalions were stationed at Fort Devens, Massachusetts.

Vietnam[edit]

With the fighting in Vietnam escalating the change in assignment from NATO reinforcement to counterinsurgency in Vietnam, the 1st Infantry Division was restructured. Battle groups were redesignated as infantry battalions, Honest Johns and Davy Crocketts disappeared while the requirements for nine infantry battalions arose. When the division received orders to deploy to Vietnam it was told to leave its two armored battalions behind. Therefore, the division was in need of two more infantry battalions. As no pool of unassigned maneuver battalions existed, on 12 July 1965 the 1st and 2nd Battalions, 2nd Infantry from the 2d Brigade, 5th Infantry Division, at Fort Devens, Massachusetts, were relieved and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division with no change of station. The 1st Infantry Division also reorganized its two mechanized infantry battalions as standard infantry, bringing the number of infantry battalions in the division to nine.

In September 1965 the two battalions deployed to Vietnam, landing on the beach at Vũng Tàu in October 1965. From there they proceeded to their assigned areas, Phước Vĩnh for the 1st Battalion and Lai Khe for the 2nd Battalion. The battalions initially fought as light infantry in the areas north and west of Saigon. In June–July 1966 it was determined that mechanized infantry would work in Vietnam. So, the 2nd Battalion changed over from 17 July-31 December 1966. On 2 January 1967 the 2nd Battalion officially became a mechanized infantry battalion.

The 2nd Battalion fought the first major battles at Ap Bau Bang on 12 November 1965 and Ap Nha Mat on 5 December 1965. Heavy losses were suffered at Ap Nha Mat and three soldiers are still listed as missing. The 1st Battalion sustained its first major casualties of the war on 21 December 1965 when the enemy ambushed the command group of Company B as the company was moving out of Bien Hoa on routine patrol. On 25 August 1966 a patrol from Company C, 1st Battalion became involved in what became known as the Battle of Bong Trang with heavy losses on both sides.

During four and a half years the battalions were involved in major operations such as: Junction City, the largest operation conducted up to that time, Lam Son II, Paul Bunyan, Bu Dop, AKA, Battle of Hill 172, An Lộc, and An Lộc II, and numerous other operations and small unit actions. Contact with the enemy was almost daily. When the 1st Infantry Division stood down in March and April 1970 the 1st and 2nd Battalion's colors were cased and the soldiers were either reassigned to other units in Vietnam or returned to the United States to be discharged.

Losses were 276 for the 1st Battalion and 266 for the 2nd Battalion. One soldier from Company B, 1st Battalion and three soldiers from Company B, 2nd Battalion are still listed as missing. The four are listed as "body not recovered, Casualty Type: Hostile, died while missing".

"Black Scarves"

On 30 April 1966 in a sweep through the village of Lo Go, the 1st Battalion was engaged in heavy fighting and captured a large quantity of black cloth. This cloth was used by the Viet Cong to make their "black pajama" uniforms. At the direction of battalion commander LTC Richard Prillaman, this cloth was made into scarves to be worn by the battalion's soldiers. LTC Prillaman wanted to be able to distinguish his battalion from other division soldiers and to provide the soldiers with something more appropriate than the towels the men were wearing around their necks. It is from this use that the battalion has as its nickname "Black Scarves". The printing on the scarves was a different color for each company: HHC, yellow; Company A, red; Company B, white; Company C, blue; and Company D, green.

"Iron Fist"

The following statement was in a press release from Headquarters, 1st Infantry Division, in January 1968 describing the 2nd Battalion's accomplishments. "The 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry (Mechanized) The Iron Fist of the Big Red One is one of the most versatile units in the First Division. The use of armored personnel carriers for fast ground deployment adds greatly to the battalions reactionary capabilities."[this quote needs a citation] The 2nd Battalion soldiers called themselves Iron Fists from that time until the battalion returned to the United States and was inactivated in 1970.

