|Production||1952–1953 (racing car)
1954–1963 (production car)
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Sports car, GT|
|Body style||2 door coupé, roadster|
|Related||Mercedes-Benz W121 BII (190SL)|
|Engine||2996 cc M198 SOHC I6
|Wheelbase||2,400 mm (94.5 in)|
|Length||4,520 mm (178.0 in)|
|Width||1,790 mm (70.5 in)|
|Height||1,300 mm (51.2 in)|
|Curb weight||1,093 kg (2,410 lb)|
Mercedes-Benz W113 (230SL)
Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG
The Mercedes-Benz 300SL (W198) was the first iteration of the SL-Class grand tourer convertibles and fastest production car of its day. Introduced in 1954 as a two-seat sports car with distinctive gull-wing doors, it was later offered as an open roadster.
Built by Daimler-Benz AG, the direct fuel injected production model was based on the company's highly successful yet somewhat less powerful carbureted overhead cam straight 6 3000cc 1952 race car, the Mercedes-Benz 300SL (W194).
The idea of a toned-down W194 tailored to affluent performance enthusiasts in the booming post-war American market was suggested by Max Hoffman. Mercedes accepted the gamble and the new 300 SL – 300 for its 3.0 litre engine displacement and SL for Sport Leicht (Sport Light) – was introduced at the 1954 New York Auto Show rather than the Frankfurt or Geneva shows company models made their usual debuts.
Immediately successful and today iconic, the 300SL stood alone with its distinctive doors, first-ever consumer fuel-injection, and world's fastest top speed. The original coupé was available from March 1955 to 1957, a roadster from 1957 to 1963.
A race car for the street
New York Mercedes distributor Max Hoffman, Daimler-Benz's official importer in the USA, suggested to Daimler-Benz AG management in Stuttgart that a street version of the W194 Formula One racer would be a commercial success, especially in America.
The racing W194 300SL was built around a welded aluminum tube spaceframe chassis to offset its relatively underpowered carbureted engine. Designed by Daimler-Benz's chief developing engineer, Rudolf Uhlenhaut, the metal skeleton saved weight while still providing a high level of strength. Its unique architecture gave birth to the model's distinctive gull-wing doors, as part of the chassis passed through what would be the lower half of a standard door.
Even with the upward opening doors, the 300SL had an unusually high sill, making entry and exit from the car's cockpit problematic. A steering wheel with a tilt-away column was added to improve driver access.
The 300SL's main body was steel, with aluminum hood, doors and trunk lid. It could also be ordered with an 80 kg (176 lb) saving all-aluminium outer skin at tremendous added cost.
More than 80% of the vehicle's total production of approximately 1400 units were sold in the US, making the Gullwing the first Mercedes-Benz widely successful outside its home market and thoroughly validating Hoffman's prediction. The 300SL is credited with changing the company's image in America from a manufacturer of solid but staid luxury automobiles to one capable of rendering high-performance sports cars.
First direct injection
Like the W194, the 300SL borrowed its 3.0 litre SOHC straight-6 from the regular four-door 300 (W189 "Adenauer") luxury tourer introduced in 1951. Canted at a forty-five-degree angle to the right to fit under the SL's considerably lower hoodline, it was fitted with a Bosch mechanical direct fuel injection derived from the high-powered DB 601 V12 used on the Messerschmitt Bf 109E World War II. The effect was an increase from the 3x2 carbureted W194's 175 hp (130 kW) to 215 hp (160 kW), almost double the power of the original Type 300 sedan's 115 hp (86 kW).
Combined with the engine's innovative diagonal head (that allowed for larger intake and exhaust valves), this innovation allowed a top speed of up to 260 km/h (161 mph) depending on gear ratio and drag, making the 300SL the fastest production car of its time. However, unlike today's electrically powered fuel injection systems, the 300 SL's mechanical fuel pump would continue to inject gasoline into the engine during the interval between shutting off the ignition and the engine's coming to a stop; this unburned gasoline washed the oil from the cylinder walls and ended up diluting the engine's lubricating oil, particularly if the car was not driven hard or long enough to reach a sufficient temperature to evaporate the gas out of the oil.
