400-series highways

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For the 400-series highways in British Columbia, see List of British Columbia provincial highways#Defunct route numbers.
The current 400-series Highway network in Southern Ontario. The current network has a total length of 1918.8 km (1192.2 miles).[citation needed]

The 400-series highways are a network of controlled-access highways throughout the southern portion of the Canadian province of Ontario, forming a special subset of the provincial highway system. They are analogous to the Interstate Highway System in the United States or the British Motorway network in the United Kingdom. Modern 400-series highways have high design standards, speed limits of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph), and various collision avoidance and traffic management systems. 400-series highway design has set the precedent for a number of innovations used throughout North America, including the parclo interchange and the modified Jersey barrier design known as an Ontario Tall Wall.

The province's baseline standard for the construction of a freeway is an average traffic count of 10,000 vehicles per day. However, other factors are considered as well. To promote economic development in a disadvantaged region (e.g., the current extension of Highway 400 to Northern Ontario), a 400-series highway may be built where the existing highway's traffic counts fall below 10,000. As well, for environmental, budgetary or community reasons, some proposed 400-series highways (e.g., the Highway 400 extension in Toronto from Highway 401 to the Gardiner Expressway that was cancelled in the 1970s) have not been built, even where an existing highway's traffic counts exceed the standard.

Network[edit]

Highway 401 in Toronto, the longest, widest and busiest 400-Series highway.

For their entire length, 400-series highways are intended to be completely controlled-access and divided, with a minimum of four lanes. Although the 400-series freeways currently form a network around Highway 401 and the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), this has not always been the case (such as Highway 417 until 1999) and being part of a network is not a requirement as it is for Interstate highways. Like the Autoroute system in the neighbouring province of Quebec, the 400-series highway system has expanded slowly because they do not receive regular federal funding.

Equivalent provincial highways[edit]

Most of the interchanges along the 400-Series Highways use a Parclo configuration. Shown here is a Parclo A-4 interchange on Highway 407.

The province also maintains freeways which are up to 400-series standards, yet are not numbered as part of the 400-series network. This is despite some of those freeways exceeding existing 400-series highways in size and traffic volume and despite some of them being connected to the 400-series network. Nonetheless, Ontario freeways do not receive a 400-series number unless they are designed to be complete controlled-access freeways for their whole length. While at-grade intersections still exist on Highway 406, planning/construction is underway to upgrade them to full freeway standards.

The non-400-series routes listed below have significant open-access portions besides the freeway section, with the freeway segment typically being a small section not at the route's termini. Most prominent is the Conestoga Parkway in Kitchener-Waterloo, which is numbered in 3 sections; Highway 7/8, Highway 7, and Highway 85, and the Highway 8 Freeport Diversion between Highway 401 and the Conestoga. The E.C. Row Expressway in Windsor, Ontario was numbered as part of Highway 2 before the freeway was downloaded to municipal authorities in 1998. Other examples of non-400-series numbered freeways in the provincial inventory are at Thorold (Highway 58), Peterborough to Enterprise Hill (Highway 115), North Bay and southward (Highway 11) and Sudbury (Highway 17 and Highway 69, although the freeway segment of Highway 69 is scheduled to be integrated into the completed route of Highway 400 and it is possible that the long-term expansion of Highway 417 could incorporate the freeway section of Highway 17).

Standards[edit]

Pavement surface[edit]

Typical Ontario expansion joint and asphalt bridge pavement, Toronto, Ontario June 2008
Typical USA bridge joint and bridge deck with concrete/latex waterproof concrete overlay. M-6 Grand Rapids, MI June 2008

The majority of 400-series highways are coated with asphalt pavement. All bridge decks are also covered with asphalt, with concrete only exposed around the expansion joints, in contrast to most U.S. Interstates, which have bridge decks paved with exposed concrete containing tining (grooves).

Normally, asphalt pavements would actually require more frequent maintenance because the material is less durable in general. In addition, the laying of additional asphalt layers would require a stronger infrastructure, translating to higher construction costs. However, additional asphalt covers are used on most 400-series highways because the asphalt is more resistant to erosion from de-icing salt than concrete.

