4×400 metres relay at the Olympics

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4 × 400 metres relay
at the Olympic Games
Relais 4x400 m Jeux olympiques 2008.jpg
The 2008 Olympic men's 4×400 m relay final
Overview
Sport Athletics
Gender Men and women
Years held Men: 19122012
Women: 19722012
Olympic record
Men 2:55.39  United States (USA) (2008)
Women 3:15.17  Soviet Union (URS) (1988)
Reigning champion
Men  Bahamas (BAH)
Women  United States (USA)

The 4×400 metres relay at the Summer Olympics is the longest track relay event held at the multi-sport event. The men's relay has been present on the Olympic athletics programme since 1912 and the women's event has been continuously held since the 1972 Olympics. It is the most prestigious 4×400 m relay race at elite level. At the 1908 Summer Olympics, a precursor to this event was held – the 1600 m medley relay. This event, with two legs of 200 m, one of 400 m, and a final leg of 800 m, was the first track relay in Olympic history.[1]

The competition has two parts: a first round and an eight-team final. Historically, there has been a semi-final round, but this has been eliminated as selection is now determined by time – the sixteen fastest nations during a pre-Olympic qualification period are entered. Since 1984, teams may enter up to six athletes for the event. Larger nations typically have two reserves runners in the first round in order to preserve the fitness of their top runners for the final. Heat runners of medal-winning teams receive medals even if they did not run in the final.

The Olympic records for the event are 2:55.39 minutes for men, set by the United States in 2008, and 3:15.17 minutes for women, set by the Soviet Union in 1988. The women's record is also the world record for the 4×400 metres relay. The first two women's Olympic finals (1972 and 1976) resulted in new world records for the winning East German teams. The men's world record has been profoundly shaped by Olympic competition with ten records set (1912, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1952, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1988, and 1992) – the record has only been broken twice in a 4×400 m relay race outside of the multi-sport event.[2]

The United States is by far the most dominant nation in the event. The country has won the men's race 16 times and the women's race on six occasions. The American have finished in the top two at all but three Olympics (fourth in 1920, non-starters in 1972, and boycotted in 1980). The team won the 2000 Olympic gold medals, but were stripped of these due to doping bans for Antonio Pettigrew and Jerome Young.[3] The American women have accrued five straight victories, remaining unbeaten since the 1992 Olympics. As of 2012, no other country has won more than two golds in the event. Great Britain (two wins, thirteen medals) and Jamaica (one win, eight medals) and the Soviet Union (three wins, four medals) are the next most successful nations.[4][5]

Participants in this event are often competitors in the 400 metres and 400 metres hurdles individual Olympic events (and, less commonly, the 800 metres and 200 metres). Marion Jones was stripped of her Olympic medal from the 2000 Sydney Olympics, but the American result was allowed to stand and the remainder of the team are still listed as gold medallists.[6] Another American runner, Crystal Cox, was stripped of her 2004 Olympic title for doping offences, but again the American team remain champions.[7] Sanya Richards-Ross is the most successful athlete in the event, having three straight wins from 2004 to 2012. Americans Steve Lewis and Jeremy Wariner are the only men to win the title twice and Chris Brown of the Bahamas is the only man to reach the podium three times.

