30 mm automatic cannon 2A42
2А42 on the Mil Mi-28 helicopter
|Place of origin||Soviet Union|
|Weight||115 kilograms (254 lb)|
|Length||3.027 m (9 ft 11.2 in)|
|Rate of fire||200 to 300 rds/min (low)
550 to 800 rds/min (high)
|Effective firing range||2,500 metres (2,700 yd)|
The 30 mm 2A42 cannon has a dual feed. One is for HE-T and the other for AP-T rounds. The gunner can select one of two rates of full automatic fire, low at 200 to 300 rds/min and high at 550 to 800 rds/min. According to the manufacturer, effective range when engaging ground targets such as light armoured vehicles is 1,500 m while soft-skinned targets can be engaged out to 2,500 m. Air targets can be engaged flying at low altitudes of up to 2,000 m at subsonic speeds and up to a slant range of 2,500 m. In addition to being installed in a two-person turret on the BMP-2 mechanised infantry combat vehicle, this gun is also fitted in the BMD-2 airborne combat vehicle, BMD-3 airborne combat vehicle and BTR-90 (or GAZ-5923) (8 × 8) armoured personnel carrier. A small number of these have now entered service. More recently, the 30 mm 2A42 cannon has been installed in a new turret and fitted onto the roof of the BTR-T heavy armoured personnel carrier based on a modified T-54/T-55 MBT chassis. The cannon is also the main armament of BMPT (Tank Support Fighting Vehicle). It is also used for various armament projects from various manufacturers. The design bureau for the 30 mm 2A42 cannon is the KBP Instrument Design Bureau.
The 2A42 fires 30x165 ammunition, a cartridge introduced in the 1970s in the Soviet Union to replace previous 30 mm autocannon cartridges. Other weapons using this size of cartridge case include the 2A38 and 2A72 autocannons for various vehicle, helicopter and air defence applications, as well as numerous single-, dual- and six-barrel naval and air force cannons. The 2A42, 2A38 and 2A72 fire percussion-primed ammunition; the naval and aerial cannons use electrical priming, and therefore their ammunition is not interchangeable with the land-based ammunition types, despite the same cartridge case size.
Originally three basic types of ammunition were developed in the Soviet Union for the land-based weapons: high explosive incendiary, high explosive fragmentation with tracer, and an armour-piercing ballistic capped with tracer. Later a sub-caliber armour piercing round was introduced, and today also countries other than Soviet Union/Russia manufacture 30x165 percussion-primed ammunition. The main types of ammunition are summarized in the table below:
|Designation||Type||Projectile Weight (g)||Bursting charge (g)||Muzzle Velocity (m/s)||Notes|
|3UOF8||HEI||389 ||49 g||960||A high explosive incendiary round with A-670M nose fuze. The fuze produces a 0.15 millisecond delay on impact, and a self-destruct mechanism detonating the projectile after 7.5 to 14.5 seconds of flight (3900–5300 m distance from muzzle).|
|3UOR6||HE-T||385 ||11.5 g||960||Nose-fuzed high explosive fragmentation tracer round, utilizing the same A-670M impact/self-destruct fuze as the 3UOF8. Tracer burn time 10 to 14 seconds.|
|3UBR6||APBC-T||400 ||none||970||Solid shot with blunt penetrator covered by a hollow windshield cap. Tracer burn time 3.5 seconds. Penetration:|
|3UBR8||APDS||304 ||none||1120||A sub-caliber discarding sabot. No tracer. Penetration:|
|M929||APFSDS-T||?||none||?||A sub-caliber fin-stabilized discarding sabot round with tracer from Belgian Mecar, with tungsten alloy penetrator. Penetration: 55 mm steel at 1,000 m, 45 mm at 2,000 m range.|
The autocannon has been used since the 1980s on the following platforms:
- Infantry fighting vehicles
- Attack helicopters
- Barrels: 1
- Length: 3,027 mm
- Weight: 115 kg
- Rate of fire (sustained): 300 r/min
- Rate of fire (max): 950 r/min
- Armor penetration (60° sloping at 1,000 m): 18–25 mm
- Muzzle velocity : 880 m/s (AP-T) – 1,120 m/s (APDS)
- Effective range
- Light armor: 1,500 m
- Air targets: 3,000 m
- Ground: 2,500 m
- Type: Twin feed, gas operated mechanism
- Calibre: 30 × 165 mm
- Ammunition: APDS, AP-T, HE, HEI, HE-T, HETP-T, TP
- Jane's Ammunition Handbook 2009, "Cannon – 20 to 30 mm cannon."
- Williams, Anthony G: "An introduction to collecting 30 mm cannon ammunition"
- Land Forces Weapons, export catalogue, Rosoboronexport.
- "Russian Ammunition Page, http://www.russianammo.org
- , BMP-2 Fighting Vehicle. Federation of American Scientists
- Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon – A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 271. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.