490s BC

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Millennium: 1st millennium BC
Centuries: 6th century BC5th century BC4th century BC
Decades: 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC490s BC480s BC 470s BC 460s BC
Years: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC 490 BC
Categories: BirthsDeathsArchitecture
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

490s BC: events by year[edit]

Contents: 499 BC 498 BC 497 BC 496 BC 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC 492 BC 491 BC 490 BC

499 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

498 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

Sicily[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • The earliest surviving of the Greek poets Pindar's epinikion (Pythian ode 10) is written.

497 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

496 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

Roman Republic[edit]

China[edit]

495 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Roman Republic[edit]

China[edit]

494 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Persian empire[edit]

  • Having successfully captured several of the revolting Greek city-states, the Persians under Artaphernes lay siege to Miletus. The decisive Battle of Lade is fought at the island of Lade, near Miletus' port. Although out-numbered, the Greek fleet appears to be winning the battle until the ships from Samos and Lesbos retreat. The sudden defection turns the tide of battle, and the remaining Greek fleet is completely destroyed. Miletus surrenders shortly thereafter, and the Ionian Revolt comes to an end.
  • The Persian leaders Artaphernes and Mardonius grant a degree of autonomy to the Ionian cities. They abstain from financial reprisals and merely exact former levels of tribute. The Persians abolish the Greek tyrannies in Ionia and permit democracies.
  • The Persians burn down the Temple of Apollo at Didyma.

Greece[edit]

Roman republic[edit]

493 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Persian Empire[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • The Athenian people elect Themistocles as archon, the chief judicial and civilian executive officer in Athens. He favours resistance against the Persians.
  • Themistocles starts the construction of a fortified naval base at Piraeus, the port town of Athens.
  • Among the refugees arriving from Ionia after the collapse of the Ionian Revolt is a chief named Miltiades, who has a fine reputation as a soldier. Themistocles makes him a general in the Athenian army.

Roman Republic[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

  • The Athenian poet Phrynicus produces a tragedy on the Fall of Miletus. The Athenian authorities ban the play from further production on the grounds of impiety.

492 BC[edit]

Millennium: 1st millennium BC
Centuries: 6th century BC5th century BC4th century BC
Decades: 520s BC  510s BC  500s BC  – 490s BC –  480s BC  470s BC  460s BC
Years: 495 BC 494 BC 493 BC492 BC491 BC 490 BC 489 BC
492 BC by topic
Politics
State leadersSovereign states
Birth and death categories
BirthsDeaths
Establishments and disestablishments categories
EstablishmentsDisestablishments
492 BC in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 492 BC
Ab urbe condita 262
Armenian calendar N/A
Assyrian calendar 4259
Bahá'í calendar −2335 – −2334
Bengali calendar −1084
Berber calendar 459
English Regnal year N/A
Buddhist calendar 53
Burmese calendar −1129
Byzantine calendar 5017–5018
Chinese calendar 戊申(Earth Monkey)
2205 or 2145
    — to —
己酉年 (Earth Rooster)
2206 or 2146
Coptic calendar −775 – −774
Discordian calendar 675
Ethiopian calendar −499 – −498
Hebrew calendar 3269–3270
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat −435 – −434
 - Shaka Samvat N/A
 - Kali Yuga 2610–2611
Holocene calendar 9509
Igbo calendar −1491 – −1490
Iranian calendar 1113 BP – 1112 BP
Islamic calendar 1147 BH – 1146 BH
Japanese calendar N/A
Juche calendar N/A
Julian calendar N/A
Korean calendar 1842
Minguo calendar 2403 before ROC
民前2403年
Thai solar calendar 52

Year 492 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Macerinus and Augurinus (or, less frequently, year 262 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 492 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.

Events[edit]

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By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • The first expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece commences under the leadership of his son-in-law and general, Mardonius. Darius sends Mardonius to succeed his satrap (governor) in Ionia, Artaphernes, with a special commission to attack Athens and Eretria.
  • The Persians under Mardonius subdue and capture Thrace and Macedonia.
  • Mardonius loses some 300 ships in a storm off Mount Athos, which forces him to abandon his plans to attack Athens and Eretria.