Medal summary[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1912 Stockholm
details
 United States (USA)
Mel Sheppard
Edward Lindberg
Ted Meredith
Charles Reidpath
 France (FRA)
Charles Lelong
Robert Schurrer
Pierre Failliot
Charles Poulenard
 Great Britain (GBR)
George Nicol
Ernest Henley
James Soutter
Cyril Seedhouse
1920 Antwerp
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Cecil Griffiths
Robert Lindsay
John Ainsworth-Davis
Guy Butler
 South Africa (RSA)
Henry Dafel
Clarence Oldfield
Jack Oosterlaak
Bevil Rudd
 France (FRA)
Géo André
Gaston Féry
Maurice Delvart
André Devaux
1924 Paris
details
 United States (USA)
Commodore Cochran
Alan Helffrich
Oliver MacDonald
William Stevenson
 Sweden (SWE)
Artur Svensson
Erik Byléhn
Gustaf Weijnarth
Nils Engdahl
 Great Britain (GBR)
Edward Toms
George Renwick
Richard Ripley
Guy Butler
1928 Amsterdam
details
 United States (USA)
George Baird
Emerson Spencer
Fred Alderman
Ray Barbuti
 Germany (GER)
Otto Neumann
Harry Werner Storz
Richard Krebs
Hermann Engelhard
 Canada (CAN)
Alex Wilson
Phil Edwards
Stanley Glover
James Ball
1932 Los Angeles
details
 United States (USA)
Ivan Fuqua
Edgar Ablowich
Karl Warner
Bill Carr
 Great Britain (GBR)
Crew Stoneley
Tommy Hampson
David Burghley
Godfrey Rampling
 Canada (CAN)
Ray Lewis
James Ball
Phil Edwards
Alex Wilson
1936 Berlin
details
 Great Britain (GBR)
Freddie Wolff
Godfrey Rampling
Bill Roberts
Godfrey Brown
 United States (USA)
Harold Cagle
Robert Young
Edward O’Brien
Alfred Fitch
 Germany (GER)
Helmut Hamann
Friedrich von Stülpnagel
Harry Voigt
Rudolf Harbig
1948 London
details
 United States (USA)
Arthur Harnden
Cliff Bourland
Roy Cochran
Mal Whitfield
 France (FRA)
Jean Kerebel
Francis Schewetta
Robert Chef d’Hotel
Jacques Lunis
 Sweden (SWE)
Kurt Lundquist
Lars Wolfbrandt
Folke Alnevik
Rune Larsson
1952 Helsinki
details
 Jamaica (JAM)
Arthur Wint
Leslie Laing
Herb McKenley
George Rhoden
 United States (USA)
Ollie Matson
Gerald Cole
Charles Moore
Mal Whitfield
 Germany (GER)
Hans Geister
Günther Steines
Heinz Ulzheimer
Karl-Friedrich Haas
1956 Melbourne
details
 United States (USA)
Charles Jenkins
Lou Jones
Jesse Mashburn
Tom Courtney
 Australia (AUS)
Graham Gipson
Leon Gregory
David Lean
Kevan Gosper
 Great Britain (GBR)
Peter Higgins
Michael Wheeler
John Salisbury
Derek Johnson
1960 Rome
details
 United States (USA)
Jack Yerman
Earl Young
Glenn Davis
Otis Davis
 Germany (EUA)
Joachim Reske
Manfred Kinder
Johannes Kaiser
Carl Kaufmann
 British West Indies (BWI)
Malcolm Spence
James Wedderburn
Keith Gardner
George Kerr
1964 Tokyo
details
 United States (USA)
Ollan Cassell
Mike Larrabee
Ulis Williams
Henry Carr
 Great Britain (GBR)
Tim Graham
Adrian Metcalfe
John Cooper
Robbie Brightwell
 Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Edwin Skinner
Kent Bernard
Edwin Roberts
Wendell Mottley
1968 Mexico City
details
 United States (USA)
Vincent Matthews
Ron Freeman
Larry James
Lee Evans
 Kenya (KEN)
Daniel Rudisha
Munyoro Nyamau
Naftali Bon
Charles Asati
 West Germany (FRG)
Helmar Müller
Manfred Kinder
