4 Minutes (Madonna song)
|Single by Madonna featuring Justin Timberlake and Timbaland|
|from the album Hard Candy|
|Released||March 17, 2008|
|Madonna singles chronology|
"4 Minutes" is a song by American singer-songwriter Madonna from her eleventh studio album Hard Candy (2008), featuring vocals by American singers Justin Timberlake and Timbaland. It was released as the lead single from the album on March 17, 2008, by Warner Bros. Records. The song's development was motivated by a sense of urgency to save the planet from destruction, and how people can enjoy themselves in the process. The writing was completed through discussions between Madonna and Timberlake about different situations, issues and relationships. According to Madonna, the song inspired her to produce the documentary I Am Because We Are (2008).
The song was recorded at Sarm West Studios, in London, while the mixing of the track was finished at The Hit Factory studio, in Miami. Sound engineer Demacio "Demo" Castellon first worked on the vocals of the track, by honing them according to his instincts, and then worked on the beats and the synths composed by Timbaland and Danja. An uptempo dance-pop song with an urban and hip hop style, "4 Minutes" incorporates Timbaland's characteristic bhangra beats and the instrumentation used in the song includes brass, foghorns and cowbells. The song's lyrics carry a message of social awareness, inspired by Madonna's visit to Africa and the human suffering she witnessed in the continent.
"4 Minutes" received positive reviews from many music critics who called it a busy dance track and complimented its music, which was compared to that of a marching band. Some however noted that Madonna, rather than Timberlake, appeared as more of a featured artist in the song. "4 Minutes" achieved worldwide success by reaching number one in 21 countries, including Australia, Canada, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom. In the United States, "4 Minutes" peaked at number three on the Billboard Hot 100, giving Madonna her 37th top-ten single, breaking the record previously held by Elvis Presley, as the artist with most top-ten hits.
In the song's accompanying music video, Madonna and Timberlake sing and run away from a giant black screen that devours everything in its path. At the end of the video, both of them are consumed by the screen. "4 Minutes" was performed by Madonna on the promotional tour for Hard Candy and the 2008–09 Sticky & Sweet Tour. In the latter, the song served as the opener of the rave segment, where Madonna wore a futuristic robotic outfit. During performances of the song, Timberlake and Timbaland appeared on video screens and sang their lines. The song received two Grammy Award nominations for Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals and Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical at the 2009 ceremony.
- 1 Writing and inspiration
- 2 Recording and mixing
- 3 Composition
- 4 Critical reception
- 5 Chart performance
- 6 Music video
- 7 Live performances and covers
- 8 Track listings and formats
- 9 Credits and personnel
- 10 Charts
- 11 Certifications
- 12 Release history
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Writing and inspiration
Following the release of her tenth studio album, Confessions on a Dance Floor (2005), Madonna mused on what kind of music she wanted to record, and it was dance music like her previous album. When asked by producer Stuart Price what kind of music appealed to her, Madonna replied that she loved singer Justin Timberlake and producer Timbaland's records, so she collaborated with them. "4 Minutes" was written by all three of them, along with Nate "Danja" Hills, and produced by Timbaland, Timberlake and Danja. The song, initially named "4 Minutes to Save the World", was one of the last to be produced for Madonna's album Hard Candy. In an interview with MTV News, Madonna said that the concept of the song was developed through discussions with Timberlake. She further explained the meaning of the song:
Well I don't think it's important to take it too literally. I think the song more than anything is about having a sense of urgency; about how we are you know, living on borrowed time essentially and people are becoming much more aware of the environment and how we're destroying the planet. We can't just keep distracting ourselves we do have to educate ourselves and wake up and do something about it. You know at the same time we don't want to be boring and serious and not have fun so it's kind of like well if we're going to save the planet can we have a good time while we are doing it?
