300s BC (decade)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||5th century BC – 4th century BC – 3rd century BC|
|Decades:||330s BC 320s BC 310s BC – 300s BC – 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC|
|Years:||309 BC 308 BC 307 BC 306 BC 305 BC 304 BC 303 BC 302 BC 301 BC 300 BC|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
- 1 300s BC: events by year
- 1.1 309 BC
- 1.2 By place
- 1.3 308 BC
- 1.4 By place
- 1.5 307 BC
- 1.6 By place
- 1.7 By topic
- 1.8 306 BC
- 1.9 By place
- 1.10 305 BC
- 1.11 By place
- 1.12 304 BC
- 1.13 By place
- 1.14 303 BC
- 1.15 By place
- 1.16 302 BC
- 1.17 By place
- 1.18 301 BC
- 1.19 By place
- 1.20 300 BC
- 1.21 By place
- 1.22 By topic
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 References
300s BC: events by year
- Ptolemy personally commands a fleet that captures the coastal regions of Lycia and Caria from Antigonus.
- Cassander, who has held Roxana, widow of Alexander the Great, in prison for a number of years, has her put to death along with her young son Alexander, the nominal King Alexander IV of Macedon.
- Antigonus attempts to renew his alliance with the Macedonian general and former regent Polyperchon, who still controls part of the Peloponnesus. He sends Heracles, the illegitimate son of Alexander the Great, to Polyperchon to be treated as a pretender to the throne of Macedonia.
- Polyperchon manages to form an army consisting of 20,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry and challenges Cassander's army. Instead of fighting, Cassander starts negotiations with Polyperchon. By offering to make him a general of his own army and placing him as governor of Peloponnesus, he convinces Polyperchon to change allegiance to him instead of Heracles. As a result Polyperchon murders Heracles and his mother Barsine.
- Areus I succeeds his grandfather Cleomenes II as king of Sparta.
- A census is carried out in Athens. 21,000 citizens, 10,000 foreign residents and 400,000 others – women, children and slaves – are living in the city.
- Since 480 BC, an aristocratic Council of Elders has effectively ruled Carthage. The titular king of Carthage, Bomilcar, attempts a coup to restore the monarchy to full power. His attempt fails, which leads to Carthage becoming in name as well as in fact a republic.
- Leaving his brother Antander to continue the defence of Syracuse, Agathocles lands in North Africa with the aim of distracting the Carthaginians from their siege of Syracuse. Agathocles concludes a treaty with Ophellas, ruler of Cyrenaica. He then takes advantage of the civil unrest in Carthage and nearly succeeds in conquering the city.
- The Samnites again rise against Rome. Lucius Papirius Cursor is appointed dictator for the second time and wins a great victory at Longula over the Samnites.
- Soon after the State of Qin has conquered the State of Shu (in modern-day Sichuan province), they employ the Shu engineer Bi Ling to create the Guanxian irrigation system, which will eventually provide for over five million people in an area of 40 to 50 square miles (130 km2), still in use today.
- Ptolemy crosses from Asia Minor into Greece, where he takes possession of Corinth, Sicyon and Megara.
- The Second Samnite War escalates when the tribes of the central Apennines, the Umbrians, Picentini, and Marsians join the war against Rome. However, Rome is able to control the uprising.
- The Etruscans sue for peace with Rome, which is granted by the Romans on severe terms.
- Ptolemy founds the Museum and Library of Alexandria with the help of Demetrius Phalereus. Like Alexander the Great, Ptolemy has studied under Aristotle and staffs the museum with some 100 professors paid by the state.
- The governor (despot) of Athens for 10 years and supporter of Cassander, Demetrius Phalereus, is obliged to flee from Athens on the approach of the Macedonian prince, Demetrius Poliorcetes. Demetrius Phalereus settles in Alexandria in Egypt.