Gerhard Hennige
Martin Jellinghaus
1972 Munich
details
 Kenya (KEN)
Charles Asati
Munyoro Nyamau
Robert Ouko
Julius Sang
 Great Britain (GBR)
Martin Reynolds
Alan Pascoe
David Hemery
David Jenkins
 France (FRA)
Gilles Bertould
Daniel Velasques
Francis Kerbiriou
Jacques Carette
1976 Montreal
details
 United States (USA)
Herman Frazier
Benny Brown
Fred Newhouse
Maxie Parks
 Poland (POL)
Ryszard Podlas
Jan Werner
Zbigniew Jaremski
Jerzy Pietrzyk
 West Germany (FRG)
Franz-Peter Hofmeister
Lothar Krieg
Harald Schmid
Bernd Herrmann
1980 Moscow
details
 Soviet Union (URS)
Remigijus Valiulis
Mikhail Linge
Nikolay Chernetskiy
Viktor Markin
 East Germany (GDR)
Klaus Thiele
Andreas Knebel
Frank Schaffer
Volker Beck
 Italy (ITA)
Stefano Malinverni
Mauro Zuliani
Roberto Tozzi
Pietro Mennea
1984 Los Angeles
details
 United States (USA)
Sunder Nix
Ray Armstead
Alonzo Babers
Antonio McKay
 Great Britain (GBR)
Kriss Akabusi
Garry Cook
Todd Bennett
Philip Brown
 Nigeria (NGR)
Sunday Uti
Moses Ugbusien
Rotimi Peters
Innocent Egbunike
1988 Seoul
details
 United States (USA)
Danny Everett
Steve Lewis
Kevin Robinzine
Butch Reynolds
 Jamaica (JAM)
Howard Davis
Devon Morris
Winthrop Graham
Bertland Cameron
 West Germany (FRG)
Norbert Dobeleit
Edgar Itt
Jörg Vaihinger
Ralf Lübke
1992 Barcelona
details
 United States (USA)
Andrew Valmon
Quincy Watts
Michael Johnson
Steve Lewis
Darnell Hall
Charles Jenkins
 Cuba (CUB)
Lázaro Martínez
Héctor Herrera
Norberto Téllez
Roberto Hernández
 Great Britain (GBR)
Roger Black
David Grindley
Kriss Akabusi
John Regis
Du'aine Ladejo
Mark Richardson
1996 Atlanta
details
 United States (USA)
LaMont Smith
Alvin Harrison
Derek Mills
Anthuan Maybank
Jason Rouser
 Great Britain (GBR)
Iwan Thomas
Jamie Baulch
Mark Richardson
Roger Black
Du'aine Ladejo
Mark Hylton
 Jamaica (JAM)
Michael McDonald
Roxbert Martin
Greg Haughton
Davian Clarke
Dennis Blake
Garth Robinson
2000 Sydney
details
 Nigeria (NGR)
Clement Chukwu
Jude Monye
Sunday Bada
Enefiok Udo-Obong
Nduka Awazie
Fidelis Gadzama
 Jamaica (JAM)
Michael Blackwood
Greg Haughton
Christopher Williams
Danny McFarlane
Sanjay Ayre
Michael McDonald
 Bahamas (BAH)
Avard Moncur
Troy McIntosh
Carl Oliver
Chris Brown
2004 Athens
details
 United States (USA)
Otis Harris
Derrick Brew
Jeremy Wariner
Darold Williamson
Kelly Willie
Andrew Rock
 Australia (AUS)
John Steffensen
Mark Ormrod
Patrick Dwyer
Clinton Hill
 Nigeria (NGR)
James Godday
Musa Audu
Saul Weigopwa
Enefiok Udo Obong
2008 Beijing
details
 United States (USA)
LaShawn Merritt
Angelo Taylor
David Neville
Jeremy Wariner
Kerron Clement
Reggie Witherspoon
 Bahamas (BAH)
Andretti Bain
Michael Mathieu
Andrae Williams
Chris Brown
Avard Moncur
Ramon Miller
 Russia (RUS)
Maksim Dyldin
Vladislav Frolov
Anton Kokorin
Denis Alekseyev
2012 London
details
 Bahamas (BAH)
Chris Brown
Michael Mathieu
Ramon Miller
Demetrius Pinder
Wesley Neymour
Andrae Williams
 United States (USA)
Joshua Mance
Manteo Mitchell
Tony McQuay
Bryshon Nellum
Angelo Taylor
 Trinidad and Tobago (TRI)
Ade Alleyne-Forte
Lalonde Gordon
Deon Lendore
Jarrin Solomon