Madonna clarified that her age did not have anything to do with the sense urgency reflected in the track, it was just something that she had in mind for a long time and with "4 Minutes", the sense seeped into her music. Ingrid Sischy from Interview magazine said that the song felt like a ballad for the world, containing "the sounds of a great big marching band. It's a giant dance song". Madonna agreed with Sischy and responded that the song was "a funny paradox" and was one of the inspirations behind her documentary I Am Because We Are (2008). The documentary dealt with the acute suffering and food shortage afflicting the African nation of Malawi.
Recording and mixing
The recording sessions for "4 Minutes" took place at Sarm West Studios in West London, on a 72-channel SSL 9080 scratching tool. Paul Tingen from Sound on Sound magazine interviewed mixing and recording engineer Demacio "Demo" Castellon, who recalled that he did not attend the first recording sessions "because [he] was working on another project, but [he] was lucky enough to go in for the second set of sessions". Over half of the song was already done by the time Castellon arrived, including the drum sounds to the basic keyboard lines. According to him, he "recorded the rest, and [he] also did some programming, particularly in the intro and the end." At Sarm, Timbaland and Danja used Akai MPC3000 and Ensoniq ASR-10 sampling drum machines, Yamaha Motif workstation and synths to build the backing track for "4 Minutes". "There were dedicated analogue keyboards and the rest were soft synths. But we're always experimenting and we're always using whatever equipment we have in the studio we work in. We may have our preferences, but we're always into trying new things. That's why our stuff sounds different to that of everybody else." Castellon said that the "4 Minutes" background "consists mainly of brass, synths, and percussion." Castellon asserted that the session was "actually much bigger than most people would think, because Tim and Danja take a lot of pride in designing their own sounds [...] The drums and percussion on '4 Minutes' are 23 stereo tracks, so 46 tracks in total, there were 16 stereo tracks of brass, and so on. The whole session panned out to about 100 tracks, and I took 80 outputs from Pro Tools to the SSL, so there was some submixing in Pro Tools. But for the most part it was straight across the board." In the interview, Castellon gave his opinion of Timbaland's production, as well as his own production work:
In the case of '4 Minutes', Tim had a vision from the beginning of how things should go, especially sonically. He's a real producer. He doesn't look only at the music, he looks at the sounds as well. He's also a great engineer and he has an incredible ear and he knows exactly how to piece things together in the stereo spectrum. [...] When I opened up the session of '4 Minutes', there was so much going on that I knew right away that the hard part would be to make sure that the vocals would cut through and were right in the pocket. Beginning with working on the vocals was the only way to achieve this. After that I formed all the other parts around the vocals. The other challenge was to make sure that everything in the track sounded clear and that you could hear every instrument, every syllable, every breath. Also, I do almost always work linear in time on a track. It's easier, because when you're done, you're done. So I keep working on section after section, until I get to the end of the track and then I know the whole mix is pretty close.
Castellon said that he did not want the SSL's internal automation to interfere with his blending of the music, which he said "has happened". Instead, the automation was from Pro Tools, with levels set using an eight-fader CM Labs Motormix controller belonging to Castellon. According to him, he "then ran everything through the SSL, on which [he] did EQ, compression and panning." The mixing of the track was made at The Hit Factory studio, in Miami, Florida, on a 96-channel SSL J-series desk. Considering the quantity of recorded backing tracks, a challenge in mixing "4 Minutes" was, according to Castellon, "making sure that the music didn't overwhelm the vocals." Castellon explained how he did this: "I started with the vocals, then I added in the music, and the drums were last. That's unusual for me, even though I don't really have a set way of mixing." Very few digital plug-ins were employed for the mix as Castellon preferred the sound of outboard gear. He tried to complete the song quickly, which took him a day of work to mix. After two days, he fine-tuned the mix.
