45th Detached Reconnaissance Regiment

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45th Guards Spetsnaz Regiment
Russian 45th Separate Reconnaissance Regiment patch (new).gif
45th Spetsnaz Regiment patch
Active 1994 - present
Country Russia Russia
Branch Большая эмблема Воздушно-десантных войск России.png Russian Airborne Troops
Type Airborne Spetsnaz
Role Special Reconnaissance
Special Operations
Direct Action
Size 2 Battalions
Part of GRU emblem.svg GRU (operational subordination)
Garrison/HQ Kubinka, Moscow Oblast
Motto Побеждает сильнейший
(The strongest wins)
Mascot Wolf
Engagements First Chechen War
Second Chechen War
Georgian–Abkhazian conflict
Insurgency in the North Caucasus
2008 South Ossetia War
2014 Russian military intervention in Ukraine
Commanders
Current
commander
Col. HoRF Vadim Pankov
Notable
commanders
Lt. Col. HoRF Anatoly Lebed

45th Guards Spetsnaz Regiment (Russian: 45-й ОРП СпН ВДВ (в/ч 28337)) is a special reconnaissance and special operations unit within the Russian Airborne Troops, and based outside Moscow.

Creation[edit]

It was created in 1994 from the 901st Air- Assault Battalion (created in 1979) and 218th Spetsnaz Battalion of the Russian Airborne Troops, (created in 1992). Colonel Pavel Popovskikh is credited with the creation of the 45th Spetsnaz as a “subunit of the future” designed for the type of counter-insurgency, warfare for which the forces had been so unprepared in Afghanistan..

The regiment is composed of two special purpose battalions and is equipped with 15 BTR-80, and 1 BTR-D. The regiment composition is:

  • 218th Battalion is based in Sokolniki.[1]
  • 901st Battalion was formed on November 20, 1979.[2]

The unit is part of the Russian Airborne Troops (VDV)[3] and directly subordinated to VDV Headquarters. However it is also operationally subordinate to the GRU.[4]

History[edit]

Old patch of the 45th Regiment

The regiment was formed on the basis of two battalions, each of which had a history of establishment and development. With an initial strength of 800 highly qualified personnel, the unit had especially powerful special reconnaissance capabilities and innovations to include unmanned surveillance aircraft and tailored psychological warfare assets. Almost all of its officers were “prepared in the GRU spetsnaz system”.[5]

The 901st battalion was formed on November 20, 1979 on the territory of the Transcaucasian Military District, and was immediately transferred to Czechoslovakia in the Central Group of forces. In March 1989, in connection with the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Eastern Europe, the battalion was relocated to Aluksne, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic and transferred to the Baltic special military district. In May 1991, the battalion was transferred to the Transcaucasian Military District and relocated in Sukhumi, Abkhaz ASSR. In August 1992, the battalion was transferred from the authority of the Transcaucasian military district under the authority of the staff of the airborne troops and renamed 901st Separate Airborne Battalion. As a separate battalion, it was transferred to the 7th Guards Airborne Division.

War in Abkhazia (1992–93)[edit]

In 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhazian conflict, the battalion performed tasks for the protection and defense from looting and destruction of the important military and Government facilities in the territory of Abkhazia. During this period, eight members of the battalion were killed, before the end of performing their military duty, and about 20 people wounded. For combat missions thirteen people were awarded order "for personal courage", twenty one people-the Medal "for courage" and one man the Medal "for merit".

In October 1993, the battalion was relocated from the city of Sukhumi to the Moscow region, where in February the following year it was transformed into the 901st Special Purpose Battalion. With the beginning of the formation of the Special Purpose Regiment, the battalion was included in its composition.

The 218th Battalion of Special Forces Airborne Troops was formed July 25, 1992.[6] By order of the Commander of the Airborne Troops in the historical continuity this day is considered to be the day of formation of this battalion. The battalion was involved in as a peacekeeping force in the zones of inter-ethnic conflict in the Transdniester region in June and July 1992, in North Ossetia in September-November, 1992 and in Abkhazia in December 1992. Many battalion members were awarded State Awards for bravery and heroism.

Chechen Wars and North Caucasus insurgency[edit]

Active use of this battalion in solving special tasks in various conflicts showed the need to build other special forces with similar tasks in the airborne troops and their integration in the regiment. By July 1994, the regiment was fully formed, staffed with personnel, equipment and proceeded to battle school. December 2, 1994 the regiment traveled to the Northern Caucasus to take part in the elimination of illegal armed formations on the territory of the Chechen Republic. During the period from December 12, 1994 to January 25, 1995, reconnaissance groups and groups of special units of the regiment, in conjunction with the parts of the Airborne Troops, took part in the fighting on the most important targets of the enemy, including partaking in the Battle of Grozny (1994–95). On February 12, 1995 parts and units of the regiment returned to their permanent home base in Sukhumi.