Post Vietnam[edit]

In early April 1970 an honor guard returned the 1st and 2nd Battalion's colors to Fort Riley, Kansas and on 15 April, the 2nd Battalion was inactivated. The 1st Battalion remained active and in October 1970 the battalion, along with the entire division, participated in Operation Reforger II in Germany. Following this it returned to Fort Riley and remained with the 1st Infantry Division until it was inactivated on 1 October 1983.

On 21 March 1973 the 2nd Battalion was relieved from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and reassigned to the 9th Infantry Division. It was activated at Fort Lewis, Washington with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 60th Infantry. On 6 November 1987 the 2nd Battalion was reactivated as a "motorized" combined arms battalion-heavy (CAB-H). On 17 June 1988 the 2nd Battalion was inactivated and then in August 1988 was activated with the reflagging of the 3rd Battalion, 60th Infantry, still with the 9th Division. In May 1991 the 2nd Battalion was inactivated and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division.

On 16 February 1996 the 2nd Battalion was reassigned to the 1st Infantry Division and on 27 March was activated at Rose Barracks, Vilseck, Germany as Task Force 2/2 Infantry with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 6th Infantry. The 2nd Battalion deployed to Bosnia in support of Operation Joint Guard in 1996. In 1997 the battalion, as part of Task Force Eagle Stabilization Force (SFOR), was awarded the Army Superior Unit Award for actions such as Brčko riots and Hill 562.[13] The 2nd Battalion redeployed to Vilseck in October 1997. On 24 November 1999, the battalion deployed to Camp Monteith, Kosovo. The battalion was redeployed to Vilseck in June 2000. The unit was again deployed to Camp Monteith, Kosovo in November 2002 until July 2003 as the last regular Army unit conducting operations. The national guard took formal command of operations from the 2nd Battalion.

War on Terrorism[edit]

1st Battalion[edit]

On 17 March 2008, for the first time in over 24 years, the 1st Battalion was activated in Schweinfurt, Germany with the reflagging of the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry. 1-18 was a part of 2nd "Dagger" Brigade, 1st Infantry Division which was also reflagged as the 172nd Infantry Brigade (Separate). The 1st Battalion was assigned to 172nd Infantry Brigade and was a mechanized infantry battalion. The battalion has adopted the motto "Back in Black" and wear black scarves in recognition of the battalion's service in Vietnam.

In December 2008 the 1st Battalion (TF 1-2) deployed to Iraq and suffered its first casualty in April 2009 when a soldier was killed by an IED. In late October 2009 the first elements of the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry and the 172nd Infantry Brigade began returning to Germany from Iraq. By mid November the entire battalion was back in Germany. TF 1-2 suffered four killed and three wounded during its deployment. The 1st Battalion had a change of command on 19 May 2010 and along with the entire 172d Infantry Brigade moved to Grafenwoehr, Germany.

In late July 2011 the 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry (TF 1-2) along with the entire 172nd Infantry Brigade deployed to Afghanistan. The transfer of authority from 1st Battalion, 61st Cavalry (101st Airborne Division) to Task Force 1-2 Infantry (TF 1-2) occurred on 13 August 2011 at 10:00. TF 1-2 was detached from the 172nd and worked for 3rd Brigade, 25th Infantry Division and was in control of Western Nangarhar.

On 14 August 2011 the 1st Battalion sustained its first casualties when two soldiers from Company A were killed by an IED while recovering a damaged vehicle. Company A, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry has been attached to TF 3-66 Armor since 2008. Alpha Company, 3rd Battalion, 66th Armor (attached) worked in the Zio Haq area and Company B, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry fought at FOB Altimur.

