36th United States Congress

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36th United States Congress
35th ← → 37th
Capitol under const 1860.jpg
United States Capitol (1860)

Duration: March 4, 1859 – March 4, 1861

Senate President: John C. Breckinridge
Senate Pres. pro tem: Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Jesse D. Bright
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Solomon Foot
House Speaker: William Pennington
Members: 66 Senators
238 Representatives
5 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic Party
Republican Party
House Majority: Republican-led coalition

Sessions
Special: March 4, 1859 – March 10, 1859
1st: December 5, 1859 – June 26, 1860
Special: June 26, 1860 – June 28, 1860
2nd: December 3, 1860 – March 4, 1861

The Thirty-sixth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1859 to March 4, 1861, during the third and fourth years of James Buchanan's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. The Senate had a Democratic majority, and the House had a Republican plurality.

Contents

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Resolutions[edit]

  • February 11, 1861: The U.S. House unanimously passed a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state[citation needed]

Not enacted[edit]

Treaties[edit]

States admitted and territories organized[edit]

Party summary[edit]

Senate[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
American
(A)
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of the previous congress 19 25 22 0 66 0
Begin 2 38 23 0 63 3
End 1 26 28 55 13
Final voting share 1.8% 47.3% 50.9% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 0 23 29 (Unionist)
1
53 15
Group photo of the U.S. House of Representatives, in 1860, during this Congress.

House of Representatives[edit]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates plurality, then majority, caucus)
Total
American
(A)
Democratic
(D)
Anti-Lecompton
Democratic

(ALD)
Independent
Democratic
(ID)
Republican
(R)
Opposition
(O)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 14 130 0 1 92 0 0 237 0
Begin 6 84 8 7 113 17 0 235 2
End 5 58 7 116 16 209 29
Final voting share 2.4% 27.8% 3.3% 3.3% 55.5% 7.7% 0.0%
Beginning of next Congress 0 44 0 1 108 0 (Unionist +
Constitutional
Unionist
)

25
178 62

Leadership[edit]

President of the Senate
John C. Breckinridge

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

President pro tempore
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
President pro tempore
Solomon Foot

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1860.

House of Representatives[edit]

Speaker of the House
William Pennington

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • Replacements: 4
  • Deaths: 1
  • Resignations: 1
  • Interim appointments: 1
  • Withdrawals: 13
  • Total seats with changes: 16
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Oregon
(2)
Vacant Successor elected late due to legislature's failure to elect Edward D. Baker (R) October 2, 1860
California
(1)
David C. Broderick (D) Died September 16, 1859
Interim successor was appointed to continue the term
Henry P. Haun (D) November 3, 1859
Texas
(1)
Matthias Ward (D) Interim appointee lost nomination to finish the term
Successor elected to finish the term
Louis Wigfall (D) December 5, 1859
California
(1)
Henry P. Haun (D) Interim appointee lost election to finish the term
Successor was elected to finish the term
Milton Latham (D) March 5, 1860
South Carolina
(2)
James Chesnut, Jr. (D) Withdrew November 10, 1860 Vacant Not filled this Congress
South Carolina
(3)
James H. Hammond (D) Withdrew November 11, 1860 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Mississippi
(2)
Albert G. Brown (D) Withdrew January 12, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Maine
(1)
Hannibal Hamlin (R) Resigned January 17, 1861 to become Vice President of the United States
Successor elected to finish the term
Lot M. Morrill (R) January 17, 1861
Alabama
(3)
Benjamin Fitzpatrick (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Alabama
(2)
Clement C. Clay (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Florida
(1)
Stephen Mallory (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Florida
(3)
David L. Yulee (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Mississippi
(1)
Jefferson Davis (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Georgia
(3)
Alfred Iverson, Sr. (D) Withdrew January 28, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Kansas
(2)
New seat New state admitted to the Union January 29, 1861
Senator was not elected until the next Congress
Vacant Not filled this Congress
Kansas
(3)
New seat New state admitted to the Union January 29, 1861
Senator was not elected until the next Congress
Vacant Not filled this Congress
Georgia
(2)
Robert Toombs (D) Withdrew February 4, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Louisiana
(2)
Judah P. Benjamin (D) Withdrew February 4, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Louisiana
(3)
John Slidell (D) Withdrew February 4, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress
Tennessee
(2)
Alfred O. P. Nicholson (D) Withdrew March 3, 1861 Vacant Not filled this Congress