- Demetrius Poliorcetes re-establishes the old Athenian constitution. The grateful Athenians honour Antigonus and Demetrius as divine saviours (theoi soteres).
- Upon becoming ruler of Epirus, Phyrrhus allies himself with his brother-in-law, Demetrius Poliorcetes, son of Antigonus.
- The tyrant of Syracuse, Agathocles is forced to return to Syracuse to deal with growing unrest in his Sicilian dominions. Those of Agathocles' army that remain behind in Carthage are soon destroyed.
- The Carthaginian general Hamilcar fails to take Syracuse and is captured and killed.
- The city of Segesta in Sicily is destroyed by Agathocles.
- The Chinese King Wuling of Zhao reforms the military of the State of Zhao by putting more emphasis on cavalry over charioteers.
- Epicureanism, a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus, is founded (approximate date).
- Menelaus, brother of Egypt's ruler, Ptolemy I Soter, is defeated and captured by Demetrius Poliorcetes in the Battle of Salamis, a naval battle off Cyprus. The battle is a complete victory for Demetrius and results in his capture of Cyprus from Ptolemy and it completely destroys the naval power of Egypt. This gives Demetrius Poliorcetes' father, Antigonus I Monophthalmus, control of the Aegean, the eastern Mediterranean, and all of the Middle East except Babylonia.
- With Antigonus and Demetrius now each assuming the title of king, Ptolemy, as well as Cassander, Lysimachus and Seleucus I Nicator, respond by doing the same.
- Antigonus proclaims himself king of Asia Minor and northern Syria thus commencing the Antigonid dynasty. Antigonus appoints Demetrius Poliorcetes king and co-regent.
- A peace agreement is reached between Syracuse and Carthage. The peace restricts Carthaginian power in Sicily to the area west of the Halycus (Platani) River. This agreement allows the tyrant of Syracuse, Agathocles, to strengthen his rule over the Greek cities of Sicily.
- Antigonus tries to follow up his victory in Cyprus by invading Egypt with a large army and a formidable fleet. But Ptolemy successfully holds the frontier against him. However, the year's events mean that Ptolemy no longer engages in overseas expeditions against Antigonus.
- A four-drachma coin, picturing Alexander the Great, is issued by Lysimachos from this time until 281 BC. At least one of them is now preserved at the British Museum in London.
- Seleucus, former officer of Alexander the Great, considers himself emperor of Persia. He attemps to recover lands taken by Chandragupta that had been a part of Alexander's Empire. Seleucus establishes Seleucia on the Tigris River as his capital.
- Antigonus I Monophthalmus sends his son Demetrius to conquer Rhodes, which has refused him armed support against Ptolemy. He shows ingenuity in devising new siege engines in his unsuccessful attempt to reduce the city. Among his creations are a battering ram 60 metres long and requiring 1,000 men to operate it and a wheeled siege tower named "Helepolis" (or "Taker of Cities") which stands 40 metres tall and 20 metres wide and weighs 180 tons. This siege of Rhodes earns Demetrius the title Poliorcetes ("the City Besieger").
- The Roman consuls, Marcus Fulvius Curvus Paetinus and Lucius Postumius Megellus, decisively defeat the Samnites in the Battle of Bovianum to end the Second Samnite War.
- The siege of Rhodes ends after a year as Demetrius Poliorcetes meets with obstinate resistance from the citizens of Rhodes who are supported by Ptolemy (thereby earning Ptolemy the title of Soter (Saviour)). Antigonus then concludes a peace treaty and an alliance with the island state, guaranteeing it autonomy and neutrality in his conflicts with Ptolemy.
- Cassander invades Attica and besieges Athens. Demetrius Poliorcetes drives Cassander out of central Greece and liberates Athens. In return, the Athenians bestow on him a new religious honour, synnaos ("having the same temple") of the temple of the goddess Athena.