After the mixes were done, Castellon began working with the vocals, he started with Timbaland's introduction part, continued with Madonna's voice, and finished with Timberlake's vocals. On Timbaland's vocals, he utilized the SSL's EQ to reduce "some bottom end", and he set input levels to avoid clipping when the singing was very loud. For Madonna and Timberlake he used a little of the SSL's dynamic range compression, and on Madonna's voice he applied "an eighth-note delay from a [Lexicon] PCM42", and a reverb from the Eventide H3500 for the verse and the [TC Electronic] TC3000 for the hook." These digital signal processors were employed to give Madonna's vocals a sense of stereophonic space. Castellon commended Timbaland and Danja's drum programming, but felt that it was "too good sometimes", requiring him to "turn down things a little bit." Castellon applied the Waves Audio "Renaissance Compressor" plug-in to control the level of kick drum. He said, "there was one particular kick sound there that clashed with the other tracks, so Tim replaced it with another kick that had a very different note and sound." Castellon said that using a Focusrite D2 EQ let him "match the sound of that new kick drum to the other kick drum sounds". Once the drums and percussion were added, the recording and mixing of "4 Minutes" was finished. Castellon concluded, "[l]uckily everything came together in the end. I don't think the mix would have sounded the same if I had worked in the opposite way, starting with the drums and working up towards the vocals."
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
"4 Minutes" is an uptempo dance-pop song, composed in an urban, hip hop style. It incorporates the effect of a marching band, a clanging beat and instrumentation from a brass that is played in a "scale-like riff", as described by Caryn Ganz from Rolling Stone. Other musical instruments used are foghorns and cow bells. In "4 Minutes", Madonna and Timberlake sing and trade verses, the rhythm moves towards a hard clanging beat as Madonna sings the lines that the "road to hell is paved with good intentions." Madonna and Timberlake start singing the chorus with Timberlake singing the line of "We've only got four minutes to save the world". The track continues in the same momentum in the second verse and second chorus whence the track ends where every beat ceases except for Timbaland's characteristic bhangra beats, the brass riffs and Madonna singing the words "tick-tock" repeatedly, after which it ends.
According to the sheet music published at Musicnotes.com by Alfred Publishing, the song is written in the key of G minor and is set in time signature of common time with a tempo of 115 beats per minute. Timbaland's bhangra beats are featured at the start and the end of the song. Madonna and Timberlake's vocal range spans two octaves, from F3 to Bb5. The song has a sequence of D–G–C–F–B♭–D in the verses and E♭5–D5–C5–D5 in the chorus, as its chord progression. The lyrics of "4 Minutes" carry a message of social awareness, inspired by Madonna's visit to Africa and the human suffering she witnessed. Jon Pareles of The New York Times stated that "[h]owever, the song sounds as if four minutes is the time taken for a song to be a guaranteed pop hit or the time required for a quicky; in reality it is the only song from Hard Candy album which contains a message of social awareness in it." The sound of a clock ticking away emphasizes this message further. Madonna explained in New York magazine that the line "The road to hell is paved with good intentions" did not relate to her charity work. Instead it was her question to herself: "Do I understand this opinion that I've adopted or this Zeitgeist that I've allowed myself to be swept up in? Because you could have the best intentions but not have enough information and make huge mistakes." Regarding the line "Sometimes I feel what I need is a you intervention", Madonna explained, "[y]eah, meaning, sometimes I think you need to save me."
Caryn Ganz called it "a loud, busy, energetic track", and commented that Timberlake did "his best Michael Jackson impression". Billboard music reviewer and editor Chuck Taylor said that with the song, Madonna "is poised to score her first top 10 hit since 2005's 'Hung Up'. [...] There's an awful lot going on in the busy dance track [...] but the trade-off chorus between Madge and Justin of 'We've only got four minutes to save the world' is hooky enough unto itself to sell the song." He added that the song "qualifies as an event record between superpowers [Madonna and Timberlake] who not only share equal billing, but sound gangbusters together." Mark Savage of BBC described the sound as "so futuristic it could realistically have been beamed in from the end of the world." Andy Gill of The Independent called "4 Minutes" one of Hard Candy 's saviors. He noted that "the Mardi Gras marching-band bumping rambunctiously along," is one of the album's "most ambitious offerings." Joey Guerra of Houston Chronicle compared the track to the work of Nelly Furtado and felt that the composition was "a bid for radio play."