Some sections of 400-series highways have been repaved using concrete pavement. Examples include Highway 401 from Windsor to Tilbury, 402 east of Sarnia, 406, 407 ETR, and 427; the 427's concrete pavement has exceeded its 30-year lifespan. Some bridge decks, including the westbound Highway 401 collector lanes that pass over the 401-Don Valley Expressway exit ramp and the westbound Highway 402 overpass at Modeland Road near Sarnia, have also been paved with an exposed concrete highway deck similar to USA interstate standards.

Design[edit]

400-Series Highways typically have high design standards. This stretch of Highway 401 in London, Ontario, includes rumble strips, hard left and right shoulders, wide driving lanes, high mast lighting, an Ontario Tall Wall median, overhead signage, acceleration and deceleration lanes and a collector lane.
Fluorescent orange lane markings are used in construction zones along the 400-Series Highways.

Most 400-series highways follow a list of required construction standards similar to those of many other controlled-access highway systems. However, in some cases, different standards applied at the time of construction and have been grandfathered to the system. This is most prominent on Highway 400, Highway 401, and the Queen Elizabeth Way, whose low standard sections are only upgraded when growing traffic conditions warrant a major reconstruction. Although some highways receive a 400-series number right away, they are not built to 400-series standards until construction of the highway is completed.

Cross-section[edit]

All 400-series highways should have at least two lanes in each direction, with HOV lanes separated from general traffic with a striped buffer zone and full shoulder if necessary. Lanes of opposing directions should always be separated either by a grass median, usually of sufficient width to prevent cross-directional collisions, to provide drainage, and may allow for future expansion, or an "Ontario tall-wall" concrete barrier if a grass median is not feasible (the tall wall is based upon the Jersey barrier but is not reinforced and higher at 1070-mm).[1] Full-width left and right paved shoulders are employed on 400-series highways, with rumble strips on each side of the carriageway.

Most 400-series highways have design speed of at least 130 km/h, although the posted speed on signs is 100 km/h. Exceptions could be made for sections in urban areas where a 130 km/h design speed cannot be realistically implemented, including Highway 403 through Hamilton (90 km/h), Highway 406 through downtown St. Catharines (80 km/h), and near approaches to border crossings (Highway 401 in Windsor, 402 in Sarnia, and 405 in Niagara-on-the-Lake), which all have a maximum speed of 80 km/h.

Acceleration/deceleration lanes from interchanges must be at least 150 metres long to allow for smooth speed increase/decrease and traffic merging, unless there are land space constraints or low traffic volumes. Such exceptions include the Kipling Avenue to Highway 409 directional ramp and the Dundas Street eastbound to Highway 427 southbound directional ramp. The stretch of the QEW through St. Catharines just west of the Garden City Skyway is well known for lacking acceleration/deceleration lanes, as it was originally built in the 1950s; while it has been grandfathered in with merge signs, a planned reconstruction project has brought it up to modern standards. In addition, 400-metre or longer "weave lanes" are required for transitions to/from HOV lanes across the buffer zones to allow for safe mergers.

Safety features[edit]

The 400 series highways incorporate the latest safety features. Guard rail is being replaced with Ontario Tall Wall when needed. The use of box-beam guard rails have been replaced in some stretches with Ontario Tall Wall or standard guardrails.

Numbering[edit]

The "400-series" numbers were first introduced in 1952 to designate the province's controlled-access highways, which were previously referred to by name.

Although the QEW has no posted highway number, it is considered to be part of the 400-series highway network. The Ministry of Transportation of Ontario designates the QEW as Highway 451 for internal purposes; this designation never appears on maps or highway signs.

