38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (United States)
The 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade provided an air defense umbrella throughout the Republic of Korea from 25 May 1961 to 31 July 1981. It existed as a coast artillery brigade in World War One and Two.
|38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade|
|Active||1918–19, 1933–45, 1951–53, 1961–81|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Type||Air defense artillery|
|Part of||Eighth United States Army|
|Garrison/HQ||Osan Air Base|
|Motto||"By Valor and Power"|
|Surface to air missiles||MIM-23 Hawk
|Decorations||Air Force Outstanding Unit Award|
|Campaign streamers||Normandy, Ardennes-Alsace, Rhineland, Northern France, and Central Europe|
|Distinctive unit insignia|
World War I
The 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade was constituted in June 1918 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 38th Artillery Brigade in Camp Eustis, Virginia (now Fort Eustis). The unit later sailed to Brest, France and was assigned to Services and Supply. It remained there until the end of World War I when it returned to the United States for demobilization at Fort Monroe, Virginia in February 1919.
Fourteen years later, in October 1933, the unit was reconstituted as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 38th Coast Artillery Brigade.
World War II
It underwent another reorganization in September 1943, when it became Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 38th Anti-Aircraft Brigade. The 38th Anti-Aircraft Brigade won campaign streamers for participation in the Normandy, Ardennes-Alsace, Rhineland, Northern France and Central Europe Campaigns. At the end of the war (1945), the 38th Anti-Aircraft Brigade was inactivated in Germany.
The brigade was re-activated in March 1951 at Fort Bliss, Texas, where it remained until inactivation in May 1953. At that time, the unit's personnel and equipment were transferred to the new 1st Guided Missile Brigade.:131
The unit was re-designated as Headquarters and Headquarters Battery, 38th Artillery Brigade (Air Defense) on 20 March 1961, and with the assignment of air defense battalions and missile systems was activated in the Pacific area. The brigade was under the operational control of Commander, Air Force Korea and had operational command and control of U.S. and South Korean air defense forces in Korea.
On 15 March 1972, the brigade was re-designated 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade. The brigade headquarters, along with the headquarters of the 314th Air Division and the Republic of Korea (ROK) Air Force were collocated at Osan Air Base.
The 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, along with the 1st Battalion, 2nd ADA was inactivated in July 1981 and its HAWK missile systems and associated "equipment held by the US units were transferred cost-free to the Republic of Korea Army, who assumed primary responsibility for the air defense mission.”:iii
The only surviving battalion, "2nd Bn, 71st ADA, whose sector covers the northern reaches of the ROK, was reassigned on 16 July 1981 to the US Army Elm [sic], Combined Field Army (ROK/US), pending transfer of its weapon/equipment and missions to ROKA in mid-1982. On 31 July 1981, following over 20 years of air defense coverage for the ROK, the 38th ADA Brigade's Headquarters was inactivated at Osan AB. An enormously important task bearing directly on the security environment of the Korean Peninsula had been successfully completed.":149
Inactivation ceremony brochure
|38th ADA Brigade, Inactivation Ceremony, 15 July 1981, Osan Air Base, Korea|
At the time of its inactivation, the brigade comprised the following units:
|Headquarters & Headquarters Battery||1st Battalion (HAWK), 2nd ADA:33
7th Battalion (HAWK), 2nd ADA:47
|7th Battalion (HAWK), 5th Artillery
Hawk Missile B-7-5
|2nd Battalion (HERC), 44th ADA
4th Battalion (HERC), 44th ADA
Links: Camp Echo Hill
Site C-4-44 Korea
|1st Battalion (HAWK), 44th ADA
6th Battalion (HAWK), 44th ADA
Links: B-6-44 ADA
|2nd Battalion (HAWK), 71st ADA
Shoulder sleeve insignia
Centered vertically on a shield 2 inches (5.08 cm) in width and 2 3/4 inches (6.99 cm) in height divided from upper left to lower right the upper portion red and the lower yellow with a 1/8 inch (.32 cm) border, a white gauntleted fist grasping a lightning bolt yellow above and red below.
The partition line represents the division of the Korean Peninsula by the DMZ. The gauntlet represents the protection offered by the Brigade, the lightning bolt the swift retaliation against any hostile air attack. The colors, red and yellow, are for the Air Defense Artillery.
The shoulder sleeve insignia was originally approved for the 38th Artillery Brigade on 2 June 1961. It was redesignated for the 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade on 3 April 1972. (TIOH Dwg. No. A-1-281)
Distinctive unit insignia
A gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height consisting of Yang Ying symbol in the colors of the Republic of Korea surmounted by a gold fleur-de-lis with the center stem extending over the top and behind a gold scroll at base inscribed in black “BY VALOR AND POWER.”
Scarlet and gold are for Air Defense Artillery and the fleur-de-lis and blue are used to represent France and denote the unit’s service there during World War I. The Yang Ying symbol or Taeguk is from the Korean flag and refers to the organization’s service during that war, while the silhouette of the device simulates a helmet and alludes to the unit’s origin and descent from the 38th Coast Artillery which had a helmet on its badge.
The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 38th Artillery Brigade on 7 February 1967. It was redesignated for the 38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade on 3 April 1972.
- 2nd Air Defense Artillery Regiment (United States)
- 5th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
- 44th Air Defense Artillery Regiment (United States)
- 71st Air Defense Artillery Regiment (United States)
- For a list of Coast Artillery Corps units serving in World War One, see "History of United States Army Coast Artillery Corps During World War I". Freepages.military.rootsweb.ancestry.com. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Rinaldi, Richard (30 November 2004). The US Army In World War I: Orders Of Battle. Tiger Lily Publications LLC. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-9720296-4-3. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
- "NavSource Naval History". Navsource.org. 7 December 1941. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- For general information on this campaign, see "Normandy". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 22 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "Department of the Army General Order No. 63: Units Entitled to Battle Credits". U.S. Army. September 20, 1948. p. 8. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- For general information on this campaign, see "Ardennes-Alsace". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- For general information on this campaign, see "Northern France". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- For general information on this campaign, see "Central Europe". U.S. Army Center of Military History. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- Hamilton, John A. (13 May 2009). Blazing Skies: Air Defense Artillery on Fort Bliss, Texas, 1940–2009. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-086949-5.
- "Lessons Learned, Headquarters, 38th Artillery Brigade". Adjutant General's Office (U.S. Army). 15 August 1970.
- McKenney, Janice E. (1985). Air Defense Artillery. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army.
- "Department of the Army General Order No. 8". U.S. Army. March 18, 1982. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "314 Air Division". Afhra.af.mil. Retrieved 20 May 2011.
- "USFK/EUSA Annual Historical Report". History Branch, Secretary of the Joint Staff, USFK. 1981. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- The United States- Republic of Korea Combined Field Army was disbanded in 1990. "U.S. Forces, Korea / Combined Forces Command". GlobalSecurity.org. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 21 May 2013. The website of Combined Forces Command, a successor to Combined Field Army, is "Combined Forces Command". United States Forces Korea. USFK Public Affairs Office.
- "38th Air Defense Artillery Brigade". The Institute of Heraldry (U.S. Army).
- Cole, Ronald H., Lorna S. Jaffe, Walter S. Poole, Willard J. Webb. (1995). "The Chairmanship of the Joint Chiefs of Staff". Joint History Office, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. p. 73.