438th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group
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|438th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group|
Emblem of the 438th Air Expeditionary Advisory Group
|Active||1943–1945; 1949–1951; 1952–1957; 1991–1994; 2001-TBD|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Type||Air Expeditionary Advisory Group|
|Garrison/HQ||Al Asad Air Base, Iraq|
|Brig Gen Walter Givhani|
The 438th Air Expeditionary Group stood up on 15 January 2007 in Al Anbar province, Iraq to provide close-air support to coalition forces in the region with A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft.
The unit was activated in Al Anbar province, Iraq to provide close-air support to coalition forces in the region with A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft. It is composed of deployed aircraft, equipment and personnel from Air Force units around the world.
- For additional history and lineage, see 438th Air Expeditionary Wing
World War II
- Media related to United States Army Air Forces 438th Troop Carrier Group at Wikimedia Commons
Constituted as 438th Troop Carrier Group on 14 May 1943. Activated on 1 June 1943. Trained with C-47's. Moved to RAF Langar, England in February 1944 and assigned to Ninth Air Force. At Langar, the group was assigned to the 53rd Troop Carrier Wing, however after a month the group was moved south to a new station at RAF Greenham Common. The 438th had the following Troop Carrier squadrons and fuselage codes:
The squadrons had 18 airplanes apiece, mostly C-47s but also a few C-53s (modified version of C-47). At Greenham Common the 438th TCG trained for and participated in airborne operations, flew resupply and reinforcement missions to combat zones, evacuated casualties, and hauled freight.
For its superior flying skills exhibited in extensive daylight and night training, the 438th TCG was selected to lead the IX Troop Carrier Command force in the American airborne landings in Normandy. Prior to the launch, both General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Lt Gen Lewis H. Brereton, Ninth Air Force Commanding General, visited Greenham Common to watch preparations and speak with the troops of the 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment.
Eighty-one aircraft, divided into two serials of 36 and 45 aircraft and led by the 87th Troop Carrier Squadron (3X), took off from the main runway in 15 minutes, commencing at 23:48 hours on 5 June. Despite radio black-out, overloaded aircraft, low cloud cover and lack of marked drop zones, they carried 1,430 men of the US 101st Airborne Division's 502d Parachute Infantry Regiment, who were dropped soon after midnight in the area northwest of Carentan. Glider-borne reinforcement missions followed, and for its determined and successful work the group received a Distinguished Unit Citation.
Losses amounted to one C-47 and a C-53, both lost to flak on 7 June.
On 20 July the air echelons of the 87th, 88th and 89th Troop Carrier Squadrons departed for Canino airbase in Italy in preparation for the August invasion of Southern France, Operation Dragoon. In the invasion, the squadrons dropped paratroops and towed gliders that carried reinforcements. The group also hauled freight in Italy.
The 90th TCS stayed in the UK and operated from RAF Welford until the rest of the groups aircraft returned from Italy on 24 August.
As part of Operation Market Garden, 90 aircraft from the 438th dropped 101st Airborne paratroopers near Eindhoven without loss on 17 September. The next day, 80 aircraft towed gliders again without loss of aircraft, although two gliders aborted and 11 C-47s suffered flak damage. However, when 40 C-47s towing 40 CG-4A Horsa Gliders left Greenham Common on 19 September, things did not go so well in adverse weather. Only half of the gliders were released in the landing zone area, and one C-47 was shot down and several gliders were lost.
A further glider mission by a similar number of aircraft fared no better and another C-47 was lost. Re-supply missions were flown on 20 September and on the 21st to Overasselt and on the 21st to Son.
During the Battle of the Bulge (December 1944 – January 1945), the group, again headed by the 87th Troop Carrier Squadron, flew air supply missions to battle areas, including the first two flights into beleaguered Bastogne. In February 1945 the groups of the 53d TCW were moved to France, the 438th going to A-79 Advanced Landing Ground at Pronses.