- The second Samnite war formally ends with a peace agreement in which the Samnites obtain peace on terms that are severe but not as crushing as those agreed by the Romans with the Etruscans four years earlier. Under the peace, Rome gains no territory, but the Samnites renounce their hegemony over Campania. Rome is also successful in ending the revolts amongst the tribes surrounding Roman territory.
- The tyrant Agathocles takes on the title of King of Sicily. He extends his influence into southern Italy and the Adriatic.
- Seleucus I Nicator expands his kingdom throughout Persia as far east as India, but his advance is eventually halted by Chandragupta Maurya, the founder of the Maurya dynasty of India. In a pact concluded by the two leaders, Seleucus agrees to territorial concessions in exchange for 500 war-trained elephants .
- Seleucus refounds the town of Orrhoa in northern Mesopotamia as a military colony and mixes Greek settlers with its eastern population. He names Edessa in memory of the ancient capital of Macedon.
- Cassander and Lysimachus persuade Seleucus and Ptolemy to join them in trying to destroy Antigonus.
- Demetrius Poliorcetes occupies Corinth, Sicyon, and Argos in the Peloponnese, and Achaea, Elis and almost all of Arcadia join his side.
- The citizens of Tarentum seek the help of the Spartan general, Cleonymus. He is able to pacify the Lucanians with the agreement of the Romans.
- Following their agreement to work together to defeat Antigonus, Seleucus invades Asia Minor from Babylonia, while Ptolemy attacks Syria and Lysimachus moves into the western part of Asia Minor.
- Docimus, the regent of Phrygia, and Phoenix, the strategos of Lycia, desert Antigonus.
- The Macedonian general, Philetaerus, moves his allegiance from Antigonus to Antigonus' rival, Lysimachus. In return, Lysimachus makes Philetaerus guardian of the fortress of Pergamum with its treasure of some 9,000 talents.
- Antigonus' son Demetrius Poliorcetes attacks Cassander's forces in Thessaly. Cassander loses his possessions south of Thessaly to Demetrius. Antigonus and Demetrius crown their success by renewing the pan-Hellenic league. Ambassadors from all the Hellenic states (with the exception of Sparta, Messenia and Thessaly) meet at Corinth to elect Antigonus and Demetrius protectors of the new league.
- As Antigonus is finding his enemies closing in on him, a truce is made and the gains by Demetrius have to be abandoned. Demetrius reaches Ephesus to support his father.
- Pyrrhus is dethroned as King of Epirus by an uprising and joins Demetrius while in exile.
- In the Battle of Ipsus in Phrygia, the armies of Antigonus, the ruler of Syria, Asia Minor, Phoenicia and Judea, and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes are defeated by the forces of Lysimachus and Seleucus. Antigonus is killed in the battle.
- Antigonus' defeat and death secures Cassander control of Macedonia. Through this victory, Lysimachus is able to add the greater part of Asia Minor to his European possessions while Seleucus now controls most of Syria. However, Demetrius is able to keep a foothold in Greece.
- The southern part of Syria is occupied by Ptolemy.
- Pilgrims travel to the healing temples of Asclepieion to be cured of their ills. After a ritual purification the followers bring offerings or sacrifices.
- Pyrrhus, the King of Epirus, is taken as a hostage to Egypt after the Battle of Ipsus and makes a diplomatic marriage with the princess Antigone, daughter of Ptolemy and Berenice.
- Ptolemy concludes an alliance with King Lysimachus of Thrace and gives him his daughter Arsinoe II in marriage.
- Seleucus founds the city of Antioch, some 20 miles up the Orontes River, naming it after his father.
- After the death of his wife Apama, Seleucus marries Stratonice, daughter of Demetrius Poliorcetes.
- The central texts of Jainism, the Jain scriptures, are recorded (approximate date).
- In Pella (in Macedonia), the artist Gnosis makes a mosaic floor decoration called Stag Hunt and even signs it with "Gnosis made it". It is today preserved at the Archaeological museum in Pella.