45th New Zealand Parliament

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The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1996 elections, and it sat until the 1999 elections.

The 45th Parliament was notable in that it was the first to be elected under the new MMP electoral system, a form of proportional representation. It was also notable for the fact that it was the first New Zealand Parliament to have an Asian person, Pansy Wong, elected to it. The difference between the 45th Parliament and its predecessor were considerable — the 44th Parliament had opened with only four seats being held by minor parties, but at the opening of the 45th Parliament, minor parties held thirty-nine seats. Because of the considerably altered balance of power in Parliament, neither of the two major parties could govern alone, and New Zealand First, the largest of the four other parties in Parliament, was put in the position of "kingmaker". In the end, New Zealand First opted for a coalition with the National Party, which had governed in the previous Parliament. The Labour Party continued in Opposition.

The 45th Parliament consisted of one hundred and twenty representatives. Sixty-five of these representatives were chosen by geographical electorates, including five special Maori electorates. The remainder were elected by means of party-list proportional representation under the MMP electoral system.

Electoral boundaries for the 45th Parliament[edit]

NewZealandElectorates1996-Labeled.png

Initial composition of the 45th Parliament[edit]

Name Party Electorate Term
Anae, Arthur National - First
Anderton, Jim Alliance Wigram Fifth
Awatere Huata, Donna ACT - First
Banks, John National Whangarei Sixth
Barker, Rick Labour Tukutuki Second
Barnett, Tim Labour Christchurch Central First
Batten, Ann New Zealand First - First
Birch, Bill National Port Waikato Ninth
Bloxham, Jenny New Zealand First - First
Bolger, Jim National Taranaki-King Country Ninth
Bradford, Max National Rotorua Third
Braybrooke, Geoff Labour Napier Sixth
Brown, Peter New Zealand First - First
Brownlee, Gerry National Ilam First
Bunkle, Phillida Alliance - First
Burton, Mark Labour Taupo Second
Carter, David National Banks Peninsula Second
Carter, John National Northland Fourth
Clark, Helen Labour Owairaka Sixth
Corkery, Pam Alliance - First
Creech, Wyatt National Wairarapa Fourth
Cullen, Michael Labour Dunedin South Sixth
Dalziel, Lianne Labour - Third
Delamere, Tuariki New Zealand First Te Tai Rawhiti First
Donald, Rod Alliance - First
Donnelly, Brian New Zealand First - First
Dunne, Peter United Ohariu-Belmont Fifth
Duynhoven, Harry Labour New Plymouth Third
Dyson, Ruth Labour - Second
East, Paul National - Seventh
Elder, Jack New Zealand First - Fifth
English, Bill National Clutha-Southland Third
Field, Taito Phillip Labour Mangere Second
Fitzsimons, Jeanette Alliance - First
Fletcher, Christine National Epsom Third
Gerard, Jim National - Fifth
Gillon, Grant Alliance - First
Goff, Phil Labour New Lynn Sixth
Gordon, Liz Alliance - First
Gosche, Mark Labour - First
Graham, Doug National - Fifth
Gresham, Peter National - Third
Grover, Frank Alliance - First
Harré, Laila Alliance - First
Hasler, Marie National Waitakere Second
Hawke, Joe Labour - First
Hawkins, George Labour Manurewa Third
Henare, Tau New Zealand First Te Tai Tokerau Second
Herlihy, Gavan National Otago First
Hide, Rodney ACT - First
Hobbs, Marian Labour - First
Hodgson, Pete Labour Dunedin North Third
Hunt, Jonathan Labour - Eleventh
Jennings, Owen ACT - First
Keall, Judy Labour Otaki Fourth
Kelly, Graham Labour Mana Fourth
Kidd, Doug National Kaikoura Seventh
King, Annette Labour Rongotai Fifth
Kirton, Neil New Zealand First - First
Kopu, Alamein Alliance - First
Kyd, Warren National Hunua Fourth
Lee-Vercoe, Sandra Alliance - Second
Luxton, John National Karapiro Fourth
Mackey, Janet Labour Mahia Second
Maharey, Steve Labour Palmerston North Third
Mahuta, Nanaia Labour - First
Mallard, Trevor Labour Hutt South Fifth
Mapp, Wayne National North Shore First
Mark, Ron New Zealand First - First
Marshall, Denis National Rangitikei Fifth
Maxwell, Roger National - Fifth
McCardle, Peter New Zealand First - Third
McCully, Murray National Albany Fourth
McDonald, Robyn New Zealand First - First
McKinnon, Don National - Seventh
McLauchlan, Joy National - Third
McLean, Murray National Coromandel First
Moore, Mike Labour Waimakariri Eighth
Morgan, Tuku New Zealand First Te Tai Hauauru First
Morris, Deborah New Zealand First - First
Neeson, Brian National Waipareira Third
Newman, Muriel ACT - First
O'Connor, Damien Labour West Coast-Tasman Second
O'Regan, Katherine National - Fifth
Peck, Mark Labour Invercargill Second
Peters, Winston New Zealand First Tauranga Sixth
Pettis, Jill Labour Wanganui Second
Prebble, Richard ACT Wellington Central Seventh
Quigley, Derek ACT - Fourth
Revell, Ian National Northcote Third
Robertson, Ross Labour Manukau East Fourth
Robson, Matt Alliance - First
Roy, Eric National - Second
Ryall, Tony National Bay of Plenty Third
Samuels, Dover Labour - First
Schnauer, Patricia ACT - First
Shipley, Jenny National Rakaia Fourth
Shirley, Ken ACT - Third
Simcock, Bob National Hamilton West First
Simich, Clem National Tamaki Third
Smith, Lockwood National Rodney Fifth
Smith, Nick National Nelson Third
Sowry, Roger National - Third
Steel, Tony National Hamilton East Second
Sutherland, Larry Labour Christchurch East Fourth
Sutton, Jim Labour Aoraki Fourth
Swain, Paul Labour Rimutaka Third
Te Heuheu, Georgina National - First
Tizard, Judith Labour Auckland Central Third
Turia, Tariana Labour - First
Upton, Simon National - Sixth
Vernon, Belinda National Maungakiekie First
Waitai, Rana New Zealand First Te Puku O Te Whenua First
White, Jill Labour - Second
Williamson, Maurice National Pakuranga Fourth
Wong, Pansy National - First
Woolerton, Doug New Zealand First - First
Wright, John Alliance - First
Wyllie, Tu New Zealand First Te Tai Tonga First
Yates, Dianne Labour - Second

