|Jmol-3D images||Image 1|
|Molar mass||88.11 g mol−1|
|Appearance||slightly yellow liquid or crystals|
|Melting point||15 °C (59 °F; 288 K)|
|Boiling point||148 °C (298 °F; 421 K)|
|Solubility in water||soluble|
|Solubility||soluble in alcohol
slightly soluble in ether, petroleum ether
miscible in propylene glycol
insoluble in vegetable oil
Chiral rotation ([α]D)
Refractive index (nD)
|Flash point||41 °C (106 °F; 314 K)|
|LD50||> 5000 mg/kg (rat, oral)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)|
|(what is: / ?)|
Acetoin, also known as 3-hydroxybutanone or acetyl methyl carbinol, with the molecular formula is C4H8O2, is a colorless or pale yellow to green yellow liquid with a pleasant, buttery odor. Acetoin is a chiral molecule. The form produced by bacteria is (R)-acetoin.
Production in bacteria
Acetoin is a neutral, four-carbon molecule used as an external energy store by a number of fermentive bacteria. It is produced by the decarboxylation of alpha-acetolactate, a common precursor in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids. Owing to its neutral nature, production and excretion of acetoin during exponential growth prevents overacidification of the cytoplasm and the surrounding medium that would result from accumulation of acidic metabolic products, such as acetic acid and citric acid. Once superior carbon sources are exhausted, and the culture enters stationary phase, acetoin can be used to maintain the culture density. The conversion of acetoin into acetyl-CoA is catalysed by the acetoin dehydrogenase complex, following a mechanism largely analogous to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex; however, as acetoin is not a 2-oxoacid, it does not undergo decarboxylation by the E1 enzyme; instead, a molecule of acetaldehyde is released. In some bacteria, acetoin can also be reduced to 2,3-butanediol by acetoin reductase/2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase.
In food products
Acetoin, along with diacetyl, is one of the compounds giving butter its characteristic flavor. Because of this, manufacturers of partially hydrogenated oils typically add acetoin and diacetyl (along with beta carotene for the yellow color) to the final product, which would otherwise be tasteless.
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- "What's in a cigarette?". Archived from the original on 23 May 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-31.