According to Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine, the song is an "advertisement for the rest of the album." Chris Williams of Entertainment Weekly called it a "flirty duet". Ben Thompson of The Guardian said: "It has a hard to escape sense that all concerned are going through the motions [of life] – effortlessly, sometimes brilliantly." Joan Anderman of The Boston Globe believed that the song is "chart-topper for its sheer star power as well as instant musical allure, and on the eve of Madonna's 50th birthday [...] '4 Minutes' feels a lot like an icon's can't-miss gift to herself." However, she noticed that the "shift in the power structure [is nowhere] more blatant than on '4 Minutes', where Madonna sounds like a featured guest trying to keep pace with Timbaland's colossal beats and Timberlake's nimble melody." Freedom du Lac of The Washington Post complimented the song for being busy and brassy. She commented: "[P]ropelled by a detonative marching-band beat [...] it's one of the most thrilling things Madonna has done in this decade."
Stephen Thomas Erlewine of Allmusic praised the melodic and rhythmic hook, but was disappointed that Madonna's voice is "drowned out by Timbaland's farting four-note synth – which might not have been so bad if the tracks were fresher and if the whole enterprise didn't feel quite so joylessly mechanical." At the 51st Grammy Awards, "4 Minutes" garnered Madonna, Timberlake and Timbaland a nomination in the Grammy Award Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals category. Dutch musician Junkie XL also earned a nomination in the Best Remixed Recording, Non-Classical category for his remix of the song.
In the United States, "4 Minutes" debuted at number 68 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart for the issue dated April 5, 2008, based solely on airplay. Within a week, the song had jumped 65 places, reaching number three on the chart. This leap was spurred by first-week digital sales of 217,000, enabling the song to enter Billboard 's Digital chart at number two, behind Mariah Carey's single "Touch My Body". The song became Madonna's first top-ten single since "Hung Up" (2005), and was her 37th Hot 100 top-ten hit, breaking the record previously held by Elvis Presley. "4 Minutes" was also her highest-charting single on the Hot 100 since "Music" reached the top of the chart in 2000. For Timberlake, "4 Minutes" became his ninth top-ten hit. On the Pop 100 chart, the song reached a peak of two. "4 Minutes" was a success on Billboard 's dance charts, topping both the Hot Dance Club Play and the Hot Dance Airplay charts. Almost five months after its release, "4 Minutes" was certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) for sales of two million paid digital downloads. "4 Minutes" was the tenth most downloaded song in the United States in 2008 with sales of 2.37 million, according to Nielsen SoundScan, and has sold over three million copies as of July 2012.
In Canada, Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems (BDS) confirmed that "4 Minutes" debuted at the top of the Canadian Contemporary Hit Radio chart. This marked the first time any song entered at the top of the CHR chart in BDS history. The song debuted at number 27 on the Canadian Hot 100 on March 27, 2008, and topped the chart the next week. By the end of the year, "4 Minutes" was the fifth best selling digital song in Canada with sales of 143,000 copies, and ranked fourth on the year-end tabulation of the Canadian Hot 100.
"4 Minutes" was also a success in Australia and New Zealand. The song debuted at number three on the Australian ARIA Singles Chart, and ascended to the number-one position two weeks later, where it stayed for three consecutive weeks. "4 Minutes" was certified platinum by the Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA) for the shipment of 70,000 copies. In New Zealand, "4 Minutes" made its debut at number 14 on the New Zealand Singles Chart, and ascended to the top ten, finally peaking at number three. The song has been certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand (RIANZ) for shipment of 7,500 copies.
In the United Kingdom, "4 Minutes" debuted on the UK Singles Chart at number seven. The song became Madonna's 60th top-ten single in Britain. It debuted on the airplay charts at number 19, with first week tallies of 564 plays and 27.10 million listeners. The song rose to the top of the chart on April 20, 2008 (for the week ending date April 26, 2008), with sales of 40,634 copies, thus giving Madonna her 13th British number-one single. It remained at the top for four weeks. According to the Official Charts Company, it was the seventh best-selling song of 2008 and has sold 500,000 copies there, being certified gold by the British Phonographic Industry (BPI). "4 Minutes" was also number one on Billboard 's European Hot 100 Singles for four weeks. Overall, "4 Minutes" reached number one in 21 countries worldwide.
