Land attack cruise missile
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Used by||See users|
|Manufacturer||Novator Design Bureau|
|Weight||Varies on variant, from 1,300 kg-1780 kg- 2300 kg|
|Length||Varies on variant, from 8.22 m to 6.2 m|
|Engine||Multi-stage Solid-Fuel rocket, Turbojet engine for 3M-54/E/TE/E1/TE1, -14/E/TE, Solid fuel rocket for 91RE1/RTE2|
|Varies on variant, maximum range is 300 km|
|Flight altitude||10-15 m|
|Inertial and Active Radar Homing|
|naval ships, submarines|
The Russian 3M-54 is a Russian surface ship and submarine-launched anti-ship missile developed by the Novator Design Bureau (OKB-8). Its United States Department of Defense (DOD) designation is "SS-N-27A" with the NATO codename of "Sizzler". Derived export versions are the 3M-54E and the 3M-54E1. The 3M-54E has a DOD designation, the SS-N-27B; (it does not have a NATO codename). The 3M-54 and 3M-54E, in their final stage, make a supersonic "sprint" to the target, reducing the time that target's defense systems have to react. The 3M-54E1 has the capability of subsonic speed in its whole flight. Its range is longer than that of the 3M-54E.
The name of "Klub" is used for export versions, the 3M-54E and 3M54E1.
The missile is a modular system with five different variants: two anti-shipping types, one for land attack, and two with an anti-submarine role. The missile is designed to share common parts between the surface and submarine-launched variants. But each missile consists of different components, for example, the booster. The missile can be launched from a surface ship using a Vertical Launched System (VLS). It has a booster with thrust vectoring capability. The missile launched from a submarine has no need for such an addition, but has a conventional booster instead.
Terminal supersonic flight
The Russian domestic variant (3M-54) and export variants (3M-54E/3M-54TE) fly at sub-sonic speeds while achieving supersonic speed as they near their target. They are also believed to be able to perform very high angled defensive maneuvers in contrast to the common linear flight path of other anti-ship cruise missiles.
Domestic variants are basic versions of this missile family; these are the 3M-54 and 3M-14. The export model is called the "Klub". There are two major launch vehicles: the Klub-S, designed for use from submarines, and the Klub-N, designed for surface ships. These two launch platforms can be equipped with the following warhead and guidance combinations:
- 3M-54 - DOD designation SS-N-27A (NATO codename "Sizzler"). An anti-shipping variant deployed by the Russian Navy, as a submarine launched missile, Its basic length is 8.22 m (27.0 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 440–660 km (270–410 mi). It is a Sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage; its speed is then Mach 2.9.
- 3M-54T - DOD designation SS-N-27A (NATO codename also "Sizzler"). The anti-shipping variant is deployed by the Russian Navy, in a surface ship with a VLS launched system and a thrust vectoring booster; its Basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-54.
- 3M-14 - DOD designation SS-N-30A. An Inertial guidance land attack variant deployed by the Russian Navy. The submarine-launched weapon has a basic length of 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 600–900 km (370–560 mi). Its subsonic terminal speed is Mach 0.8.
- 3M-14T - DOD designation SS-N-30A; is the Inertial guidance land attack variant which is deployed by the Russian Navy. A surface ship with VLS launched missile, with thrust vectoring booster, its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance are the same as the 3M-14.
- 3M-54E - DOD designation SS-N-27B is the submarine launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 8.2 m (27 ft), with a 200 kg (440 lb) warhead. Its range is 220 km; (note that its range is less than the 3M-54). It is a sea-skimmer with a supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 4.6 metres (15 ft) at its final stage is 2.9 mach.
- 3M-54E1 - No DOD designation; is a submarine-launched anti-shipping variant, Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 400 kg (880 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It is a sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach. It is allegedly capable of disabling or even sinking an aircraft carrier.
- 3M-14E - DOD designation SS-N-30B. An inertially guided land attack variant; it is launched from a submarine. Its basic length is 6.2 m (20 ft), with a 450 kg (990 lb) warhead. Its range is 300 km (190 mi). It has a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach.
- 91RE1 - No DOD designation. A submarine-launched anti-submarine variant, it consists of two stages, one solid booster with four grid fins and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 7.65 m (25.1 ft), it has a range of 50 km (31 mi). It can reach supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). It is similar to the American ASROC/SUBROC missile/torpedo system. It follows a ballistic path on the surface, with a speed of Mach 2.5.
- 3M-54TE - DOD designation SS-N-27B. A surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant; with a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m, its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E. Its range is less than the 3M-54. It is a sea-skimmer with supersonic terminal speed and a flight altitude of 15 feet (4.6 m) at its final stage, when it has a speed of 2.9 mach.
