|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||6th century BC – 5th century BC – 4th century BC|
|Decades:||480s BC 470s BC 460s BC – 450s BC – 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC|
|Years:||462 BC 461 BC 460 BC – 459 BC – 458 BC 457 BC 456 BC|
|459 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||459 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||295|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXVII dynasty, 67|
|- Pharaoh||Artaxerxes I of Persia, 7|
|Ancient Greek era||80th Olympiad, year 2|
|Chinese calendar||辛巳年 (Metal Snake)
2238 or 2178
— to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
2239 or 2179
|Coptic calendar||−742 – −741|
|Ethiopian calendar||−466 – −465|
|- Vikram Samvat||−402 – −401|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2643–2644|
|Iranian calendar||1080 BP – 1079 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1113 BH – 1112 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2370 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||84–85|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 459 BC.|
Year 459 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Vibulanus and Uritinus (or, less frequently, year 295 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 459 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- The Jewish priest Ezra assembles and leads a band of approximately 5,000 Jews from Babylon to Jerusalem.
- Athens allies itself with the city state of Megara which is under pressure from Corinth. This alliance leads to war between Corinth and Athens. The first battle of the war, at Haliesis in the Gulf of Argolis, results in a Corinthian victory, but the next battle, at Cecryphalea (modern Angistrion), goes Athens' way.
- The Aequi occupy Tusculum. In response to the threat, the Roman Senate decide to send an army to help the allied city, under the command of consul Lucius Cornelius Maluginensis. In addition, the consul Fabius Vibulanus, who was at that point besieging Antium, moves his forces to attack Tusculum. The Tusculans are able to recapture their city. A truce is then arranged with the Aequi.
- The Sicilian town of Morgantina is destroyed by Ducetius, hellenised leader of the Siculi (according to Diodorus Siculus).