Exacerbating the problem was the engine's large racing-oriented oil cooler and enormous 10 liter oil capacity, which virtually guaranteed the oil would not get hot enough. In practice, many owners would block off airflow through the oil cooler and stick rigidly to the appropriately low 1,000 miles (1,600 km) recommended oil change interval. Clutch operation was initially very heavy, remedied by an improved clutch arm helper spring which reduced pedal force. From March 1963 to the end of production later that year, a light alloy crankcase was used on a total of 209 vehicles.
Aerodynamics played an important role in the car's speed, with Mercedes-Benz engineers placing horizontal "eyebrows" over the wheel openings to reduce drag. Unlike many cars of the 1950s, steering was relatively precise and the four-wheel independent suspension allowed for a reasonably comfortable ride and markedly better overall handling. However, the rear swing axle, jointed only at the differential, not at the wheels themselves, could be treacherous at high speeds or on imperfect roads due to extreme changes in camber. The enormous fuel tank capacity also caused a considerable difference in handling depending on the quantity of fuel on board.
The 300SL today
Today, the 300SL with its gull wing doors, technological firsts, and low production numbers is considered one of the most collectible Mercedes-Benz models, with prices generally in the US$1,000,000-2,500,000 range. Sports Car International magazine ranked the 300SL as the number 5 sports car of all time. A pair of 300SLs for sale in 2009 were offered at over $1.3M USD from the Foxwood Collection. In 2012, an ultra rare 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300 SL with an all-aluminum body (only 29 made) was sold for US$4.62 million at the Scottsdale Auctions in Arizona. Given the stratospheric prices that a 300SL commands, many car enthusiast have turned towards the smaller 190SL, often referred as the "poor man's 300SL" as its acquisition costs are a tenth that of the 300SL's.
Subsequent generations of the Mercedes-Benz SL-Class have been continually produced. The R230 (2002-2011) and the R231 (2012-present) have air inlets in the front fenders which are inspired by the 300SL Gullwing. However, the SL has since evolved to become a more autobahn-focused grand tourer due to increasing weight, especially with its optional V12 engine in later iterations. The last two generations of the SL are hardtop convertibles with technological and comfort amenities, and it also has available heated and cooled seats with a massage function.
The Mercedes-Benz SLS AMG is described by Mercedes as a spiritual successor to the 300SL Gullwing. Although there is some overlapping in price and performance with the R230 and R231 SL-Class, the lighter SLS AMG is considered more of a sporty track-oriented car, in the spirit of the 300SL.
Mercedes-Benz also operates the Mercedes-Benz Classic Center that focuses on classic Mercedes-Benz restorations and is recognized as the central authority on 300 SL parts, service, restoration and vehicle trading as they have unique access to original build sheets and factory documentation which enables them to confirm a car's authenticity - a critical factor determining a collector car's true value.
As part of a partnership between Mercedes-Benz and Nintendo, the Wii U game Mario Kart 8 features a 300SL Roadster as a playable in-game vehicle, added as part of a post-launch downloadable game update on August 27, 2014.