- 3M-54TE1 - No DOD designation. A surface ship with VLS anti-shipping variant, with thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performance is the same as the 3M-54E1. A sea-skimmer with a subsonic terminal speed of 0.8 mach. It is also allegedly capable of disabling or even sinking an aircraft carrier.
- 3M-14TE - DOD designation SS-N-30B. An inertially guided land attack variant. It is a surface ship with VLS missile and a thrust vectoring booster. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), its warhead weight and other performances are the same as the 3M-14E. Its subsonic terminal speed is 0.8 mach.
- 91RTE2 - No DOD designation. A surface ship with the VLS launched anti-submarine variant; it consists of three stages, one booster with thrust vector nozzle, one conventional booster, and one anti-submarine light torpedo. Its basic length is 8.9 m (29 ft), with a range of 40 km (25 mi) at supersonic speed. The torpedo has a warhead weight of 76 kg (168 lb). The lightest of all variants, with a launch weight of 1,300 kg (2,900 lb). Speed is Mach 2.
China has developed a family of anti ship missiles designated as YJ-18. Capabilities extended range over the 300 km limit imposed by Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). Satellite navigation update was added. The most important feature, however, is its anti-radar role as an Aegis-killer for China. This is achieved by replacing the high explosive warhead of anti-shipping role (AShM) with an electromagnetic pulse warhead that is claimed to be able to take down up to sixty percent of the enemy ship's electronic systems at a range of fifty meters after detonating.
- YJ-18 - The first model of YJ-18 is a weapon deployed from vertical launch systems onboard submarines, but later models can also be launched conventionally from various platforms such as aircraft, vehicle and surface ships. The mixed speed version travels at a speed of Mach 0.8 for 180 kilometers, after which it activates its solid rocket boosters to achieve a cruising speed of Mach 2.5 - Mach 3.0 for the final 40 kilometers of the attack. The missile can execute maneuvers of up to 10 g. It uses inertial guidance updated with COMPASS navigation system and active radar homing for final attack phase. It carries a 300 kg warhead. Data link is also added because as the range of the subsonic version increased, targets moving at high speed at the time of the launch of the missile might move out of the range of the radar seeker of the missile when the missile finally reaches the location of targets, so targeting information update is needed to steer the missile during its flight toward the new location of the target. The missile is currently deployed on the Type 052D destroyer, J-16, J-15, J-11B, JH-7A, submarines, H-6G/K, and Su-30MKK.
The Russian Kilo class submarine is the primary launch platform for the missile. The future Russian Lada class and its variants should also be able to launch this weapon. The Indian Talwar class frigate is another primary shipborne launch platform for the missile. The Akula-class submarine and the new Graney-class submarine and the new Yasen-class submarine can also launch it. The new Russian Admiral Sergei Gorshkov class frigates and the second batch of Steregushchy class frigates use the same UKSK VLS as the Talwar class frigates, and are also able to carry these missiles.
In addition, it is believed by some analysts that an air-launched variant will be developed to arm the Tu-142s currently in service with both the Russian and Indian Navies; it is also anticipated that the Tu-22M3 operated by the Indian Navy will be equipped with the missile. A truck mounted version is planned for development by the Novator Design Bureau.
A Klub-K variant, which is disguised as a shipping container that can be placed on a truck, train, or merchant vessel, was advertised in 2010 and was shown for the first time at the MAKS 2011 air show. Putting the launcher system into a standard shipping container allows the missiles to be moved and stored without arousing suspicion, which in turn renders pre-emptive strikes very difficult.
- Russia: The Russian Navy uses the 3M54 and the 3M14. Submarine launched variants are used by Kilo-class submarine, Lada-class submarine, Akula-class submarine, and the Yasen-class submarine. Surface ship launched variants are used by the Gremyashchy, Buyan-M class, Gorshkov class and the Grigorovich class frigates.
- Algeria: The Algerian National Navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for their four Kilo class submarines.
- India: The Indian Navy uses both 'Klub-S' and 'Klub-N' variants for the Kilo class submarines (known as the Sindhughosh Class in Indian service), the Shivalik class and the Talwar class frigates respectively.
- Vietnam: The Vietnam People's navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for its six Kilo class submarines.
- China: The People's Liberation Army Navy uses the 'Klub-S' variant for its Kilo class submarines.
- Iran: Contradictory sources indicate that the Iranian Navy is thought to have purchased or is about to purchase, 'Klub-S' missiles for its three Kilo class submarines.
- Malaysia:Some news reported that Malaysian has ordered Klub K land based missiles system
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- strategypage.com - Arming Container Ships With Anti-Ship Missiles
- YJ-18 missile
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- Newsweek, article “China’s Carrier Killers”, Oct. 4, 2010
- Strategy Page, article Iranian Submarine Launched Missiles, Aug. 30, 2006
- NTI, article Iran Submarine Import and Export Behavior, Aug. 8, 2012
- http://www.concern-agat.com/index.php producer
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