400-series highways receive their numeral designations in one of two ways. The original method was sequential numbering starting at 400 and working up to 409. The first three 400-series highways numbered accordingly were Highway 400, Highway 401 and Highway 402 – originally known as the Barrie-Toronto Highway, Highway 2A, and the Blue Water Bridge Approach respectively. Since then, additional highways have been constructed using sequential numbering from 403 to 409. Although there were plans for a Highway 408, it was never constructed. Highway 407 (now 407 ETR) received its designation in the 1960s when it was planned and land was acquired for it, although construction did not begin until 1987.

The later method of 400-series numbering after 1970 was to assign a 400 designation to an upgrade or bypass of an existing highway. For example, the section of Highway 427 between the QEW and Highway 401 was the original routing of Highway 27 between the QEW and Highway 401 before it was upgraded to a freeway, while Highway 427 north of Highway 401 is a bypass of Highway 27. Highway 416 and Highway 417, meanwhile, were the original routings of Highways 16 and 17, respectively, in Eastern Ontario. In addition, some 400-series highways are given designations based on the existing highways they bypass. For instance, Highway 410 and Highway 420 were both freeway bypasses of Highway 10 and Highway 20, respectively.

Signage[edit]

New "ONroute" service stations are being built along the 400-Series Highways.

All 400-series highways employ standardized signage. The standard directional signage is white-on-green, with collector lanes using white-on-blue to distinguish between mainline (express) and collector signage. Toll roads (i.e. 407 ETR) also need to have white-on-blue signage. Advanced warning signage are placed at 2 km, 1 km and 500 m before junctions, and square lane deviation signs (unique to Ontario) notifying drivers approximately 1 km before their lane leaves the highway. Separated high-occupancy vehicle lanes use black-on-white signage with a diamond logo in the upper left-hand corner.

Most service/attraction signage used on 400-series highways is white-on-blue, though older brown-on-white signs still exist. Caution signage is black-on-yellow, while construction (temporary conditions) signage is black-on-orange.

Roadside advertisements (e.g. billboards) are banned from the right-of-way of 400-series highways. The province has also obtained court orders forcing the removal of advertising signs that are outside of the highway corridor, but adjacent to and still visible from, a 400-series highway (such as along nearby farms close to the freeway). This ban exists to prevent driver distraction. By contrast, the elevated portion of the municipal Gardiner Expressway has many adjacent signs.

Many 400-series highways have also recently had gates installed at entrance ramps, along with special gated ramps located near overpasses, allowing access to the highway to be easily closed in case of emergency or road work.

Within municipalities under the French Language Services Act, 400-series highways have bilingual English-French signage (these include portions of highways 400, 401, 404, 409, 416, 417 and 427).

List of highways[edit]

There are 15 400-series highways (including the QEW) creating a transportation backbone across the southern portion of the province. Plans are underway to extend the existing network into Northern Ontario as well as add new routes into the system. Total length of the 400-series system is about 1,900 kilometres.

Designation Image Alternate names Length Opened North/east end South/west end Description Map
Highway 400
Ontario 400.svg Trans-Canada Highway shield.svg
Highway 400 Summer Backup.jpg Barrie-Toronto Highway (before 1952) 226 km (140 mi) July 1952[2] Highway 559 North of Nobel (continues as Highway 69) Maple Leaf Drive overpass in Toronto Highway 400 is Toronto's main highway link to York Region, Barrie and Muskoka. It is the second-longest 400-series highway.

Highway 400 is expected to be extended to Sudbury by 2017.

Ontario 400 map.svg
Highway 401
Ontario 401.svg MC-Freeway.svg Highway of Heroes.svg
401 Overview.jpg Macdonald-Cartier Freeway; Highway of Heroes (between Don Valley Parkway in Toronto and Trenton)[3][4]

