427th Special Operations Squadron
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|427th Special Operations Squadron|
Patch of the 427th Special Operations Squadron
|Active||1944–1945, 1970–1972, Present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Type||Night Fighter Operations (World War II)
Special Operations (Vietnam War, Global War on Terrorism)
The 427th Special Operations Squadron (427th SOS) is a direct reporting unit of the Air Force Special Operations Command. The unit is assigned to Pope Air Force Base, North Carolina. The squadron is associated with the Central Intelligence Agency Special Operations Group (SOG) which is part of the Special Activities Division (SAD). It performs clandestine missions as part of the Global War on Terrorism, a part of the effort to destroy Al Qaeda.
The 427th SOS provides Short Takeoff/Landing (STOL) and tactically qualified crews to support training requirements for the US Army Special Operations Forces (SOF) community. Their customers include the US Army Special Operations Command (USASOC), The US Army Special Forces Command (USASFC), and the John F Kennedy Special Warfare Center (JFKSWCS).
The 427th SOS provides US Army SOF personnel the opportunity to train on various types of aircraft for infiltration and exfiltration that they may encounter in the lesser developed countries in which they provide training. The 427th SOS aircrews must be proficient in smaller types of aircraft in order to familiarize US Army personnel with their characteristics, peculiarities, and capabilities.
The Army's 160th SOAR (A) uses rotary wing platforms (MH-60, MH-47, MH-6/AH-6). AFSOC primarily uses fixed-wing aircraft (MC-130, AC-130, CASA-212) with the exception of its MH-53s. The 427th uses non- standard airframes that are usually found in 3rd world or former eastern block nations.
The 427th Night Fighter Squadron was formed at Hammer Field, California, where its crews were trained. The squadron also flew training missions in the Bakersfield area. With their training as a unit completed, personnel of the 427th NFS packed their bags and left California's sunny San Joaquin Valley in mid-July 1944. Initially traveling by ship from the east coast to Casablanca, French Morocco. Once the squadrons' planes were assembled and checked out, the unit flew east to Cairo, Egypt, where they expected orders for Poltava Airfield, Ukraine on the Soviet Eastern Front.
The Russian Front and the Mediterranean
The expected mission on the Russian Front was to provide night fighter escort and air defense for Eighth and Fifteenth Air Force B-17 Flying Fortress bombers on "shuttle" missions from their bases in England and Italy to targets in Eastern Europe as part of Operation Frantic. However, a Luftwaffe night attack on the Soviet Air Force bases where the bombers landed in Ukraine on 21 June 1944 created mass havoc and destroyed many aircraft on the ground. The Soviets refused to allow USAAF night fighters to defend the bomber bases, insisting that air defense was their responsibility, the 427th's orders to Poltava were scrubbed.
Instead, the 427th NFS was to join the four Bristol Beaufighter-equipped night fighter squadrons of the Twelfth Air Force in the Mediterranean area. After about a week's stay in Cairo, the air echelon departed and arrived at the 19th Replacement Depot outside Naples, Italy. Their new assignment was to provide night air defense from Pomigliano Airfield, which started upon their arrival on 3 September. Their stay was short, as on 20 September the 427th was given orders to relocate to the China-Burma-India Theater of Operations and join the Tenth Air Force in India.
Although the 427th was in operation in the Naples area for less than three weeks, it was able to fly a number of missions and had contacts with Luftwaffe reconnaissance aircraft from northern Italy. On one of these missions, a radar malfunction experienced just before coming into firing range prevented possible destruction of the German aircraft. On the other mission in which contact was made, the attack was cut short when the Naples antiaircraft defenses tried to help and nearly shot down the 427th's P-61.
The Far East
Arriving in India, the squadron cooperated closely with the 426th NFS. The 426th, with only four operational Black Widows, needed additional aircraft for their Chengtu, China operations. A deal was struck between the COs of the two squadrons in which the 427th would give the 426th eight of its twelve aircraft in exchange for the 426th's aircraft at the depot at Karachi, where two were assembled and six were being assembled. At this time the 427th was assigned to Pandaveswar Airfield in West Bengal.
On 28 November another contingent of the 427th NFS arrived at Myitkyina Airfield, Burma. More of the squadron arrived during December, basically by truck over the Ledo Road from their headquarters in India to prepare Myitkyina as the squadron's new headquarters where they would remain until May 1945.