The music video was directed by French duo Jonas & François in London, England. It featured choreography by Jamie King, who worked on Madonna's Confessions, Re-Invention and Drowned World tours as well as her video for the single "Sorry" (2006). Japanese hip hop dancing duo Hamutsun Serve also made an appearance in the video. Before its release, Rolling Stone said that in the video Madonna and Timberlake act as if they were "superheroes" while they evade multiple obstacles. In the video, Madonna wore a cream colored corset, glistening black boots and styled her hair in platinum blond waves while Timberlake wore mainly denims and a scarf around his neck. Regarding the idea behind the music video, Madonna said that "it was conceptualistic". She explained that the video was shot like a march past; "It's a movement, and we want to take everybody with us." About the idea of a black screen devouring everything, Madonna said,
None of us did [understand the concept of the black screen]. It was just, you know, it's very conceptual. We basically gave the song to the two French directors [Jonas & Francois] and they came up with the only concept that I thought was interesting, with this black sort of amorphous graphic line slowly eating up the world. I just liked that as a concept.
The video used soft focus, gentle lighting and airbrushing looks on Madonna. It starts with Timbaland chanting the opening line in front of a giant timer screen that counts down from four minutes. As he sings, a black geometric patterned screen comes from behind and engulfs all of the musical devices present. Madonna and Timberlake enter a house but run away from it after finding the screen there, which starts eating the hands and legs of the inhabitants of the house, thus showing their insides. After a number of shots showing Madonna and Timberlake jumping on and over cars to escape from the screen, they finally move into a supermarket. The screen follows them, consuming the long lines of stalls and the people present there. As the second chorus starts, they arrive in front of the screen where Timbaland is singing. After choreographed dancing, Madonna performs a back arch as the timer reaches zero time. The last "tick-tock, tick-tock" sound is heard, Madonna and Timberlake dance again on a long stage; the black screen approaches them from both sides. The video ends with both of them kissing, and the black screen devouring them. Timberlake's bones and ribs, and Madonna's cheeks are seen in the last shot.
Regarding the video, Madonna said it was like "[g]oody goody gum drops," referring to the candy-oriented theme of the album. Virginia Heffernan from The New York Times called the video heart-pounding, and compared its momentum with the music video of "Thriller, "In the Air Tonight" and "Shadows of the Night". However, Eric Wilson from the same newspaper commented that the video did not yield a breakout Madonna look compared to her videos from the 1980s. Singer Miley Cyrus created her own version of the video and posted it on her YouTube channel. Madonna responded to it in her own video and said, "All you people out there who are making videos to my new single, '4 Minutes,' keep up the good work, nice job." "4 Minutes" was nominated for an award at the 2008 MTV Video Music Awards in the "Best Dancing in a Video" category, but lost to the Pussycat Dolls single "When I Grow Up".
Live performances and covers
The song was performed during the Hard Candy Promo Tour and Sticky & Sweet Tour (2008–09). At the promotional tour, "4 Minutes" was performed as the third song of the setlist. Madonna wore a shiny black outfit with black tails, Adidas track pants and high-heeled, lace-up boots for the performance. Justin Timberlake made an appearance alongside Madonna, at the Roseland Ballroom in New York, to perform the song. As Timbaland appeared on the video screens, the beat of the song started. The four side-stage video screens began to glide across the stage, and swiveled around to reveal Timberlake behind one and Madonna behind the other. They performed the song in a similar choreography from the music video.