Anatoly Lebed was a famous soldier and commanding officer of the regiment.

By March 15, 1995, the consolidated unit the regiment newly arrived in Chechnya, continuing to carry out combat missions until June 13, 1995. By Decree of the President of the Russian Federation dated July 21, 1995, Commander of the intelligence group special purpose Senior Lieutenant Ermakova, for the courage and heroism shown during the special job command to disarm illegal armed formations, was awarded the title Hero of the Russian Federation (posthumous). On July 30, 1995 the unit solemnly opened the monument in memory of the Scouts. On May 9, 1995 the regiment was awarded the diploma of the President of the Russian Federation for services to the Russian Federation. The regiment participated in the parade dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of the Victory over Nazi Germany.

From February to May 1997, the consolidated unit the regiment took part in the peacekeeping mission in the zone of separation of Georgian and Abkhaz armed forces in the town of Gudauta. On July 26, 1997, following the traditions of the armed forces, the regiment was awarded Battle banner and Medallion 5th Guards Airborne Infantry, order of Kutuzov 2nd degree 3 Regiment, which had been disbanded June 27, 1945, and stored in the Central Museum of the armed forces of the Russian Federation.

From September 12, the Regiment took part in special reconnaissance and anti-terrorist operations in the North Caucasus.

Alleged role in the 2014 Ukrainian Crisis[edit]

Masked saboteurs allegedly of the Russian 45th Regiment were operating in Sloviansk and Kramatorsk, Donetsk region, First Deputy Prime Minister Vitaliy Yarema told reporters on 15 April, 2014, in Poltava region.:

"We have identified those persons who are now in Sloviansk and Kramatorsk. They represent a unit of the 45th Regiment "Kupyanka -1", which is housed near Moscow. This unit is now operating in the territory of Ukraine,"

Russia denies the presence of its troops in the east of Ukraine, as it had previously denied their involvement in the occupation of Crimea.[7]

Decorated servicemen[edit]

During its existence the regiment for courage and heroism, five military personnel were awarded the title Hero of the Russian Federation. Others awarded with orders and medals include:[8]

  • The order of courage " - 79
  • The order of military merit " - 17
  • Order "for merits before fatherland" - 3
  • Medal "for merits before fatherland" 2-nd class with swords - 10
  • Medal "for courage" - 174
  • Medal of Suvorov - 166
  • Medal of Zhukov - 7

Role in public life[edit]

The regiment has staged youth competitions for military-applied kinds of sports among military patriotic clubs. At different celebrations in Moscow and the Moscow region, it held demonstrations and skydiving performances by paratroopers, with commandos demonstrating hand-to-hand fighting. Every year since 1995, special operations group, formed on the basis of the regiment, takes part in the international competition among special forces from the United States, Germany, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Russia, held in Bulgaria on the Partnership for Peace Program. In 1996, the regiment took the prize-winning group a third place in the overall standings, and the next year became the champion of 1997.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Warfare.ru on VDV - includes note on 45th Separate Reconnaissance Regiment, accessed December 2008
  2. ^ http://www.bratishka.ru/specnaz/vdv/6.php
  3. ^ Structure of VDV (Russian)
  4. ^ History of Soviet Spetsnaz. Numeration and history of units (Russian)
  5. ^ http://spec-naz.org/dossier/spetsnaz_vdv/45_otdelnyy_razvedyvatelnyy_polk_spetsialnogo_naznacheniya_vdv_45_orp_vdv/
  6. ^ Warfare.ru on VDV - includes note on 45th Separate Reconnaissance Regiment, accessed December 2008
  7. ^ Pulkki, Arto (3 March 2014). "Crimea Invaded By High Readiness Forces of the Russian Federation". Helsinki: Suomen Sotilas (Soldier of Finland). Retrieved 5 September 2014. With a very high probability we argue that these troops are the 45th Guards Separate Reconnaissance Regiment of VDV (Russian: 45-й гвардейский отдельный разведывательный ордена Александра Невского полк ВДВ), Kubinka, Moscow 
  8. ^ http://spec-naz.org/dossier/spetsnaz_vdv/45_otdelnyy_razvedyvatelnyy_polk_spetsialnogo_naznacheniya_vdv_45_orp_vdv/

External links[edit]