On 24 November 2011, the Black Scarves were ordered to move from Nangarhar to FOB Andar in Ghazni Province, Afghanistan to conduct a relief in place with the 2nd Battalion. On 3 January 2012 at 10:30, the transfer of authority between the two units occurred. Following the ceremony the 2nd Battalion began departing Afghanistan. In its one-year deployment the 2nd Battalion suffered 3 killed and 49 wounded while conducting over 1,900 combat patrols and 22 air assaults as they and their Afghan partners captured 111 weapons caches and killed 250 insurgents.

In early June 2012 the 1st Battalion began departing Afghanistan and returned to their base in Grafenwoehr, Germany with the last troops arriving back in Germany on 19 June. Task Force 1-2 suffered over 15 wounded during their latest deployment and A Company, 1st Battalion suffered 2 killed in action and 3 wounded while attached to Task Force 3-66 Armor. After returning to Germany the battalion trained and conducted Expert Infantryman Badge testing.

The 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry along with the entire 172nd Infantry Brigade was inactivated in a colors casing ceremony held on 31 May 2013. The effective date of the battalion's inactivation was 15 June 2013.

2nd Battalion[edit]

In April 2003 with Operation Iraqi Freedom underway, Company B, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry deployed to Bashur Airfield in Northern Iraq as part of the 173rd Airborne Brigade's Task Force 1-63 Armor, to aid in opening a northern front in Iraq. This was called Operation Airborne Dragon, Northern Iraq with the entire task force being air lifted from Germany. Company B and the entire task force returned to Germany in February 2004.

In the spring of 2004 the 2nd Battalion, less Company B, deployed to Iraq with the 1st Infantry Division. On 20 July 2004 SSG Raymond Bittinger, 3rd Platoon, Company C, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry was awarded a Silver Star for leadership and heroism under fire on 9 April 2004 in Baqubah, Iraq.[14] SSG Bittinger was the first soldier of the 1st Infantry Division to receive a Silver Star during Operation Iraqi Freedom. During its year deployment to Iraq Task Force 2-2 Infantry also fought at Al Muqdadiyah, An Najaf, Al Fallujah, Mosul, and Baqubah.

In November 2004 Task Force 2-2, which comprised HHC; Company A; scouts of the 2/2; Company A, 2d Battalion, 63d Armor; 2d Platoon, Company B, 1st Engineer Battalion; 2d Platoon, Company A, 82d Engineer Battalion; Troop F, 4th Cavalry; and 1st Platoon, Battery A, 1/6 Field Artillery, fought alongside U.S. Marines in the Battle of Fallujah.[15] Task Force 2-2 Infantry received a Presidential Unit Citation for their actions in the Battle of Fallujah.

The 2nd Battalion returned to Germany in February 2005. In May 2006 the battalion was disbanded and its colors were cased. On 19 April 2007 the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry was activated as a light infantry battalion with the 1st Infantry Division, 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team at Fort Hood, Texas.

In June 2008 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, deployed to Afghanistan. The battalion conducted operations in the Maywand District of Kandahar Province. On 4 September 2008 Company C, 2nd Battalion suffered its first casualties when a Humvee was hit by an IED and a follow on enemy attack. On 6 May 2009 at FOB Ramrod, Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates presented awards to six members of Company C, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, for their actions on 4 September. Bronze Star awards with "V" device went to SSG Anthony Roszko, SPC Kevin Tibbett, and CPL Justin Skotnicki. Army Commendation Medals with "V" device went to PFC Michael Kehrer, PVT Alexander Hayes and SGT Justin Chaney.[16] On 28 May 2009 PFC Robert Debolt, a rifleman with Company C, 2nd Battalion, was awarded a Silver Star for gallantry. SGT Ramin Berntsson was also awarded a Bronze Star with "V" device for his actions that day, upon redeployment to Fort Hood, Texas. The 2nd Battalion returned to Fort Hood in June 2009. On 10 September 2009 the 2nd Battalion had a change of command and on 16 October 2009, after moving to Fort Knox, Kentucky, the 2nd Battalion, along with the entire 3rd Brigade Combat Team, held an activation ceremony.