During "4 Minutes" performance on the Sticky & Sweet Tour, Madonna wore a futuristic robotic outfit designed by Heatherette. She coupled it with metallic plates on her shoulder and a wig with long curled hair. Madonna and her dancers emerged from behind backdrops, on which Timbaland and Timberlake appeared, to perform their lines. An apparent duet between Madonna and Timberlake ensues, with Timberlake singing and dancing his part from the screens. He joined Madonna in person, for the show at Los Angeles's Dodger Stadium on November 6, 2008, the same show in which Britney Spears appeared alongside Madonna to perform "Human Nature". They performed "4 Minutes" in similar fashion to the promotional tour choreography. Timbaland sang his part of the song in person on November 26, 2008 at Dolphins Stadium in Miami Gardens, Florida. "4 Minutes" was also used as mashups during the performance of songs like "Vogue" and "Hung Up".
"4 Minutes" was used in the film Get Smart (2008), in a scene and its film credits. It was one of the songs covered by the cast of Glee during the April 20, 2010 episode "The Power of Madonna". The fictional character Kurt Hummel, portrayed by Chris Colfer, sang Madonna's parts while Mercedes Jones (Amber Riley) sang Timberlake's. In the episode, the song is performed during a routine by the high-school cheering squad, accompanied by the school band. The version was released both as a digital downloadable single and on the EP, Glee: The Music, The Power of Madonna. "4 Minutes" cover charted on the Hot Digital Songs of Billboard at number fifty-five on May 8, 2010, while reaching number eighty-nine and number seventy on the Billboard Hot 100 and Canadian Hot 100, respectively.
Track listings and formats
Credits and personnel
- Madonna – writer, vocals, background vocals, executive producer
- Justin Timberlake – writer, vocals, producer
- Timbaland – writer, vocals, producer, drum programming, recording
- Danja – writer, producer, keyboard instrument
- Demacio "Demo" Castellon – programming, mixing, scratching and recording at Sarm West Studios (London) and The Hit Factory Studios (Miami)
- Marcella Araica – mixing, scratching
- Ron Taylor – protools editing
Credits and personnel adapted from Hard Candy album liner notes.
|Denmark (IFPI Denmark)||2× Platinum||30,000^|
|Mexico (AMPROFON)||2× Gold||60,000^|
|New Zealand (RMNZ)||Gold||7,500*|
|Norway (IFPI Norway)||3× Platinum||30,000*|
|Spain (PROMUSICAE)||2× Platinum||40,000^|
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Gold||500,000|
|United States (RIAA)||2× Platinum||3,000,000|
*sales figures based on certification alone
|United States||March 25, 2008||Digital download|
|Germany||April 11, 2008||CD single|
|France||April 14, 2008||Maxi single|
|Australia||April 18, 2008||Remixes digital download|
|United Kingdom||April 21, 2008||CD single|
|United States||August 11, 2009||Remixes digital download|
- Sischy, Ingrid (April 2008). "Madonna: On Why We Must Be Free". Interview (David Hamilton). Archived from the original on December 9, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2009.
- Stevenson, Jane (April 25, 2008). "The JAM! Madonna interview". Jam! (Sun Media Corporation). Retrieved March 30, 2013.
- "4 Minutes". Alfred Publishing. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- Hard Candy (Inlay cover). Madonna. Warner Bros. 2008. 9362-49884-9.
- Ganz, Caryn (February 15, 2008). "Madonna's New Album and Video: Exclusive Rolling Stone Preview". Rolling Stone. Jann Wenner. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- "Madonna Talks Filth, Wisdom And Confectionery". MTV News. MTV (Viacom Inc.). March 13, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2009.
- Tingen, Paul (July 2008). "Secrets Of The Mix Engineers: Demacio 'Demo' Castellon". Sound on Sound. SOS Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- Harrington, Jim (October 2, 2012). "Madonna, Justin Bieber invade the Bay Area – here's a primer for their Oct. 5-6 shows.". San Jose Mercury News (MediaNews Group). Retrieved June 12, 2014.
- Harris, Chris (April 3, 2008). "Madonna's '4 Minutes' Video Gets Online Sneak Peek". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Taylor, Chuck (March 22, 2008). "4 Minutes: Single review". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.) 120 (12). ISSN 0006-2510. Archived from the original on March 24, 2008. Retrieved June 15, 2012.
- Ciccone, Madonna; Timberlake, Justin; Moseley, Timothy (2007). "Madonna – 4 Minutes – Digital Sheet Music". Musicnotes.com. Alfred Publishing.