On the continent, the 438th TCG used the following Advanced Landing Grounds:
- A-79 Pronses, France February 1945
- B-48 Amiens/Glisy, France May – 3 August 1945
The 438th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) was established on 10 May 1949, at Offut AFB, Nebraska. It was activated in the USAF reserve on 27 June 1949. The group flew C-45, C-46 and C-47 aircraft. It was ordered to active service on 10 March 1951. It was inactivated on 14 March 1951.
The 438th Fighter-Bomber Group was activated at General Billy Mitchell Field, Wisconsin in the reserves flying F-80 Shooting Stars and later F-86 Sabres on 15 June 1952. It was inactivated 16 November 1957.
On 1 December 1991, the unit was activated as the 438th Operations Group as the operational component of 438th Airlift Wing as part of the objective wing implementation. .
On 1 October 1993, the 30th AS was moved w/o/p/e to the 374th Operations Group, Yokota AB, Japan, replacing the 20th AS as part of the Air Force illustrious units realignment. It was replaced by the 13th Airlift Squadron at McGuire which was transferred w/o/p/e from the 18th Operations Group, Kadena AB, Okinawa.
A KC-10 air refueling squadron, the 2d ARS, was assigned to the wing from the former 2d Bomb Wing at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana as part of a major Air Force realignment on 1 October 1994 to have KC-10 bases with two squadrons of 10 aircraft each.
On 1 October 1994, the 438th Airlift Wing was inactivated, being replaced at McGuire by the 305th Air Mobility Wing which was transferred from Grissom AFB, Indiana when Grissom was realigned to the Air Force Reserve.
Global War On Terrorism
The 438th Air Expeditionary Group was activated as part of the Global War On Terror in 2001.
- Constituted as 438th Troop Carrier Group on 14 May 1943
- Activated on 1 June 1943
- Inactivated on 16 September 1945
- Redesignated 438th Troop Carrier Group (Medium) and allocated to the Reserve on 1 June 1949
- Activated on 27 June 1949
- Called to active duty on 10 March 1951
- Inactivated on 14 March 1951
- Redesignated 438th Fighter-Bomber Group and allocated to the Reserve on 1 June 1952
- Activated on 15 June 1952
- Inactivated on 15 November 1957
- Redesignated 438th Operations Group and activated on 1 November 1991
- Inactivated on 1 October 1994
- Redesignated 438th Air Expeditionary Group, and converted to provisional status on 4 December 2001
- 438th Air Expeditionary Advisory Squadron
- 439th Air Expeditionary Advisory Squadron
- 440th Air Expeditionary Advisory Squadron
- 538th Air Expeditionary Advisory Squadron
- 738th Air Expeditionary Advisory Squadron
- Detachment 1 (Jalalabad)
- Detachment 3 (Mazar-e-Shariff)
- 6th Airlift Squadron, 1 November 1991 – 1 October 1994
- 30th Airlift Squadron, 1 November 1991 – 1 October 1993
- 87th Troop Carrier (later Fighter-Bomber) Squadron (3X), 1 June 1943 – 22 September 1945; 27 June 1949-14 March 1951; 15 June 1952 – 16 November 1957
- 88th Troop Carrier (later Fighter-Bomber) Squadron (M2), 1 June 1943 – 22 September 1945; 27 June 1949-14 March 1951; 15 June 1952 – 16 November 1957
- 89th Troop Carrier (later Fighter-Bomber) Squadron (4U), 1 June 1943 – 22 September 1945; 27 June 1949-14 March 1951; 15 June 1952 – 16 November 1957
- 90th Troop Carrier Squadron (Q7), 1 June 1943 – 22 September 1945; 27 June 1949-14 March 1951
- Freeman, Roger A. (1994) UK Airfields of the Ninth: Then and Now 1994. After the Battle ISBN 0-900913-80-0
- Freeman, Roger A. (1996) The Ninth Air Force in Colour: UK and the Continent-World War Two. After the Battle ISBN 1-85409-272-3
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
- A-10s set to soar in Al Anbar province