During December, the 427th's small detachment of three P-61s at Myitkyina saw all there was of aerial "action." They participated in seventeen combat missions. Three were patrols ordered by higher headquarters, two were due to enemy aircraft in the area.
On 25 December 1944 a detachment of the 427th NFS arrived at Kunming airport, China, relieving the 426th's detachment, although the bulk of the squadron remained in Burma. During January 1945, they flew patrols over Myitkyina and Bhamo and twelve local tactical interceptions. No enemy aircraft was encountered. Unfortunately for the 427th, one of those misfortunes of war occurred. On 22 January one of its aircraft in the China detachment operating out of Suichwan Airfield in southeast China shot down a US C-87 (a transport version of the Liberator bomber) with a crew of nine. The C-87 was in a prohibited area and made no radio calls, which led to the conclusion that it was hostile.
From this point on, Japanese night flying nearly ceased. The 427th flew more and more night intruder missions. It modified its aircraft to carry a three-tube bazooka-type rocket launcher under each wing. With its rocket-carrying P-61s, it operated against Japanese forces from its bases at Myitkyina in Burma as well as Kunming in China.
The 427th NFS intruder missions started on 22 February with a sweep of the road network south of Lashio, Burma. The squadron flew seven night intruder sorties that month. In mid-March, day and night offensive reconnaissance missions covering Pangkeyhtu/Loi-lem/Ho-pong/Namsang road network. Thirty-three-day and night patrols were accomplished that month. Missions planned to originate from Kunming and Chihkiang Airfield were curtailed in April because of a shortage of fuel.
Squadron headquarters moved from Burma to Kisselbarri, near Dinjan, India, in late May. The detachment at Kunming China remained there, operating elements from Dinjan Airfield, India; Chengkung and Nanning Airport in China until the war's end. Activity increased in July, with the squadron claiming 155 sampans destroyed and fifty-two damaged in addition to numerous warehouses, barges, trains and trucks destroyed. Besides flying day and night intruder sorties, two special medical supply airdrop sorties were flown in a BT-13 Valiant aircraft.
On 13 August 1945, the 427th was ordered to move to Liuchow Airfield, China. The air echelon flew there immediately while the ground echelon began the movement by road. With the war over, the air echelon was ordered to fly to Yangkai Airfield, China, to turn in their aircraft for 'pickling' (preparation for storage) and start processing home. All aircraft were turned in at Yangkai on 29 August. The 427th Night Fighter Squadron was inactivated on 13 October 1945.
The 427th Special Operations Training Squadron was with Tactical Air Command, being assigned to England Air Force Base, Louisiana on 1 July 1970. The squadron's mission was to provide transition training to South Vietnamese Air Force pilots for the OA-37B Dragonfly counterinsurgency aircraft to combat guerrilla type activity. The standard A-37 aircraft was fitted with a refueling probe in the nose; reticulated foam was added to the self-sealing fuel tanks to protect against fire or explosions if hit by incendiary anti-aircraft rounds. The cockpit was armor-plated and the undercarriage was strengthened to carry greater weight and to enable the aircraft to operate off rough remote airstrips.
The squadron was inactivated on 15 July 1972.
- Constituted as the 427th Night Fighter Squadron on 19 January 1944
- Activated on 1 February 1944
- Inactivated on 29 October 1945
- Activated and Redesignated as the 427th Special Operations Training Squadron on 1 July 1970
- Inactivated 15 July 1972
- Activated and Redesignated as the 427th Special Operations Squadron (date undetermined)
- IV Fighter Command
- Attached to 481st Night Fighter Operational Training Group, 1 February 1944
- Attached to 62nd Fighter Wing, September 1944
- Army Air Forces India-Burma Sector, 2 October 1944
- Tenth Air Force, 13 December 1944
- Fourteenth Air Force, 24 August – 29 October 1945
- Tactical Air Command
- 4410th Special Operations Training Group, 1 July 1970 – 15 July 1972
- Air Force Special Operations Command, (date undetermined)
- P-47 Thunderbolt, 1944
- P-61 Black Widow, 1944–1945
- P-70 Havoc, 1944
- OA-37B, 1970–1972
- CASA CN-235, 2002–present
- Pilatus PC-6, Unknown-present
- Cessna Grand Caravan, Unknown-present
- Northrop P-61 Black Widow—The Complete History and Combat Record, Garry R. Pape, John M. Campbell and Donna Campbell, Motorbooks International, 1991.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556.