44th United States Congress

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44th United States Congress
43rd ← → 45th
USCapitol1869.jpg
United States Capitol (1869)

Duration: March 4, 1875 – March 4, 1877

Senate President: Henry Wilson (Mar.–Nov. 1875)
Vacant (1875–1877)
Senate Pres. pro tem: Thomas W. Ferry
House Speaker: Michael C. Kerr
Samuel J. Randall
Members: 76 Senators
293 Representatives
9 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Republican
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
1st: December 6, 1875 – August 15, 1876
2nd: December 4, 1876 – March 3, 1877

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875 to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.

Contents

Major events[edit]

A political cartoon by Joseph Keppler depicts Roscoe Conkling as Mephistopheles, as Rutherford B. Hayes strolls off with a woman labeled as "Solid South"

Major legislation[edit]

State admitted[edit]

  • August 1, 1876: Colorado admitted as the 38th state

Party summary[edit]

The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

During this Congress, two Senate seats and one House seat were added for the new state, Colorado.

Senate[edit]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Republican
(R)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 20 51 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

2
73 1
Begin 26 44 1 0 73 1
End 28 45 76 0
Final voting share 36.8% 63.2% 0.0%
Beginning of the next Congress 33 42 0 (Independent)
1
76 0

House of Representatives[edit]

Affiliation Party
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
Total
Democratic
(D)
Independent
Democratic

(ID)
Independent
Republican

(IR)
Republican
(R)
Independent
(I)
Other Vacant
End of previous Congress 95 7 0 199 0 (Liberal
Republican
)

4
290 2
Begin 177 1 3 101 4 0 287 5
End 182 100 292 2
Final voting share 62.8% 35.8% 1.4% 0.%
Beginning of the next Congress 144 2 0 146 0 0 292 1

Leadership[edit]

President of the Senate Henry Wilson
President pro tempore Thomas W. Ferry

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1880; Class 2 meant their term ended in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1876; and Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1878.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.

Senate[edit]

  • replacements: 4
  • deaths: 3
  • resignations: 1
  • vacancy: 1
  • interim appointments: 3
  • seats of newly admitted states: 2
  • Total seats with changes: 7
State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Louisiana (3) Vacant Vacancy caused by the Senate in declining to seat rival claimants William L. McMillen and P. B. S. Pinchback.[1] Successor was elected. James B. Eustis (D) January 10, 1876
Tennessee (1) Andrew Johnson (D) Died July 31, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. David M. Key (D) August 18, 1875
Connecticut (3) Orris S. Ferry (R) Died November 21, 1875. An interim successor was appointed. James E. English (D) November 27, 1875
Connecticut (3) James E. English (D) Successor elected May 17, 1876 William H. Barnum (D) May 18, 1876
Maine (2) Lot M. Morrill (R) Resigned July 7, 1876 after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury James G. Blaine (R) July 10, 1876
West Virginia (1) Allen T. Caperton (D) Died July 26, 1876 Samuel Price (D) August 26, 1876
Colorado (2) New seats Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seats remained vacant until November 15, 1876 Henry M. Teller (R) November 15, 1876
Colorado (3) Jerome B. Chaffee (R)
Tennessee (1) David M. Key (D) Successor elected January 19, 1877 James E. Bailey (D) January 19, 1877
West Virginia (1) Samuel Price (D) Successor elected January 26, 1877 Frank Hereford (D) January 31, 1877

House of Representatives[edit]

  • replacements: 14
  • deaths: 9
  • resignations: 6
  • contested election: 5
  • seats of newly admitted states: 1
  • Total seats with changes: 21


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Georgia 9th Vacant Rep-elect Garnett McMillan died before taking seat Benjamin H. Hill (D) May 5, 1875
Maine 4th Vacant Rep. Samuel F. Hersey died during previous congress Harris M. Plaisted (R) September 13, 1875
New York 33rd Vacant Rep.-elect Augustus F. Allen died before taking seat Nelson I. Norton (R) December 6, 1875
Massachusetts 1st James Buffington (R) Died March 7, 1875 William W. Crapo (R) November 2, 1875
Oregon At-large George A. La Dow (D) Died May 1, 1875 Lafayette Lane (D) October 25, 1875
Tennessee 4th Samuel M. Fite (D) Died October 23, 1875 Haywood Y. Riddle (D) December 14, 1875
Connecticut 3rd Henry H. Starkweather (R) Died January 28, 1876 John T. Wait (R) April 12, 1876
Florida 2nd Josiah T. Walls (R) Lost contested election April 19, 1876 Jesse J. Finley (D) April 19, 1876
Illinois 3rd Charles B. Farwell (R) Lost contested election May 6, 1876 John V. Le Moyne (D) May 6, 1876
Connecticut 4th William H. Barnum (D) Resigned May 18, 1876 after being elected to the US Senate Levi Warner (D) December 4, 1876
Louisiana 5th Frank Morey (R) Lost contested election June 8, 1876 William B. Spencer (D) June 8, 1876
Idaho Territory At-large Thomas W. Bennett) (I) Lost contested election June 23, 1876 Stephen S. Fenn (D) June 23, 1876
Maine 3rd James G. Blaine (R) Resigned July 10, 1876 after being appointed to the US Senate Edwin Flye (R) December 4, 1876
Kentucky 5th Edward Y. Parsons (D) Died July 18, 1876 Henry Watterson (D) August 12, 1876
Pennsylvania 12th Winthrop W. Ketcham (R) Resigned July 19, 1876 after being appointed judge to the United States District Court for the Western District of Pennsylvania William H. Stanton (D) November 7, 1876
South Carolina 2nd Edmund W. M. Mackey (IR) Seat declared vacant July 19, 1876 Charles W. Buttz (R) November 7, 1876
Massachusetts 4th Rufus S. Frost (R) Lost contested election July 28, 1876 Josiah G. Abbott (D) July 28, 1876
Colorado Territory At-large Thomas M. Patterson (D) Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876 Statehood achieved
Colorado At-large New seat Colorado admitted to the Union August 1, 1876. Seat remained vacant until October 3, 1876. James B. Belford (R) October 3, 1876
Indiana 3rd Michael C. Kerr (D) Died August 19, 1876 Nathan T. Carr (D) December 15, 1876
Indiana 2nd James D. Williams (D) Resigned December 1, 1876 after being elected Governor of Indiana Andrew Humphreys (D) December 5, 1876
New York 7th Smith Ely, Jr. (D) Resigned December 11, 1876 David D. Field II (D) January 11, 1877
Louisiana 5th William B. Spencer (D) Resigned January 8, 1877 to become an associate justice of the Louisiana Supreme Court Vacant Not filled this term
West Virginia 3rd Frank Hereford (D) Resigned January 31, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate Vacant Not filled this term
Georgia 9th Benjamin H. Hill (D) Resigned March 3, 1877 after being elected to the US Senate Vacant Not filled this term

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]