House of Representatives[edit]

  • Deaths: 4
  • Resignations: 3
  • Contested election: 1
  • Withdrawals: 28
  • Total seats with changes: 41


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Illinois 6th Vacant Vacancy in term John A. McClernand (D) Seated November 8, 1859
Kentucky 5th Vacant Brown could not take seat because he had not yet attained age required by the US Constitution John Y. Brown (D) Seated December 3, 1860
Ohio 14th Cyrus Spink (R) Died May 31, 1859 Harrison G. O. Blake (R) Seated October 11, 1859
Virginia 4th William Goode (D) Died July 3, 1859 Roger A. Pryor (D) Seated December 7, 1859
Michigan 1st George B. Cooper (D) Lost contested election May 15, 1860 Francis P. Blair, Jr. (R) Seated May 15, 1860
Nebraska Territory At-large Experience Estabrook Lost contested election May 18, 1860 Samuel G. Daily (R) Seated May 18, 1860
New York 31st Silas M. Burroughs (R) Died June 3, 1860 Edwin R. Reynolds (R) Seated December 5, 1860
Missouri 1st John R. Barret (D) Lost contested election June 8, 1860 William A. Howard (R) Seated June 8, 1860
Pennsylvania 8th John Schwartz (ALD) Died June 20, 1860 Jacob K. McKenty (D) Seated December 3, 1860
Missouri 1st William A. Howard (R) Resigned June 25, 1860 John R. Barret (R) Seated December 3, 1860
Mississippi 1st Lucius Q. C. Lamar II (D) Retired December ???, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 3rd Laurence M. Keitt (D) Retired December ???, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 1st John McQueen (D) Retired December 21, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 2nd William P. Miles (D) Retired December 21, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 4th Milledge L. Bonham (D) Retired December 21, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 5th John D. Ashmore (D) Retired December 21, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
South Carolina 6th William W. Boyce (D) Retired December 21, 1860 Vacant Not filled this term
Maine 5th Israel Washburn, Jr. (R) Resigned January 1, 1861 after being elected Governor of Maine Stephen Coburn (R) Seated January 2, 1861
Mississippi 2nd Reuben Davis (D) Withdrew January 12, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Mississippi 3rd William Barksdale (D) Withdrew January 12, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Mississippi 4th Otho R. Singleton (D) Withdrew January 12, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Mississippi 5th John J. McRae (D) Withdrew January 12, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 1st James A. Stallworth (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 1st James A. Stallworth (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 2nd James L. Pugh (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 3rd David Clopton (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 4th Sydenham Moore (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 5th George S. Houston (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Alabama 7th Jabez L. M. Curry (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Florida At-large George S. Hawkins (D) Withdrew January 21, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 1st Peter E. Love (D) Retired January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 2nd Martin J. Crawford (D) Withdrew January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 3rd Thomas Hardeman, Jr. (O) Withdrew January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 4th Lucius J. Gartrell (D) Retired January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 5th John W. H. Underwood (D) Withdrew January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 6th James Jackson (D) Retired January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 7th Joshua Hill (KN) Resigned January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 8th John J. Jones (D) Withdrew January 23, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Kansas Territory At-large Marcus J. Parrott (R) Kansas was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861 Seat eliminated
Kansas At-large New Seat Kansas was admitted to the Union January 29, 1861 Martin F. Conway (R) Seated November 8, 1859
Alabama 6th Williamson R. W. Cobb (D) Withdrew January 30, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term
Louisiana 2nd Miles Taylor (D) Withdrew February 5, 1861 Vacant Not filled this term

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "1860 Democratic Convention Number 1 - Charleston, South Carolina". Usgovinfo.about.com. 2010-06-19. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  2. ^ a b c "1860 Democratic National Convention". Blueandgraytrail.com. 2006-08-19. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  3. ^ "Constitutional Union party Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Constitutional Union party". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  4. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of South Carolina". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  5. ^ "The Delaware Legislature.; Reception Of The Secession Commissioner From Mississippi". The New York Times. January 4, 1861. 
  6. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of Mississippi". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  7. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of Florida". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  8. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of Alabama". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  9. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of Georgia". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  10. ^ "Ordinance of Secession of Louisiana". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  11. ^ a b "Ordinance of Secession of Texas". Csawardept.com. Retrieved 2011-12-05. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]