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1= Lewis, SteveSteve Lewis  United States (USA) 1988–1992 2 0 0 2
1= Wariner, JeremyJeremy Wariner  United States (USA) 2004-2008 2 0 0 2
3 Brown, ChrisChris Brown  Bahamas (BAH) 2000–2012 1 1 1 3
4= Rampling, GodfreyGodfrey Rampling  Great Britain (GBR) 1932–1936 1 1 0 2
4= Whitfield, MalMal Whitfield  United States (USA) 1948–1952 1 1 0 2
4= Asati, CharlesCharles Asati  Kenya (KEN) 1968–1972 1 1 0 2
4= Nyamau, MunyoroMunyoro Nyamau  Kenya (KEN) 1968–1972 1 1 0 2
4= Mathieu, MichaelMichael Mathieu  Bahamas (BAH) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
4= Miller, RamonRamon Miller  Bahamas (BAH) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
4= Williams, AndraeAndrae Williams  Bahamas (BAH) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
4= Taylor, AngeloAngelo Taylor  United States (USA) 2008–2012 1 1 0 2
11= Butler, GuyGuy Butler  Great Britain (GBR) 1920–1924 1 0 1 2
11= Udo-Obong, EnefiokEnefiok Udo-Obong  Nigeria (NGR) 2000–2004 1 0 1 2
13= Richardson, MarkMark Richardson  Great Britain (GBR) 1992–1996 0 1 1 2
13= Black, RogerRoger Black  Great Britain (GBR) 1992–1996 0 1 1 2
13= Ladejo, Du'aineDu'aine Ladejo  Great Britain (GBR) 1992–1996 0 1 1 2
13= Moncur, AvardAvard Moncur  Bahamas (BAH) 2000–2008 0 1 1 2

