|3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase|
|PDB structures||RCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum|
|Gene Ontology||AmiGO / EGO|
3β- and steroid Δ-isomerase 1
|Alt. symbols||HSDB3, HSD3B|
|Locus||Chr. 1 p13-p11|
3β- and steroid Δ-isomerase 2
|Locus||Chr. 1 p13.1|
3-β-HSD (or 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ-5-4 isomerase) (EC 188.8.131.52) is an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of progesterone from pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone from 17-hydroxypregnenolone, and androstenedione from dehydroepiandrosterone in the adrenal gland. It is the only enzyme in the adrenal pathway of corticosteroid synthesis that is not a member of the Cytochrome P450 family. In humans, there are two 3-β-HSD isozymes encoded by the HSD3B1 and HSD3B2 genes.
It is also known as delta 5-delta 4-isomerase, which catalyzes the oxidative conversion of delta 5-3 beta- hydroxysteroids to the delta 4-3-keto configuration and is, therefore, essential for the biosynthesis of all classes of hormonal steroids, namely progesterone, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, androgens, and estrogens. The 3-beta HSD complex is responsible for the conversion of:
- pregnenolone to progesterone
- 17-alpha-pregnenolone to 17-alpha-progesterone
- dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione
- androstenediol to testosterone
3-β-HSD belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, to be specific, those acting on the CH-OH group of donor with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. This enzyme participates in c21-steroid hormone metabolism and androgen and estrogen metabolism.
- a 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid + NAD+ a 3-oxo-Δ5-steroid + NADH + H+
Humans express two 3-β-HSD isozymes, HSD3B1 (type I) and HSD3B2 (type II). The type I isoenzyme is expressed in placenta and peripheral tissues, whereas the type II 3β-HSD isoenzyme is expressed in the adrenal gland, ovary, and testis.
The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid:NAD+ 3-oxidoreductase. Other names in common use include:
- progesterone reductase
- Δ5-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
- 3β-hydroxy-5-ene steroid dehydrogenase
- 3β-hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase
- 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid dehydrogenase/isomerase
- 3β-hydroxy-Δ5-C27-steroid oxidoreductase
- 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid oxidoreductase
- steroid-Δ5-3β-ol dehydrogenase
- 5-ene-3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
- 3β-hydroxy-5-ene-steroid dehydrogenase
A deficiency in the type II form through mutations in HSD3B2 is responsible for a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. No human condition has yet been linked to a deficiency in the type I enzyme. Its importance in placental progesterone production expression suggests that such a mutation would be embryonically lethal.
The fetal adrenal cortex lacks expression of the enzyme early on, thus mineralcorticoids (i.e. aldosterone) and glucocorticoids (i.e. cortisol) cannot be synthesized. This is significant because cortisol induces type II pneumocytes of the lungs to synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant; without pulmonary surfactant to reduce the alveolar surface tension, premature neonates may die of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. If delivery is unavoidable (i.e. because of placental abruption, or pre-eclampsia/HELLP syndrome), then glucocorticoids (i.e. cortisol) can be administered to induce type II pneumocytes to synthesize and secrete pulmonary surfactant, improving the chances of newborn survival (by preventing neonatal respiratory distress syndrome).
- 3α-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3α-HSD)
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- Rhéaume E, Simard J, Morel Y, Mebarki F, Zachmann M, Forest MG, New MI, Labrie F (July 1992). "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to point mutations in the type II 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene". Nat. Genet. 1 (4): 239–45. doi:10.1038/ng0792-239. PMID 1363812.
- Cheatum SG, Watten JC (1966). "Purification and properties of 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and delta-5-3-ketosteroid isomerase from bovine corpora lutea". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 122 (1): 1–13. PMID 4226148.
- Koritz SB (1964). "The conversion of prepnenolone to progesterone by small particle from rat adrenal". Biochemistry 3 (8): 1098–1102. doi:10.1021/bi00896a015. PMID 14220672.
- Neville AM, Orr, JC and Engel LL (1968). "Delta5-3beta-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activities of bovine adrenal cortex". Biochem. J. 107: 20.