The 423 ABG began life as the 423d Air Base Squadron when it was activated on 12 July 1995 at RAF Molesworth. The 423 ABS replaced the inactivated 710th Air Base Wing. Exactly 10 years later, the 423d ABS was reorganized as the 423d Air Base Group. This was part of a larger reorganization of many geographically separated units within the United Kingdom as components of the 501st Combat Support Wing also located at RAF Alconbury. At this time, 423 ABG headquarters officially moved to RAF Alconbury.
As of 2006 the 423 ABG employed approximately 350 military personnel as well as several hundred US and British civilians.
The group is organized into a group staff and six squadrons. The squadrons include the 423rd Communications Squadron, 423rd Medical Squadron, 423rd Security Forces Squadron, 423rd Force Support Squadron, and 423rd Civil Engineer Squadron. The 426th Air Base Squadron is also under the 423rd Air Base Group but is geographically separated and physically located at Stavanger Air Base, Norway.