Medals by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 16 3 0 19
2  Great Britain (GBR) 2 5 4 11
3  Jamaica (JAM) 1 2 1 4
4  Bahamas (BAH) 1 1 1 3
5  Kenya (KEN) 1 1 0 2
6  Nigeria (NGR) 1 0 2 3
7  Soviet Union (URS) 1 0 0 1
8=  France (FRA) 0 2 2 4
8=  Germany (GER)[nb] 0 2 2 4
10  Australia (AUS) 0 2 0 2
11  Sweden (SWE) 0 1 1 2
12=  Cuba (CUB) 0 1 0 1
12=  East Germany (GDR) 0 1 0 1
12=  Poland (POL) 0 1 0 1
12=  South Africa (RSA) 0 1 0 1
16  West Germany (FRG) 0 0 3 3
17=  Canada (CAN) 0 0 2 2
17=  Trinidad and Tobago (TTO) 0 0 2 2
19=  British West Indies (BWI) 0 0 1 1
19=  Italy (ITA) 0 0 1 1
19=  Russia (RUS) 0 0 1 1

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1972 Munich
details
 East Germany (GDR)
Dagmar Käsling
Rita Kühne
Helga Seidler
Monika Zehrt
 United States (USA)
Mable Fergerson
Madeline Manning
Cheryl Toussaint
Kathy Hammond
 West Germany (FRG)
Anette Rückes
Inge Bödding
Hildegard Falck
Rita Wilden
1976 Montreal
details
 East Germany (GDR)
Doris Maletzki
Brigitte Rohde
Ellen Streidt
Christina Brehmer
 United States (USA)
Debra Sapenter
Sheila Ingram
Pamela Jiles
Rosalyn Bryant
 Soviet Union (URS)
Inta Kļimoviča
Lyudmila Aksyonova
Natalya Sokolova
Nadezhda Ilyina
1980 Moscow
details
 Soviet Union (URS)
Tatyana Prorochenko
Tatyana Goyshchik
Nina Zyuskova
Irina Nazarova
 East Germany (GDR)
Gabriele Löwe
Barbara Krug
Christina Lathan
Marita Koch
 Great Britain (GBR)
Linsey MacDonald
Michelle Probert
Joslyn Hoyte-Smith
Donna Hartley
1984 Los Angeles
details
 United States (USA)
Lillie Leatherwood
Sherri Howard
Valerie Brisco-Hooks
Chandra Cheeseborough
Diane Dixon*
Denean Howard*
 Canada (CAN)
Charmaine Crooks
Jillian Richardson
Molly Killingbeck
Marita Payne
Dana Wright*
 West Germany (FRG)
Heike Schulte-Mattler
Ute Thimm
Heidi-Elke Gaugel
Gaby Bußmann
1988 Seoul
details
 Soviet Union (URS)
Tatyana Ledovskaya
Olga Nazarova
Mariya Pinigina
Olga Bryzgina
Lyudmila Dzhigalova*
 United States (USA)
Denean Howard
Diane Dixon
Valerie Brisco-Hooks
Florence Griffith-Joyner
Sherri Howard*
Lillie Leatherwood*
 East Germany (GDR)
Dagmar Neubauer-Rübsam
Kirsten Emmelmann
Sabine Busch
Petra Müller
Grit Breuer*
1992 Barcelona
details
 Unified Team (EUN)
Yelena Ruzina
Lyudmila Dzhigalova
Olga Nazarova
Olga Bryzgina
Marina Shmonina*
Liliya Nurutdinova*
 United States (USA)
Natasha Kaiser
Gwen Torrence
Jearl Miles
Rochelle Stevens
Denean Howard-Hill*
Dannette Young*
 Great Britain (GBR)
Phylis Smith
Sandra Douglas
Jennifer Stoute
Sally Gunnell
1996 Atlanta
details
 United States (USA)
Rochelle Stevens
Maicel Malone
Kim Graham
Jearl Miles
Linetta Wilson*
 Nigeria (NGR)
Bisi Afolabi
Fatima Yusuf
Charity Opara
Falilat Ogunkoya
 Germany (GER)
Uta Rohländer
Linda Kisabaka
Anja Rücker
Grit Breuer
2000 Sydney
details
 United States (USA)
Jearl Miles-Clark
Monique Hennagan
LaTasha Colander
Marion Jones
Andrea Anderson*
 Jamaica (JAM)
Sandie Richards
Catherine Scott
Deon Hemmings
Lorraine Graham
Charmaine Howell*
Michelle Burgher*
 Russia (RUS)
Yuliya Sotnikova
Svetlana Goncharenko
Olga Kotlyarova
Irina Privalova
Natalya Nazarova*
Olesya Zykina*
2004 Athens
details
 United States (USA)
DeeDee Trotter
Monique Henderson
Sanya Richards
Monique Hennagan
Crystal Cox*
Moushaumi Robinson*
 Russia (RUS)
Olesya Krasnomovets
Natalya Nazarova
Olesya Zykina
Natalya Antyukh
Tatyana Firova*
Natalya Ivanova*
 Jamaica (JAM)
Novlene Williams
Michelle Burgher
Nadia Davy
Sandie Richards
Ronetta Smith*
2008 Beijing
details
 United States (USA)
Mary Wineberg
Allyson Felix
Monique Henderson
Sanya Richards
Natasha Hastings*
 Russia (RUS)
Yuliya Gushchina
Lyudmila Litvinova
Tatyana Firova
Anastasiya Kapachinskaya
Elena Migunova*
Tatyana Veshkurova*
 Jamaica (JAM)
Shericka Williams
Shereefa Lloyd
Rosemarie Whyte
Novlene Williams
Bobby-Gaye Wilkins*
2012 London
details
 United States (USA)
DeeDee Trotter
Allyson Felix
Francena McCorory
Sanya Richards-Ross
Keshia Baker*
Diamond Dixon*
 Russia (RUS)
Yulia Gushchina
Antonina Krivoshapka
Tatyana Firova
Natalya Antyukh
Anastasiya Kapachinskaya*
Natalya Nazarova*
 Jamaica (JAM)
Christine Day
Rosemarie Whyte
Shericka Williams
Novlene Williams-Mills
Shereefa Lloyd*

Note: * Indicates athletes who ran in preliminary rounds and also received medals.
Note: Marion Jones was stripped of all her Olympic medals in 2000. Crystal Cox was stripped of her Olympic medal in 2004, both being found guilty of doping violations.

Multiple medalists[edit]