Sicily[edit]

  • When Camarina, a Syracusan colony, rebels, Hippocrates, the tyrant of Gela, intervenes to wage war against Syracuse. After defeating the Syracusan army at the Heloros River, he besieges the city. However, he is persuaded by the intervention of forces from the Greek mainland city of Corinth to retreat in exchange for the possession of Camarina.

Rome[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

491 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • Darius I sends envoys to all Greek cities, demanding "earth and water for vassalage" which Athens and Sparta refuse.
  • The Greek city of Aegina, fearing the loss of trade, submits to Persia. The Spartan king, Cleomenes I tries to punish Aegina for its submission to the Persians, but the other Spartan king, Demaratus, thwarts him.
  • Cleomenes I engineers the deposing of Spartan co-ruler Demaratus (and his replacement by Cleomenes’ cousin Leotychidas) by bribing the oracle at Delphi to announce that this action was divine will. The two Spartan kings successfully capture the Persian collaborators in Aegina.

Sicily[edit]

  • Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela, loses his life in a battle against the Siculi, the native Sicilian people. He is succeeded as Tyrant of Gela by Gelo, who had been his commander of cavalry.

Roman Republic[edit]

  • During a famine in Rome, Gnaeus Marcius Coriolanus advises that the people should not receive grain unless they would consent to the abolition of the office of tribune. For this, the tribunes have him condemned to exile. Coriolanus then takes refuge with the King of the Volsci and leads the Volscian army against Rome, turning back only in response to entreaties from his mother and his wife.

By topic[edit]

Art[edit]

490 BC[edit]

By place[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • Darius I sends an expedition, under Artaphernes and Datis the Mede across the Aegean to attack the Athenians and the Eretrians. Hippias, the aged ex-tyrant of Athens, is on one of the Persian ships in the hope of being restored to power in Athens.
  • When the Ionian Greeks in Asia Minor rebelled against Persia in 499 BC, Eretria joined Athens in sending aid to the rebels. As a result, Darius makes a point of punishing Eretria during his invasion of Greece. The city is sacked and burned and Darius enslaves its inhabitants. He intends the same fate for Athens.
  • September 12 – The Battle of Marathon takes place as a Persian army of more than 20,000 men is advised by Hippias to land in the Bay of Marathon, where they meet the Athenians supported by the Plataeans. The Persians are repulsed by 11,000 Greeks under the leadership of Callimachus and Miltiades. Some 6,400 Persians are killed at a cost of 192 Athenian dead. Callimachus, the war-archon of Athens, is killed in the battle. After the battle, the Persians return home.
  • Before the Battle of Marathon, the Athenians send a runner, Pheidippides, to seek help from Sparta. However, the Spartans delay sending troops to Marathon because religious requirements (the Carnea) mean they must wait for the full moon.
  • The Greek historian Herodotus, the main source for the Greco-Persian Wars, mentions Pheidippides as the messenger who runs from Athens to Sparta asking for help, and then runs back, a distance of over 240 kilometres[1] each way.[2] After the battle, he runs back to Athens to spread the news and raise the spirits. It is claimed that his last words before collapsing and dying in Athens are "Chairete, nikomen" ("Rejoice, we are victorious").
  • Hippias dies at Lemnos on the journey back to Sardis after the Persian defeat.
  • Cleomenes I is forced to flee Sparta when his plot against Demaratus is discovered, but the Spartans allow him to return when he begins gathering an army in the surrounding territories. However, by this time he has become insane, and the Spartans put him in prison. Shortly after, he commits suicide. He is succeeded as King of Sparta by a member of the Agiad house, his half-brother, Leonidas.

By topic[edit]

Architecture[edit]

  • The Athenians begin the building of a temple to Athena Parthenos (approximate date).
  • Stelae are once again allowed in Athenian cemeteries, having been banned since 510 BC.


Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ International Spartathlon Association
  2. ^ The Great Marathon Myth