42 Commando

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42 Commando
RoyalMarineBadge.png
Cap Badge of the Royal Marines
Active 1943–
Country United Kingdom
Branch Royal Marines
Type Marine Infantry
Role Commando
Size One battalion
Part of Naval Service
Garrison/HQ Bickleigh Barracks, Devon
Motto Per Mare Per Terram (By Sea By Land) (Latin)
Commanders
Captain-General HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (Captain-General, Royal Marines)

42 commando and a subordinate unit within 3 Commando Brigade, the principal Commando formation, under the Operational Command of Commander in Chief Fleet.

Tasked as a Commando unit, 42 Cdo RM is capable of a wide range of operational tasks. Based at Bickleigh Barracks near Plymouth, personnel regularly deploy outside the United Kingdom on operations or training. Whilst 3 Commando Brigade RM are the principal cold weather warfare formation, personnel are capable of operating in a variety of theatres including tropical jungle, desert or mountainous terrain.

All personnel will have completed the Commando course at the Commando Training Centre(CTCRM) at Lympstone in Devon, entitling them to wear the green beret, with attached personnel having completed the All Arms Commando Course.

History[edit]

Second World War[edit]

Early Commando units were all from the British Army but by February 1942, the Royal Marines were asked to organise Commando units of their own, and 6,000 men volunteered.[1]

No. 42 (Royal Marine) Commando was raised in August 1943, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel R C de M. Leathes from the 1st Royal Marine Battalion, as part of the expansion of the commandos. They were assigned to the 3rd Special Service Brigade and served in India and Burma in 1943–45, including operations in the Arakan and Assam. It took part in the third Arakan campaign and carried out a series of amphibious landings down the Burmese coastline. Including the landings at Myebon and the Battle of Hill 170. It then returned to India to prepare for Operation Zipper the invasion of British Malaya. The war ended before the operation began and the commando was diverted to reoccupy Hong Kong.[2]

Post-WW2[edit]

Following the Second World War 1st, 2nd and 4th commando brigades disbanded leaving only one brigade – the 3rd (40(RM), 42(RM) and 45(RM)). The Commando was involved in operations during the confrontation with Indonesia (Borneo). It was during this tour that the famous Limbang raid was conducted by Lima Company. Throughout the following decade it was based in Singapore at HMS Simbang (RNAS Sembawang).[3][4][5]

Return to UK[edit]

After the return to the UK, the Commando was deployed to Northern Ireland, the New Hebrides in 1980 and exercised regularly overseas. More recently the Commando has seen operational service in South Georgia, Montserrat in 1995, Iraq and Afghanistan. [6]

Falklands Conflict[edit]

In 1982, following the Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, the Commando deployed on Operation Corporate. On 21 May the Commando were Brigade reserve at San Carlos under Lt. Col. Nick Vaux RM. The unit was deployed to seize Mount Kent in a night move by helicopter. By 4 June the unit had moved forward, mostly under cover of darkness, to positions west of high ground overlooking Port Stanley and the last Argentine stronghold. After days of probing reconnaissance, a Brigade assault took place on the night of 11/12 June in which the Commando's task was to secure Mount Harriet on the Brigade right flank.

By moonlight and in freezing temperatures, 42 Commando moved undetected through enemy minefields in a 9 km right-flanking movement to surprise the enemy in their rear. Consecutive assaults by "K" and "L" Companies followed, up steep slopes onto company positions. Against strong resistance and continuous artillery bombardment, the Marines prevailed. By first light more than 30 enemy had been killed and over 300 prisoners taken as 42 Commando consolidated on Mount Harriet. 42 Commando suffered 2 fatalities themselves – one on Mount Harriet and one on Wall Mountain.

For the bravery shown in the attack on Mount Harriet, 42 Commando was awarded 1 DSO, 1 Military Cross, 4 Military Medals and 8 men were Mentioned in Dispatches.[7]

Recent history[edit]

Mike Company of 42 Commando Royal Marines during Operation Volcano.

The new millennium saw the Commando deploy on Operation Telic 1 for the invasion of Iraq in 2003 where they launched a helicopter assault on the Al-Faw Peninsula to support 40 Commando. The unit returned from Operation Herrick in Afghanistan on 16 April 2009, where it served as the Regional Battle Group (South). In essence, it was the Divisional Reserve. It served several operations alongside 3rd Battalion, The Royal Canadian Regiment, with whom it has maintained ties.

Since May 2013, 42 Commando has taken over from 45 Commando as the lead Commando task group.[8] They are deployed as part of the COUGAR 13 Response Force Task Group exercising in Albania and the Middle East.[9][10]

Battle honours[edit]

The following Battle honours were awarded to the British Commandos during the Second World War.[11]

Commanders[edit]

Commanders have included:

  • 1948–1950 Lt. Col. Ian Riches
  • 1963–1965 Lt. Col. Ian Gourlay
  • 1965–1966 Lt. Col. Peter Whiteley
  • 1970–1972 Lt. Col. John Richards
  • 1972–1973 Lt. Col. Jeremy Moore
  • Oct 75 – Apr 78 Lt Col TJM Wilson RM
  • Apr 78 – Jun 80 Lt Col HY La Roche Beverley OBE RM
  • Jun 80 – Dec 81 Lt Col CHC Howgill RM
  • Dec 81 May 83 Lt Col NF Vaux DSO RM
  • May 83 – Dec 84 Lt Col PT Stevenson MBE RM
  • Dec 84 – Oct 86 Lt Col Van Der Horst RM
  • Oct 86 – Jun 88 Lt Col RS Tailyour RM
  • Jun 88 – Jul 90 Lt Col DAS Pennefather RM
  • Jul 90 – Jul 92 Lt Col NM Robinson RM
  • Jul 92 – May 94 Lt Col RHG Fulton RM
  • May 94 – May 96 Lt Col AR Pillar RM
  • May 96 – May 98 Lt Col RGT Lane RM
  • May 98 – Dec 99 Lt Col RM Bowkett RM
  • Dec 99 – Apr 01 Lt Col A Salmon RM
  • Apr 01 – Nov 02 Lt Col DA Hook OBE RM
  • Nov 02 – Jul 04 Lt Col FHR Howes OBE RM
  • Jul 04 – Mar 06 Lt Col GM Salzano MBE RM
  • Apr 06 – Jan 08 Lt Col MJ Holmes DSO RM
  • Jan 08 – Oct 09 Lt Col CR Stickland OBE RM
  • Oct 09 – Jan 12 Lt Col EA Murchison MBE RM
  • Jan 12 - Jan 14 Lt Col N Sutherland MBE RM
  • Jan 14 - present Lt Col R Cantrill OBE MC RM

References[edit]

Notes

Bibliography

  • Chappell, Mike (1996). Army Commandos 1940–1945. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-579-9. 
  • Haskew, Michael E (2007). Encyclopaedia of Elite Forces in the Second World War. Pen and Sword. ISBN 978-1-84415-577-4. 
  • Miller, Russell (1981). The Commandos. Time-Life Books. ISBN 0-8094-3399-0. 
  • Moreman, Timothy Robert (2006). British Commandos 1940–46. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-84176-986-X. 

External links[edit]