Spc. Nancy Vega, a truck driver with E Company, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment, 3rd IBCT, conducts a radio check at FOB Apache

In January 2011 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Brigade Combat Team once again deployed to Afghanistan. The battalion conducted operations in Ghazni Province. On 27 February 2011 the battalion sustained its first casualties when one soldier was killed and four wounded by an IED. In its one-year deployment 2nd Battalion suffered 3 killed and 49 wounded while conducting over 1,900 combat patrols and 22 air assaults as they and their Afghan partners captured 111 caches and killed 250 insurgents. On 3 January 2012, following a change of authority ceremony with 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry, the 2nd Battalion began departing Afghanistan. Since returning to Fort Knox the 2nd Battalion had a change of command and has been in training for its next deployment to Afghanistan.

In June 2013 the 2nd Battalion, along with the 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, again deployed to Afghanistan. The unit took responsibility for the security forces assistance team mission in Zabul Province at a TOA ceremony when it relieved the 5th Troop, 7th Cavalry. During the uncasing of the 2nd Battalion colors that marked the beginning of this deployment, the battalion commander stated, "the Ramrods have a daunting task but its effects will create a lasting impact for the future of Zabul Province and ultimately for Afghanistan."[citation needed]

In late February 2014, following a transfer of authority with the 2nd Battalion, 12th Infantry at FOB Apache, the 2nd Battalion left Afghanistan and returned to Fort Knox.

The 2nd Battalion was inacitvated as part of 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division's inactivation on May 21, 2014.

Medal of Honor recipients[edit]

Three soldiers earned the Medal of Honor while serving with the 2nd Infantry:

  • First Sergeant Daniel W. Burke, Company B, for his actions at Shepherdstown Ford, Virginia, on 20 September 1862. When his unit retreated across the Potomac, he learned that a piece of artillery had been left unspiked, leaving it usable by the enemy. He volunteered to go back and disable the gun, and returned to spike the gun in the face of the enemy. Coming under heavy rebel fire he was unable to complete the task, he retreated back across the river under constant fire.[17][18] He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd Infantry on 18 July 1862 and promoted to first lieutenant on 2 July 1863. He remained in the Army and retired as a brigadier general on 21 October 1899.[19] He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Sergeant Candelario Garcia, Jr. was posthumously be awarded the Medal of Honor on 18 March 2014 for actions while serving as an acting Team Leader for Company B, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, 1st Brigade, 1st Infantry Division during combat operations in Lai Khe, Republic of Vietnam on December 8, 1968. Sergeant Garcia was originally awarded a Distinguished Service Cross for his actions.[20]
  • Staff Sergeant James Leroy Bondsteel, Company A, 2nd Battalion, for his actions in An Lộc Province, Vietnam, on 24 May 1969. The major U.S. Army base in Kosovo, Camp Bondsteel, was named in his honor.

Two officers who would later become executive officers of the 2nd Infantry received Medals of Honor in the Civil War:

  • Major General Henry C. Merriam, for his conspicuous gallantry at Fort Blakely, Alabama, 9 April 1865 while in command of the 73rd U.S. Colored Troops. As a lieutenant colonel, Merriam was executive officer of the 2nd Infantry from June 1876 to July 1885. He is buried in Arlington National Cemetery.
  • Brigadier General William M. Wherry, for his actions at Wilson Creek on 10 August 1861 while serving as a first lieutenant with Company D, 3rd U.S. Reserve Missouri Infantry. As a lieutenant colonel, Wherry was executive officer of the 2nd Infantry from December 1894 to December 1898 and commanded the regiment, in the absence of Colonel John Bates, during its deployment to Cuba in 1898 during the Spanish–American War.