Highland Creek-Newcastle section designated as Highway 2A before 1952

817.9 km (508.2 mi) July 1952[2] Quebec border (continues as Autoroute 20) Highway 3 in Windsor Highway 401 is the backbone of the 400-Series network taking nearly 30 years to be built and running across the entire length of Southern Ontario. It has volumes of over 500,000 per day in some areas of Toronto, making it one of the busiest highways in the world.[5] Ontario 401 map.svg
Highway 402
Ontario 402.svg
Highway 402 from Highway 4 1.JPG Blue Water Bridge Approach (before 1952) 102.5 km (63.7 mi) July 1952[2] Highway 401 in London Blue Water Bridge in Point Edward (in Sarnia) Highway 402 connects Interstate 69/Interstate 94 in Michigan with the 401 in Ontario. It initially terminated at Highway 40, but was later extended to meet up with Highway 401. Ontario 402 map.svg
Highway 403
Ontario 403.svg
403HOVnight.jpg Chedoke Expressway (through Hamilton) 125.2 km (77.8 mi) December 1963[6] Highway 401 and Highway 410 in Mississauga Highway 401 in Woodstock Highway 403 forms a loop that runs from the Highway 401 in Woodstock back to the junction of Highway 401 and Highway 410 in Mississauga, passing through Brantford, Hamilton, and Mississauga. The section of the QEW between Burlington and Mississauga is shared with Highway 403. Highway 403 is one of four highways (along with highway 404, highway 417 and the QEW) with high-occupancy vehicle lanes. Ontario 403 map.svg
Highway 404
Ontario 404.svg
404HOV lane.png Commonly referred to as the extension of the Don Valley Parkway before 1977; now termed Parkway-404 and vice-versa 36.6 km (22.7 mi) 1977 Herald Road/Green Lane in East Gwillimbury Highway 401 and Don Valley Parkway in Toronto Highway 404 is the second north-south freeway in York Region and connects the northeastern suburbs and into Toronto as the Don Valley Parkway. It is one of four highways (along with Highway 403, Highway 417, and the QEW) with high-occupancy vehicle lanes and the only one with a dedicated HOV off-ramp, which serves Highway 401 westbound from Highway 404 southbound. Ontario 404 map.svg
Highway 405
Ontario 405.svg
Highway 405 Plaza.png General Brock Parkway (since 2006) 8.7 km (5.4 mi) September 1963[6] Lewiston-Queenston Bridge (connects to the United States) Queen Elizabeth Way, west of Niagara Falls Though a short spur route, Highway 405 is still considered a major highway connecting the main trunk highway to Toronto (the QEW) with Interstate 190 outside of Niagara Falls, New York. Ontario 405 map.svg
Highway 406
Ontario 406.svg
Highway 406 narrows.jpg 26.0 km (16.2 mi) December 1965[7] Queen Elizabeth Way in St. Catharines East Main Street (Highway 7146) in Welland Highway 406 is the last remaining 400-series highway under Ministry of Transportation jurisdiction with two-lane non-freeway sections, located between Thorold and Welland. Plans to extend the route further south to the proposed Mid-Peninsula Highway have been voiced. Ontario 406 map.svg
Highway 407
Highway407crest.png
Electronic Toll Equipment in Ontario.jpg Express Toll Route 107.2 km (66.6 mi)[8] June 1997[9] Highway 7, near Brock Road in Pickering Junction of Highway 403 and the Queen Elizabeth Way in Burlington Highway 407 forms a northern bypass for Highway 401 and the Queen Elizabeth Way through the Greater Toronto Area. It is Ontario's only toll highway and was the first highway to use electronic toll collection exclusively for its entire length. Owned by Cintra, it is not officially considered part of the King's Highway system. Ontario 407 map.svg
Highway 409
Ontario 409.svg
409 looking East of Iron Street.png formerly known as the Belfield Expressway 5.6 km (3.5 mi) August 1978[10] Highway 401 in Toronto Airport Road in Mississauga Highway 409 is a short connector route from the 401 to Toronto Pearson International Airport. A short section of the route between Airport Road and Highway 427 in Mississauga is under the jurisdiction of the Greater Toronto Airport Authority. Ontario 409 map.svg
Highway 410
Ontario 410.svg
410 Extension.png Brampton Bypass 20.3 km (12.6 mi) November 1978[11] Hurontario Street / Highway 10 in Brampton Highway 401 in Mississauga Highway 410 runs from the junction of Highway 401 and Highway 403 in Mississauga through Northern Mississauga and Brampton. Ontario 410 map.svg
Highway 416
Ontario 416.svg
416 into Ottawa.png Veterans Memorial Highway 76.4 km (47.5 mi) June 1997[12] Highway 417 in Ottawa Highway 401, north of Johnstown and the Ogdensburg–Prescott International Bridge Highway 416, except for its northernmost 21 kilometres, follows the former route of Highway 16. It is the newest 400-Series highway to be built and owned by the Ministry of Transportation and is the main link (via the 401 and Interstate 81) between the US and the National Capital Region. It was officially completed on September 23, 1999. Ontario 416 map.svg
Highway 417
Ontario 417.svg Trans-Canada Highway shield.svg
Highway 417 near Highway 416.jpg Queensway (through most of Ottawa) 181.4 km (112.7 mi) September 1972[13] Quebec border (continues as Autoroute 40) Arnprior (continues as Highway 17) Highway 417 is the main freeway through Ottawa and Eastern Ontario along the Ottawa River and Quebec border. The Ministry of Transportation hopes to eventually extend the 417 through the Ottawa Valley. Its mileage logs, unlike most other east-west highways in Ontario, begins at the eastern terminus rather than the west. A high-occupancy vehicle lane exists eastbound from Eagleson Road to Moodie Drive. Ontario 417 map.svg
Highway 420
Ontario 420.svg
420 Expressway.JPG Rainbow Bridge terminus of the Queen Elizabeth Way before 1972 3.3 km (2.1 mi) 1972[14] Stanley Ave in Niagara Falls, where it continues to the Rainbow Bridge as Regional Road 420. Montrose Road in Niagara Falls Highway 420 connects the QEW to the tourist district in Niagara Falls. Portions of it were transferred to the City of Niagara Falls in 2000 and became Regional Road 420. The Ministry of Transportation hopes to extend the 420 west past Montrose Road to meet up with Highway 58 and the Thorold Tunnel. Ontario 420 map.svg
Highway 427
Ontario 427.svg
427 South of Rathburn.png known as Airport Expressway (between Highway 401 and Highway 409) before 1972 19.9 km (12.4 mi) 1972[15] Highway 7 in Vaughan (Unofficially to Zenway Blvd) Evans Ave in Toronto Highway 427 serves the heavy-travelled area between the Queen Elizabeth Way and Gardiner Expressway in the south and Highway 7 in the north. It has heavy traffic volumes and occupies no fewer than 12 lanes between the Queen Elizabeth Way/Gardiner Expressway and Highway 401. Ontario 427 map.svg
Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW)
Ontario QEW.svg
QEW at Red Hill Valley.jpg Referred to as Highway 451 or Highway 1 on some MTO documents. 139.1 km (86.4 mi) June 1939[16] Peace Bridge in Fort Erie Highway 427 in Toronto, where it continues as the Gardiner Expressway

