4D BIM

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4D BIM, an acronym for 4D Building Information Modeling and a term widely used in the CAD industry, refers to the intelligent linking of individual 3D CAD components or assemblies with time- or schedule-related information.[1] The use of the term 4D is intended to refer to the fourth dimension: time, i.e. 4D is 3D plus schedule (time).[2]

The construction of the 4D models enables the various participants (from architects, designers, contractors to owners) of a construction project, to visualize the entire duration of a series of events and display the progress of construction activities through the lifetime of the project.[3][4][5] This BIM-centric approach towards project management technique has a very high potential to improve the project management and delivery of construction project, of any size or complexity.

History[edit]

In 1998, Sir John Egan, in his report Rethinking Construction,[6] argued that certain principles and management techniques could successfully cross-over from other industries like manufacturing to serve the project delivery demands of the construction industry. The Egan Report cited "Technology as a Tool":

"One area in which we know new technology to be a very useful tool is in the design of buildings and their components, and in the exchange of design information throughout the construction team. There are enormous benefits to be gained, in terms of eliminating waste and rework for example, from using modern CAD technology to prototype buildings and by rapidly exchanging information on design changes. Redesign should take place on computer, not on the construction site."

4D BIM adds a new dimension (time) to 3D CAD or solid modelling; it enables a sequence of events to be depicted visually on a time line that has been populated by a 3D model (augmenting traditional Gantt charts often used in project management).[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] Construction sequences can be reviewed as a series of problems using 4D BIM, enabling users to explore options, manage solutions and optimize results. It enables construction product development, collaborative and transparent project implementation, partnering with the supply chain and production of components, and is in keeping with Egan's vision: "sustained improvement should then be delivered through use of techniques for eliminating waste and increasing value for the customer."

As an advanced construction management technique, it is increasingly used by project delivery teams working on larger projects.[15][16][17] For example, it is used in the construction of projects including tall buildings, bridges, highways, tunnels, university campuses and hospital complexes, luxury residential, residential and infrastructure such as courthouses, levee systems, hydro-electric power generation stations, mining and industrial process facilities. 4D BIM has traditionally been used for higher end projects due to the associated costs, but technologies are now emerging that allow the process to be used by laymen or to drive processes such as manufacture.[18][19][20][21][22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "4D BIM or Simulation-Based Modeling". structuremag.org. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  2. ^ "ASHRAE Introduction to BIM, 4D and 5D". cadsoft-consult.com. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "NIBS BIM Initiatives". wbdg.org. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  4. ^ "Interactive 4D-CAD by Kathleen McKinney, Jennifer Kim, Martin Fischer, Craig Howard". stanford.edu. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  5. ^ "Introduction to 4D Research by Martin Fischer". stanford.edu. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  6. ^ Egan, J. (1998) Rethinking Construction: Report of the Construction Task Force, London: HMSO. (Copy of report available on Constructing Excellence website: report. Accessed: 8 September 2014.)
  7. ^ "GSA Web Site". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  8. ^ "4D BIM: The Evolution of Construction Scheduling". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  9. ^ "4D BIM Modeling: Improve Cost, Scheduling and Coordination of Building Project". architecturalevangelist.com. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  10. ^ "Rethinking Construction – 10 years on?". construction-student.co.uk. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  11. ^ "Towards 5D CAD — Dynamic Cost and Resource Planning for Specialist Contractors by William O’Brien". asce.org. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  12. ^ "4D construction simulation". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  13. ^ "A case study on constructing 3D / 4D BIM models from 2D drawings and paper-based documents using a school building project by S L Fan, S C Kang, S H Hsieh, Y H Chen, C H Wu, J R Juang". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  14. ^ "Building Information Modeling (BIM) Guidelines and Standards for Architects, Engineers, and Contractors". Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  15. ^ "Trends of 4D CAD applications for construction planning by David Heesom and Lamine Mahdjoubi". psu.edu. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  16. ^ "Using 4D CAD and Immersive Virtual Environments to Improve Construction Planning by Sai Yerrapathruni, John I. Messner, Anthony J. Baratta and Michael J. Horman". psu.edu. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  17. ^ "4D CAD Application Examples and Directions for Development in Civil Engineering Projects by Joong-Min Kwak, Gwang-Yeol Choi, Nam-Jin Park, Hwa-Jin Seo and Leen-Seok Kang". ipedr.com. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  18. ^ "4D BIM from Vico website". vicosoftware.com. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  19. ^ "Management Pracitices in Construction by Mohammad kasirossafar". ci-asce.org. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  20. ^ 4d CAD and Visualization in Construction: Developments and Applications by Raja R. A. Issa, Ian Flood, William J. O'Brien. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  21. ^ BIM Handbook: A Guide to Building Information Modeling for Owners, Managers, Designers, Engineers, and Contractors by Chuck Eastman, Charles M. Eastman, Paul Teicholz, Rafael Sacks. Retrieved 29 May 2012. 
  22. ^ "Modeling & Simulation-Based Data Engineering: Introducing Pragmatics into Ontologies for Net-Centric Information Exchange by Bernard P. Zeigler (Author), Phillip E. Hammonds (Author)". Retrieved 29 May 2012.