32 County Sovereignty Movement
|32 County Sovereignty Movement|
|Split from||Sinn Féin|
|Ideology||Physical force Irish republicanism
The 32 County Sovereignty Movement, often abbreviated to 32CSM or 32csm, is an Irish republican group that was founded by Bernadette Sands McKevitt. It does not contest elections, but acts as a pressure group with branches or cumainn organised throughout the traditional counties of Ireland.
The 32CSM has been described as the "political wing" of the Real IRA, but this is denied by both organisations. The group originated in a split from Sinn Féin over the Mitchell Principles.
- "The restoration of Irish national sovereignty".
- "To seek to achieve unity among the Irish people on the issue of restoring national sovereignty and to promote the revolutionary ideals of republicanism and to this end involve itself in resisting all forms of colonialism and imperialism."
- "To seek the immediate and unconditional release of all Irish republican prisoners throughout the world."
The organisation was founded as the 32 County Sovereignty Committee on 7 December 1997 at a meeting of like-minded Republicans in Finglas in Dublin. Those present were opposed to the direction taken by Sinn Féin and other mainstream republican politicians in the peace process, which would lead to the Belfast Agreement (also known as the Good Friday Agreement) the following year. The same division in the republican movement led to the paramilitary group now known as the Real IRA breaking away from the Provisional Irish Republican Army at around the same time.
Most of its founders had been members of Sinn Féin; some had been expelled from the party for challenging the leadership's direction, while others felt they had not been properly able to air their concerns within Sinn Féin at the direction its leadership had taken. Bernadette Sands McKevitt, a sister of hunger striker Bobby Sands and wife of Michael McKevitt, was a prominent member of the group until a split in the organisation.
The name refers to the 32 counties of Ireland which were created during the Lordship of Ireland and the Kingdom of Ireland. With the partition of Ireland in 1920–22, twenty-six of these counties formed the Irish Free State which became the Republic of Ireland; the remaining six counties of Northern Ireland remain part of the United Kingdom.
Before the referendums on the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, the 32CSM lodged a legal submission with the United Nations challenging British sovereignty in Ireland. The referendums were opposed by the 32CSM, but were supported by 71% of voters in Northern Ireland and by 94% in the Republic of Ireland.
In November 2005 the 32CSM launched a political initiative titled Irish Democracy, A Framework For Unity.
In July 2014, a delegation from the 32 County Sovereignty Movement traveled to Canada, to take part in a six-day-long speaking tour. On arrival the delegation was detained and refused entry into Canada.
The 32CSM have protested against what they call "Internment by Remand" in the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.
Other protests include ones against former Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) leader Ian Paisley; in Cobh, Co. Cork, against former British Prime Minister John Major being given the Keys to Cork City, against a visit to the Republic of Ireland by Police Service of Northern Ireland head Sir Hugh Orde, and against the Israeli occupation of Palestine and Anglo-American occupation of Iraq.
In 2015, the 32CSM organised a demonstration in Dundee, Scotland in solidarity with the men convicted of stabbing Constable Stephen Carroll, the first police officer to be killed in Northern Ireland since the formation of the PSNI. The organisation says the "Craigavon Two" are innocent and have been victims of a miscarriage of justice.
The 32 County Sovereignty Movement has often been critical of the Real IRA's military actions. However, the group is currently considered a foreign terrorist organization (FTO) in the United States, since the group is considered to be inseparable from the Real IRA, who are designated as an FTO. At a briefing in 2001, the spokesman for US Department of State stated that "evidence provided by both the British and Irish governments and open source materials demonstrate clearly that the individuals who created the Real IRA also established these two entities to serve as the public face of the Real IRA. These alias organizations engage in propaganda and fundraising on behalf of and in collaboration with the Real IRA." The US Department of State's designation made it illegal for Americans to provide material support to the Real IRA, requires US financial institutions to block the group's assets and denies alleged RIRA members visas into the US.
- "Alan Ryan commemoration 2014". 32csm.com. 6 September 2014.
- "The bombers have blown a hole in more than the BBC". The Guardian. 5 March 2001.
- "Links with terror group rejected". BBC. 17 August 1997.
- http://www.redpepper.org.uk/natarch/xLondon-dirtywar.html[dead link]
- "My secret meeting with Real IRA", Daily Mail
- Irish press example
- "CAIN: Abstracts of Organisations - 'T'". Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- Horgan, John (2013). Divided We Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland's Dissident Terrorists. Oxford University Press. p. 185. ISBN 9780199772858.
- Morrison, John (2013). The Origins and Rise of Dissident Irish Republicanism: The Role and Impact of Organizational Splits. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 149. ISBN 9781623566777.
- Horgan, John (2013). Divided We Stand: The Strategy and Psychology of Ireland's Dissident Terrorists. Oxford University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9780199772858.
- Morrison, John (2013). The Origins and Rise of Dissident Irish Republicanism: The Role and Impact of Organizational Splits. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. p. 159. ISBN 9781623566777.
- Submission to the UN
- "Gary Donnelly elected in Derry & Strabane". BBC. 24 May 2014.
- "Dissident republican Gary Donnelly takes Derry and Strabane super council seat and faces IRA bomb motion". The Belfast Telegraph. 12 June 2014.
- "Canadian detention a ‘political decision’ – Francis Mackey". Ulster Herald. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
- Dinnie, Steven (24 January 2015). "VIDEO: Tempers flare at Irish republican protest in Dundee". Retrieved 24 January 2015.
- After the Omagh bomb attack, the organisation issued a statement saying "the killing of innocent people could not be justified," and that it was "deeply saddened and devastated" by the attack. From "Links with terror group rejected", BBC News, 17 August 1998
- US Department of State, Office of Counterterrorism Fact sheet 2005
- "Real IRA designated terrorists". The Telegraph. 17 May 2001.
- US Department of State, Real IRA Designation (Taken question)