Humber River before the 1998 provincial downloading.

The QEW is North America's oldest long-distance superhighway. It is not referred to by a route number, but does have several internal designations, including Highway 1 and Highway 451, and is considered part of the 400-Series network. It also uses city names rather than cardinal directions to direct (and to not confuse) motorists. The QEW is one of three highways (along with highway 403 and highway 404) with high-occupancy vehicle lanes. Ontario QEW map.svg

Former 400-series highways[edit]

Due to government restructuring in 1997 and 1998, various sections of provincial highway were transferred over to local jurisdictions. While most of the highways transferred were local in nature, several large routes including freeways were transferred to local governments.

Designation Total length (km) Year inaugurated Year decommissioned North/east end South/west end Current status Description
400A
1.1
1960
1997
Highway 11 in Barrie, Ontario Highway 400 in Barrie, Ontario Section of Highway 11 Highway 400A was a short spur connecting Highway 400 to the Highway 11 expressway northeast of Barrie. It was initially part of Highway 400 until 1960, when a new section of Highway 400 opened, bypassing 1.1 km of freeway, which was re-numbered Highway 400A and became the shortest 400-series highway.
Segment of QEW (east of Highway 427)
6
1939
1997
Gardiner Expressway in Toronto, Ontario Highway 427 in Toronto, Ontario Section of the Gardiner Expressway This segment of the QEW was transferred to the City of Toronto in 1997 as a cost savings measure by the Ontario provincial government. It has since been re-designated as a western extension of the Gardiner Expressway.