Rank Athlete Nation Olympics Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 Richards-Ross, SanyaSanya Richards-Ross  United States (USA) 2004–2012 3 0 0 3
2 Miles-Clark, JearlJearl Miles-Clark  United States (USA) 1992–2000 2 1 0 3
3= Nazarova, OlgaOlga Nazarova  Soviet Union (URS)
 Unified Team (EUN)
1988–1992 2 0 0 2
3= Bryzgina, OlgaOlga Bryzgina  Soviet Union (URS)
 Unified Team (EUN)
1988–1992 2 0 0 2
3= Dzhigalova, LyudmilaLyudmila Dzhigalova  Soviet Union (URS)
 Unified Team (EUN)
1988–1992 2 0 0 2
3= Hennagan, MoniqueMonique Hennagan  United States (USA) 2000–2004 2 0 0 2
3= Henderson, MoniqueMonique Henderson  United States (USA) 2004–2008 2 0 0 2
3= Trotter, DeeDeeDeeDee Trotter  United States (USA) 2004–2012 2 0 0 2
3= Felix, AllysonAllyson Felix  United States (USA) 2008–2012 2 0 0 2
10 Howard-Hill, DeneanDenean Howard-Hill  United States (USA) 1984–1992 1 2 0 3
11= Leatherwood, LillieLillie Leatherwood  United States (USA) 1984–1988 1 1 0 2
11= Howard, SherriSherri Howard  United States (USA) 1984–1988 1 1 0 2
11= Brisco-Hooks, ValerieValerie Brisco-Hooks  United States (USA) 1984–1988 1 1 0 2
11= Dixon, DianeDiane Dixon  United States (USA) 1984–1988 1 1 0 2
11= Stevens, RochelleRochelle Stevens  United States (USA) 1992–1996 1 1 0 2
16 Firova, TatyanaTatyana Firova  Russia (RUS) 2004–2012 0 3 0 3
17= Antyukh, NatalyaNatalya Antyukh  Russia (RUS) 2004–2012 0 2 0 2
17= Gushchina, YuliyaYuliya Gushchina  Russia (RUS) 2008–2012 0 2 0 2
17= Kapachinskaya, AnastasiyaAnastasiya Kapachinskaya  Russia (RUS) 2008–2012 0 2 0 2
20= Richards, SandieSandie Richards  Jamaica (JAM) 2000–2004 0 1 1 2
20= Nazarova, NatalyaNatalya Nazarova  Russia (RUS) 2000–2004 0 1 1 2
20= Zykina, OlesyaOlesya Zykina  Russia (RUS) 2000–2004 0 1 1 2
20= Burgher, MichelleMichelle Burgher  Jamaica (JAM) 2000–2004 0 1 1 2
24 Williams-Mills, NovleneNovlene Williams-Mills  Jamaica (JAM) 2004–2012 0 0 3 3
25= Breuer, GritGrit Breuer  East Germany (GDR)
 Germany (GER)
1988–1996 0 0 2 2
25= Williams, SherickaShericka Williams  Jamaica (JAM) 2008–2012 0 0 2 2
25= Lloyd, ShereefaShereefa Lloyd  Jamaica (JAM) 2008–2012 0 0 2 2
25= Whyte, RosemarieRosemarie Whyte  Jamaica (JAM) 2008–2012 0 0 2 2

Medalists by country[edit]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  United States (USA) 6 4 0 10
2  East Germany (GDR) 2 1 1 4
3  Soviet Union (URS) 2 0 1 3
4  Unified Team (EUN) 1 0 0 1
5  Russia (RUS) 0 3 1 4
6  Jamaica (JAM) 0 1 3 4
7=  Canada (CAN) 0 1 0 1
7=  Nigeria (NGR) 0 1 0 1
9=  Great Britain (GBR) 0 0 2 2
9=  West Germany (FRG) 0 0 2 2
11  Germany (GER) 0 0 1 1

1908 Olympic medley relay[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1908 London
details
 United States (USA)
William Hamilton
Nate Cartmell
John Taylor
Mel Sheppard
 Germany (GER)
Arthur Hoffmann
Hans Eicke
Otto Trieloff
Hanns Braun
 Hungary (HUN)
Pál Simon
Frigyes Wiesner
József Nagy
Ödön Bodor

References[edit]

Participation and athlete data
Olympic record progressions
Specific
  1. ^ Athletics at the 1908 London Summer Games: Men's 1,600 metres Medley Relay. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-08.
  2. ^ "13th IAAF World Championships In Athletics: IAAF Statistics Handbook. Daegu 2011. (Part 5 of 5)" (pdf). Monte Carlo: IAAF Media & Public Relations Department. 2011. pp. 546, 562, 705. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  3. ^ "Pollution, Internet, doping dominate Olympics lead-up". CNN. August 2, 2008. Archived from the original on 6 March 2009. Retrieved 2009-03-10. 
  4. ^ Athletics Men's 4 × 400 metres Relay Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-07.
  5. ^ Athletics Women's 4 × 400 metres Relay Medalists. Sports Reference. Retrieved on 2014-02-07.
  6. ^ Associated Press (April 10, 2008). "US relay runners win Olympic medals appeal". ESPN. 
  7. ^ American runner Crystal Cox stripped of 2004 relay gold. USA Today (2012-07-21). Retrieved on 2014-06-22.

External links[edit]