|Mercedes-Benz||300SL "Gullwing" (W198 I)||300SL Roadster (W198 II)|
|Engine:||6-cylinder-inline engine (four-stroke), front-mounted|
|Bore x Stroke:||85 mm (3.3 in) x 88 mm (3.5 in)|
|Max. Power @ rpm:||215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp) @ 5800||215 PS (158 kW; 212 hp) @ 5800
or 225 PS (165 kW; 222 hp) @ 5800
|Max. Torque @ rpm:||274 N·m (202 lb·ft) @ 4600|
|Compression Ratio:||8.55: 1||8.55: 1
|Fuel feed:||Mechanical direct fuel injection, Bosch injection pump|
|Fuel tank capacity:||130 L (34.3 US gal; 28.6 imp gal)||100 L (26.4 US gal; 22.0 imp gal)|
|Valvetrain:||SOHC, duplex chain|
rear wheel drive, standard axle ratio 3.64:1 (on request 3.25:1, 3.42:1, 3.89:1 or 4.11:1)
|Electrical system:||12 volt|
|Front suspension:||Double wishbones, coil springs, stabilising bar|
|Rear suspension::||High-pivot swing axle, radius arms, coil springs||Low-pivot swing axle, transverse compensating spring, coil springs|
|Brakes:||Drum brakes (Ø 260 mm), power assisted||Drum brakes (Ø 260 mm), power assisted
from March 1961: disc brakes front and rear (Ø 290 mm), power assisted
|Steering:||Recirculating ball steering|
|Body structure:||Sheet steel/aluminum or aluminum (29 cars built) on steel tube space frame||Sheet steel/aluminum on steel tube space frame|
|Dry weight:||1,310 kg (2,890 lb)||1,420 kg (3,130 lb) (hardtop + 40 kg (88 lb))|
|Loaded weight:||1,555 kg (3,428 lb)||1,560 kg (3,440 lb), from 1961 1,660 kg (3,660 lb)|
|1,385 mm (54.5 in) 1,435 mm (56.5 in)||1,398 mm (55.0 in) 1,448 mm (57.0 in)|
|Wheelbase:||2,400 mm (94.5 in)|
|Length:||4,520 mm (178.0 in)||4,570 mm (179.9 in)|
|Width:||1,790 mm (70.5 in)||1,790 mm (70.5 in)|
|Height:||1,300 mm (51.2 in)||1,300 mm (51.2 in)|
|Tyre/Tire sizes:||6.50-15 Supersport||6.70-15 Supersport|
|Top speed:||235 km/h (146 mph) (3.64:1)
250 km/h (155 mph) (3.42:1)
260 km/h (160 mph) (3.25:1)
|"according to axle ratio"|
|Fuel Consumption (estimate):||17.0 litres per 100 kilometres (16.6 mpg-imp; 13.8 mpg-US)|
$ 11,000, later 7,295
|DM 32,500 (Hardtop: + DM 1,500)
$ 10,928, later 10,950 (Hardtop: + $ 178)
- Mercedes Benz 300 SL Coupe / Gullwing Register www.mercedes300slregister.com
- Sports and Classic Cars, Bonanza Books, New York. 1955, Borgeson G. and Jaderquist E.
- "Gullwing The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Coupé", Palawan Press, London. 2008, Pritchard, A.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, Band 4. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. ISBN 3-613-02131-5.
- Rohde, Michael; Koch, Detlev (2000). Typenkompass Mercedes-Benz. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 41. ISBN 3-613-02019-X.
- "Rare 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Alloy sells for record $4.62 million". Autoblog. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- "2006 Mercedes-Benz SL-Class". AOL Autos.
- Schultz, Jonathan (2012-03-20). "2013 SL65 AMG Muscles In on SLS AMG Roadster - NYTimes.com". Wheels.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- Michael Bettencourt (2012-04-03). "2013 Mercedes-Benz SL 550: A luxury retreat". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "Mercedes 300SL Gullwing". Retrieved 16 December 2007.
- "Jay Leno Restores a Vintage Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 8 May 2012.
- Pitcher, Jenna (August 6, 2014). "Mario Kart 8 Mercedes Car DLC Hits This Month With Update". IGN. Retrieved August 6, 2014.
- US prices: Mike Covello: Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002, Krause Publication, Iola 2002, ISBN 0-87341-605-8, p. 527-31
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mercedes-Benz W198.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1955 Mercedes-Benz 300SL Gullwing Coupe.|
- Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Internet Portal & Web Magazine
- eMercedesBenz | The 1952 Mercedes-Benz 300 SL Racing Sport Coupe
- Mercedes Benz 300 SL Coupé / Gullwing Register #198.040 & #198.043
|« previous — Mercedes-Benz road car timeline, 1946–1970s — next »|
|4-cylinder||Sedan||W136 / W191||W120 / W121||W110||W115||W123|
|6-cylinder||Sedan||W187||W105 / W180 / W128||W111||W114||W123|
|Coupé||W187||W180 / W128||W111||C107|
|W108 / W109|
|Limousine||W186 / W189||W100 (600)|
|Sports||Roadster||W198 / W121 B2||W113||R107|