Future additions[edit]

Planned future extensions and additions to the 400-series network.

There are several plans in progress to add new routes to the 400-series highway system to serve the growing population of motorists throughout Ontario, specifically Southern Ontario. Some of these new routes may be toll roads owned and operated in a similar fashion to Highway 407. In addition, the long-term extension of Highway 417 towards North Bay (and beyond), as well as construction of a staged freeway on the Highway 11 corridor, would likely absorb the existing freeway sections of Highway 11 and Highway 17 into 400-series highways. Also, a highway to connect the City of Guelph to highway 410 and later 400 is in the planning stages.

High-occupancy vehicle lanes[edit]

Map showing locations of HOV lanes in the province, as of March 2013.

The Ontario Ministry of Transportation has announced a major expansion of High-occupancy vehicle lanes (HOV lanes) within the Golden Horseshoe, and the National Capital Region.[17] The first HOV lanes in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) were introduced to Highway 404 (southbound) from Beaver Creek (between Highway 7 and 16th Avenue) in York Region to Highway 401/Don Valley Parkway in Toronto. An exclusive HOV ramp/tunnel from the Highway 404 HOV lane to the Highway 401 westbound collectors was also built at the same time in Toronto. In addition, HOV lanes were introduced on Highway 403 from Highway 401/Highway 410 to Highway 407 in Mississauga.

In May 2007, the Ministry of Transportation introduced a multi-billion dollar Horseshoe Network Project, which includes plans to incorporate HOV lanes into numerous 400-series highways. On July 23, 2007, an HOV lane was opened on Highway 404 (northbound) from the north of Sheppard Ave to Highway 7, matching the current southbound HOV lane.

Highway 417 has a single HOV lane running eastbound from just west of Eagleson Road in Kanata to just east of Moodie Drive, where it becomes a regular vehicle lane. This was part of the widening of the highway from Highway 416 to Eagleson Road.

More than 450 kilometres of HOV lanes are expected to be implemented in 400-series highways. The general goals of the project is to help increase highway efficiency (an HOV lane is claimed by the Ontario government to have the ability to move as many people as four general-purpose lanes),[17] reduce congestion, conserve energy and help protect the environment.

Project plan[edit]

Highway Starting location Terminating location General location
Near-term (2007—2011)
QEW Burloak Drive 3rd Line Region of Halton
Burloak Drive Guelph Line
3rd Line Trafalgar Road
427 Highway 409 Highway 407 near Pearson International Airport in Toronto
400 Major Mackenzie Drive W. Kirby Road/King Road Region of York
Mid-term (2011—2017)
401 Mississauga Road Highway 403 Mississauga
400 Kirby Road/King Road Highway 9 Region of York
404 Highway 7 Aurora Road
Long-term (2017—)
QEW Red Hill Valley Parkway Highway 406 Hamilton and Region of Niagara
407/403 Guelph Line Burlington
Trafalgar Road Highway 427 Oakville and Mississauga
403 Highway 6 Highway 407/Queen Elizabeth Way Hamilton and Burlington
QEW Highway 407 Mississauga
400 Highway 9 Highway 88/Barrie Region of York and Simcoe County
401 Milton Mississauga Road
Brock Road Ritson Road Region of Durham
404 Aurora Road Keswick Region of York
410 Highway 401 Queen Street Brampton

Future 400-series highways[edit]