By-elections during 45th Parliament[edit]

There was one by-election held during the term of the 45th Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Taranaki-King Country 1998 2 May Jim Bolger Resignation Shane Ardern

Summary of changes during term[edit]

  • Jim Gerard, a National Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in April 1997 to take up a post as High Commissioner in Ottawa. He was replaced by Annabel Young, the next candidate on National's list.
  • Alamein Kopu, an Alliance list MP, resigned from her party in July 1997. She eventually formed her own party, Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata.
  • Jim Bolger, having been replaced as Prime Minister by Jenny Shipley in 1997, left Parliament in 1998. This caused a by-election in his Taranaki-King Country seat, won by Shane Ardern of the National Party.
  • Neil Kirton, a New Zealand First list MP, resigned from his party in July 1998 after ongoing conflict with its leadership. Kirton opposed his party's coalition with the National Party, and believed that the National Party was too dominant in the agreement. Kirton became an independent.
  • After the collapse of the coalition between the National Party and New Zealand First, the junior partner, New Zealand First, splintered. Eight MPs (Jenny Bloxham, Peter Brown, Brian Donnelly, Ron Mark, Robyn McDonald, Winston Peters, Doug Woolerton, and Tu Wyllie) remained with the party, and eight MPs (Ann Batten, Tuariki Delamere, Jack Elder, Tau Henare, Peter McCardle, Tuku Morgan, Deborah Morris, and Rana Waitai) resigned and become independents. The MPs who resigned did not remain united, and eventually split four ways.
    • Batten, Elder, Henare, Morgan, and Waitai established the Mauri Pacific party.
    • Delamere joined the Te Tawharau party.
    • Morris resigned from Parliament. She was replaced by Gilbert Myles, the next candidate on her former party's list. Myles remained attached to New Zealand First.
    • McCardle remained an independent.
  • Jill White, a Labour Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in 1998 to become Mayor of Palmerston North. She was replaced by Helen Duncan, the next candidate on Labour's list.
  • Paul East, a National Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in 1999 to take up a post as High Commissioner in London. He was replaced by Alec Neill, the next candidate on National's list.
  • Frank Grover, an Alliance list MP, resigned from his party on 11 June 1999. He joined the Christian Heritage Party.

References[edit]