Casualties[edit]

Casualty lists for all the conflicts that the 2nd Infantry has been in can be found at http://www.secinfreg.org/rosters.htm

Heraldry[edit]

Distinctive unit insignia[edit]

  • Description

A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 in. (2.86 cm) in height consisting of a shield blazoned: Or, on a saltire inches Azure between in fess a cross pattée and a five-bastioned fort Gules and in base a giant cactus Vert, two arrows in a quiver Proper crossed with a bolo Argent hilted Sable. Attached below the shield is a Blue scroll inscribed "NOLI ME TANGERE" in Gold letters.

  • Symbolism

Service in the Civil War is shown by the blue cross from the Confederate flag and the red cross pattée, the badge of the 18th Division, V Corps, in which the regiment served during the greater part of that war. Service in the Mexican War is shown by the cactus; in the War with Spain by the five-bastioned fort, the badge of the V Corps in Cuba. The Indian campaigns of the regiment are shown by the arrows and quiver, and the bolo is for service in the Philippine Insurrection.

  • Background

The first design for the distinctive unit insignia of the 2d Infantry Regiment was approved on 20 February 1920. That design was canceled and the present design authorized for the regiment on 19 June 1936.

Coat of arms[edit]

  • Blazon
    • Shield: Or on a saltire Azure between in fess a cross pattée and a five-bastioned fort Gules and in base a giant cactus Vert, two arrows in a quiver Proper crossed with a bolo Argent hilted Sable.
    • Crest: On a wreath of the colors a lion passant guardant Or.
    • Motto: NOLI ME TANGERE (Do Not Touch Me)
  • Symbolism
    • Shield: Service in the Civil War is shown by the blue cross from the Confederate flag and the red cross pattée, the badge of the 18th Division, V Corps, in which the regiment served during the greater part of that war. Service in the Mexican War is shown by the cactus; in the War with Spain by the five-bastioned fort, the badge of the V Corps in Cuba. The Indian campaigns of the regiment are shown by the arrows and quiver, and the bolo is for service in the Philippine Insurrection.
    • Crest: The lion represents the Canadian campaigns of the War of 1812.
  • Background: The coat of arms was approved on 6 June 1921.

Lineage[edit]

Regiment[edit]

  • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as the 6th Infantry
  • Organized May–July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, and New Jersey
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form the 2d Infantry
  • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with the 16th Infantry (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as the 2d Infantry
  • Assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division
  • Relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division
  • Assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division
  • Relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division (later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division)
  • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
  • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
  • Relieved 1 June 1957 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and reorganized as a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System
  • Withdrawn 16 June 1986 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System
  • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2d Infantry Regiment

ANNEX

  • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
  • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer (Chicago), Illinois
  • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as the 16th Infantry

1st Battalion[edit]

  • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as a company of the 6th Infantry
  • Organized between May and July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, or New Jersey
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with a company of the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), a company each of the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and a company of the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form a company of the 2d Infantry
  • Designated 22 May 1816 as Company A, 2d Infantry
  • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company A, 16th Infantry (see ANNEX) and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 2d Infantry

(2d Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division; relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division; assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division; relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division (later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division))

  • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
  • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
  • Inactivated 1 June 1957 at Fort Ord, California, and relieved from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division; concurrently, redesignated as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battle Group, 2d Infantry
  • Redesignated 19 February 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, assigned to the 5th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
  • Redesignated 19 February 1962 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry, assigned to the 5th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
  • Relieved 12 July 1965 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division
  • Inactivated 1 October 1983 at Fort Riley, Kansas, and relieved from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division
  • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 1st Battalion, 2d Infantry Regiment
  • Assigned 16 March 2008 to the 172d Infantry Brigade and activated in Germany
  • Inactivated 15 June 2013 at Grafenwoehr, Germany

ANNEX

  • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company A, 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
  • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer (Chicago), Illinois
  • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company A, 16th Infantry
  • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company A, 2d Infantry, and consolidated unit designated as Company A, 2d Infantry[21]

2nd Battalion[edit]