Designation Alternate names Planned inauguration year Planned north/east end Planned south/west end Current status Description
Undetermined
West Durham Link
2015
Highway 407, just east of the proposed Pickering Airport Highway 401 on the Ajax/Whitby border
Under construction
The West Durham Link will serve as a connector between Highway 401 and Highway 407 east of Lakeridge Road. Plans for this new freeway will see it located near Lake Ridge Road between Ajax and Whitby.
Undetermined
East Durham Link
2020
Highway 407 Highway 401 in Clarington, in the community of Courtice
Planned
The East Durham Link will serve the east end of Durham Region, including Oshawa and Clarington. The alignment will be located east of Courtice Road in Clarington.
Undetermined
Mid-Peninsula Highway
N/A
Queen Elizabeth Way in Fort Erie, Ontario Highway 407 in Burlington, or Highway 401 near Milton
Proposed - on hold
The Mid-Peninsula Highway will serve as southern bypass of the QEW through the environmentally sensitive Niagara Peninsula. It is a highly controversial project as it will likely run through agricultural areas and the Niagara Escarpment, and many question the need of the highway.
Undetermined
Bradford Bypass
N/A
Highway 404 near Queensville Highway 400 near Bradford, or Highway 427 near Bond Head
Proposed - on hold
The Bradford Bypass will serve as a connector between Highways 400 and 404 on the northern portion of the Greater Toronto Area. Predominantly a local issue, as the province does not consider the bypass a priority.
Undetermined
GTA West Corridor
N/A
Highway 400, south of King-Vaughan town line, north of Kirby Road Near Highway 401 and Highway 407 interchange in Milton
Proposed - Environmental assessment
Route will pass south of Nobleton and Bolton, north of Brampton, and loop south on Brampton's western periphery to connect to Highway 401.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Basics of Concrete Barriers
  2. ^ a b c Shragge, John; Bagnato, Sharon (1984). From Footpaths to Freeways. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Historical Committee. pp. 89–92. ISBN 0-7743-9388-2. 
  3. ^ City News
  4. ^ CTV.ca
  5. ^ Ministry of Transportation (Ontario) (6 August 2002). "Ontario government investing $401 million to upgrade Highway 401". Archived from the original on May 7, 2003. Retrieved 2006-12-20. 
  6. ^ a b A.A.D.T. Traffic Volumes 1955–1969 And Traffic Collision Data 1967–1969. Ontario Department of Highways. 1970. p. 11. 
  7. ^ AADT Traffic Volumes 1955–1969 And Traffic Collision Data 1967–1969. Ontario Department of Highways. 1971. p. 12. 
  8. ^ "Map / Toll Calculator". 407 ETR. February 1, 2011. Retrieved September 26, 2011. 
  9. ^ Mitchell, Bob (June 6, 1997). "At Last — Opening Bell Tolls for the 407". The Toronto Star. pp. A1, A6. 
  10. ^ "New Shortcut Will Let Some 'Fly' to Airport". The Toronto Star. August 19, 1978. p. A6. "Highway 409, a new shortcut to Toronto International Airport, opens next Friday" 
  11. ^ Public and Safety Information Section (November 9, 1978). "Highway 410 Opens November 15" (Press release). Ministry of Transportation and Communications. 
  12. ^ Ministry of Transportation of Ontario (June 12, 1997). "Transportation Minister Officially Opens Another 7.6 Kilometres of Highway 416". Government of Ontario. Archived from the original on May 20, 2001. Retrieved October 26, 2011. 
  13. ^ "Information Services" (Press release). Ministry of Transportation and Communications. September 19, 1972. 
  14. ^ "Queen Elizabeth Way - Hamilton to Fort Erie". Highway Construction Program 1972-73 (Report). Ministry of Transportation and Communications. April 1972. p. xv.
  15. ^ "Highway 27 Interchange Fully in Service". The Globe and Mail 128 (38,061) (Toronto). December 4, 1971. p. 5. 
  16. ^ Shragge, John; Bagnato, Sharon (1984). From Footpaths to Freeways. Toronto: Ontario Ministry of Transportation and Communications, Historical Committee. p. 79. ISBN 0-7743-9388-2. 
  17. ^ a b High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes

External links[edit]