  • Constituted 12 April 1808 in the Regular Army as a company of the 6th Infantry
  • Organized between May and July 1808 in Pennsylvania, New York, or New Jersey
  • Consolidated May–October 1815 with a company of the 16th Infantry (constituted 11 January 1812), a company each of the 22d and 23d Infantry (both constituted 26 June 1812), and a company of the 32d Infantry (constituted 29 January 1813) to form a company of the 2d Infantry
  • Designated 22 May 1816 as Company B, 2d Infantry
  • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company B, 16th Infantry (see ANNEX), and consolidated unit designated as Company B, 2d Infantry
  • (2d Infantry assigned 27 July 1918 to the 19th Division; relieved 14 February 1919 from assignment to the 19th Division; assigned 24 March 1923 to the 6th Division; relieved 16 October 1939 from assignment to the 6th Division and assigned to the 5th Division [later redesignated as the 5th Infantry Division])
  • Inactivated 20 September 1946 at Camp Campbell, Kentucky
  • Activated 15 July 1947 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Inactivated 30 April 1950 at Fort Jackson, South Carolina
  • Activated 1 March 1951 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Inactivated 1 September 1953 at Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania
  • Activated 25 May 1954 in Germany
  • Reorganized and redesignated 15 February 1957 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2d Battle Group, 2d Infantry, relieved from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division, and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division (organic elements concurrently constituted and activated)
  • Relieved 28 January 1959 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and assigned to the 24th Infantry Division
  • Reorganized and redesignated 19 February 1962 as the 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry; concurrently relieved from assignment to the 24th Infantry Division and assigned to the 5th Infantry Division
  • Relieved 12 July 1965 from assignment to the 5th Infantry Division and assigned to the 1st Infantry Division
  • Inactivated 15 April 1970 at Fort Riley, Kansas
  • Relieved 21 March 1973 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division, assigned to the 9th Infantry Division, and activated at Fort Lewis, Washington
  • Inactivated 15 May 1991 at Fort Lewis, Washington, and relieved from assignment to the 9th Infantry Division
  • Assigned 16 February 1996 to the 1st Infantry Division and activated in Germany
  • Redesignated 1 October 2005 as the 2d Battalion, 2d Infantry Regiment
  • Relieved 16 April 2007 from assignment to the 1st Infantry Division and assigned to the 3d Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division

ANNEX

  • Constituted 3 May 1861 in the Regular Army as Company B, 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry
  • Organized 21 August 1861 at Camp Slemmer, Illinois
  • Reorganized and redesignated 21 September 1866 as Company B, 16th Infantry
  • Consolidated 18 April 1869 with Company B, 2d Infantry, and consolidated unit designated as Company B, 2d Infantry[22]

Honors[edit]

Campaign participation[edit]

  • Philippine Insurrection:
    • Streamer W/O Inscription
  • Vietnam:
    • Defense
    • Counteroffensive
    • Counteroffensive, Phase II
    • Counteroffensive, Phase III
    • Tet Counteroffensive
    • Counteroffensive, Phase IV
    • Counteroffensive, Phase V
    • Counteroffensive, Phase VI
    • Tet 69/Counteroffensive
    • Summer-Fall 1969
    • Winter-Spring 1970
  • War on Terrorism:
    • Iraq
    • Afghanistan

Decorations[edit]

1st Battalion[edit]

2nd Battalion[edit]

  • Presidential Unit Citation for FALLUJAH 2004
  • Valorous Unit Award for AP BAU BANG 1965
  • Valorous Unit Award for BINH DUONG PROVINCE 1965
  • Valorous Unit Award for BINH LONG PROVINCE 1969
  • Meritorious Unit Commendation for GHAZNI PROVINCE 2011
  • Meritorious Unit Commendation for ZABUL PROVINCE 2013-2014
  • Army Superior Unit Award for 1997
  • Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1965-1968
  • Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1969
  • Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1965-1970

Awards Earned By Subordinate Units

  • Company C: Valorous Unit Award for BINH LONG PROVINCE 1968
  • Detachment Company B: Valorous Unit Award for HERAT AND FARAH PROVINCE 2013
  • Company E: Distinguished Unit Citation embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (WD GO 68, 1945)
  • Company E: Fr CdeG with Palm embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (DA GO 43, 1950)
  • Company H 1st Section, 3rd Platoon: Distinguished Unit Citation embroidered SANRY SUR NIED. (nondisplayable) (WD GO 68, 1945)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lineage and Honors Information 2d Infantry Regiment". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 7 August 2012. 
  2. ^ a b Official Army Register. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. 1 January 1929. p. 920. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  3. ^ Fredriksen, John C. (2010). The United States Army: A Chronology, 1775 to the Present. ABC-CLIO. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-59884-344-6. 
  4. ^ Lytle, Richard M. (15 July 2004). The Soldiers of America's First Army, 1791. Scarecrow Press. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-8108-5011-8. 
  5. ^ Buffenbarger, Thomas E. (15 September 2011). "St. Clair's Campaign of 1791: A Defeat in the Wilderness That Helped Forge Today's U.S. Army". U. S. Army. Retrieved March 7, 2014. 
  6. ^ Mahon, John. K and Romana Danysh (1972). Army Lineage Series: Infantry: Part 1: Regular Army. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Chief of Military History, U.S. Army. pp. 12–16. 
  7. ^ a b c d Wright, W. M. "The Second Regiment of Infantry". , in Rodenbough, Theo. P.; William L. Haskin, eds. (1896). The Army of the United States: Historical Sketches of Staff and Line with Portraits of Generals-in-Chief. New York: Maynard, Merrill & Co. 
  8. ^ Godfrey, Walter H., editor (1927). "Survey of London: volume 11: Chelsea, part IV: The Royal Hospital". pp. 32–36. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  9. ^ Tucker, Spencer; Paul G. Pierpaoli, Jr., John C. Fredriksen; Roberta Wiener (30 May 2012). The Encyclopedia Of the War Of 1812. ABC-CLIO. pp. 249–50. ISBN 978-1-85109-956-6. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  10. ^ "Annals of Congress". 13th Cong., 3rd sess.: 1934. 
  11. ^ Driscoll, John K. (5 December 2005). Rogue: A Biography of Civil War General Justus McKinstry. McFarland. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-7864-2385-9. 
  12. ^ a b Huggins, Kandi (January 31, 2013). "Ramrod returns home to 3rd Brigade, 1st Infantry". The Gold Standard (Fort Knox). 
  13. ^ "General Orders No. 25". Department of the Army. 8 June 2001. pp. 59–60. 
  14. ^ Emert, Rick (25 July 2004). "GI awarded Silver Star for role in Iraq fight". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  15. ^ Camp, Dick (15 December 2009). Operation Phantom Fury: The Assault and Capture of Fallujah, Iraq. Zenith Imprint. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-61673-253-0. Retrieved 30 June 2013. 
  16. ^ Miles, Donna (May 7, 2009). "Gates’ Afghanistan Visit Focuses on Troop Needs". American Forces Press Service. Retrieved June 30, 2013. 
  17. ^ "Medal of Honor Recipients, Civil War (A-L)". Center of MIlitary History, U.S. Army. Archived from the original on 12 September 2010. Retrieved 25 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Medal of Honor for Burke, Daniel W.". 
  19. ^ Official Army Register for 1909. Washington, D.C.: The Adjutant General's Office. 1 December 1908. p. 446. 
  20. ^ Rothberg, Daniel (21 February 2014). "Obama will award Medal of Honor to 24 overlooked Army veterans". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 6, 2014. 
  21. ^ "Lineage and Honors, 1st Battalion, 2nd Infantry". United States Army Center of Military History. 
  22. ^ "Lineage and Honors, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry". United States Army Center of Military History. 

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Army Center of Military History.

Further reading[edit]