- Pareles, Jon (April 27, 2008). "Material Woman, Restoring Her Brand". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Seely, Katherine Q (April 24, 2008). "Madonna on Her Directorial Debut and Mission to Save Malawi". New York (New York Media LLC). p. 2.
- Savage, Mark (April 8, 2008). "Review: Madonna's Hard Candy". BBC Online. Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
- Gill, Andy (April 11, 2008). "Album: Madonna, Hard Candy (Warner Brothers)". The Independent (London). Archived from the original on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 14, 2008.
- Guerra, Joey (April 28, 2008). "Madonna's Hard Candy is mostly a success". Houston Chronicle (Hearst Corporation). Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Cinquemani, Sal (April 23, 2008). "Madonna: Hard Candy". Slant Magazine. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Williams, Chris (April 18, 2008). "Music Review: Hard Candy (2008)". Entertainment Weekly. Time Inc. Archived from the original on April 21, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Thompson, Ben (April 20, 2008). "Thanks to her henchmen, the shameless idol still has much to give". The Guardian (London: GMG). Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Anderman, Joan (April 27, 2008). "On her 11th CD, Madonna still has control issues". The Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- du Lac, Freedom (April 29, 2008). "Madonna Gives Hip-Hop Fans Some Sugar". The Washington Post (The Washington Post Company). Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Erlewine, Stephen Thomas (April 29, 2008). "Hard Candy – Madonna". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Harris, Chris (December 4, 2008). "Lil Wayne, Coldplay Lead Grammy Nominations". MTV News. Viacom. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- Mason, Kerri (February 6, 2009). "Famous names boost remixers' Grammy chances". Reuters. Retrieved November 23, 2010.
- Cohen, Jonathan (March 27, 2008). "Leona Lewis Scores First U.S. No. 1 Hit". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.). Retrieved January 8, 2009.
- Pietroluongo, Silvio (April 2, 2008). "Mariah, Madonna Make Billboard Chart History". Billboard (Nielsen Business Media, Inc.). Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Stack, Tim (April 10, 2008). "Mariah Carey vs. Madonna: Total Eclipse of the Charts". Entertainment Weekly (Time Inc). Archived from the original on April 26, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Madonna – Awards". Allmusic. Rovi Corporation. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- "Billboard Hot Dance Airplay". Billboard (New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 120 (23): 65. June 7, 2008. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved June 12, 2012.
- "American single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes". Recording Industry Association of America. Retrieved December 23, 2008. If necessary, click Advanced, then click Format, then select Single, then click SEARCH
- "The Nielsen Company Issues Top Ten U.S. Lists for 2008" (PDF). Nielsen SoundScan. December 12, 2008. p. 5. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
- Grein, Paul (December 30, 2008). "Chart Watch Extra: The Year That Songs Overtook Albums". Yahoo! Music. Retrieved April 13, 2013.
- Grein, Paul (July 18, 2012). "Week Ending July 15, 2012. Songs: Blow Me (One More Hit)". Yahoo! Music. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
- Press Release (March 26, 2008). "'4 Minutes' is the fastest single to hit #1 in Canadian radio history" (Press release). Nielsen Broadcast Data Systems. p. 2. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- "Canadian Hot 100: Week Ending April 5, 2008". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. April 5, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Canadian Hot 100: Week Ending April 12, 2008". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. April 12, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "The Nielsen Company 2008 Canadian Music Industry Report". Reuters. January 7, 2009. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
- "Canadian Hot 100 Year-End 2008". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved March 29, 2012.
- "Australian Singles Chart". Australian Recording Industry Association. Hung Medien. April 14, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Australian Singles Chart". Australian Recording Industry Association. Hung Medien. April 28, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "ARIA Charts – Accreditations – 2008 Singles". Australian Recording Industry Association. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "New Zealand Top 40". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Hung Medien. March 31, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "New Zealand Top 40". Recording Industry Association of New Zealand. Hung Medien. April 28, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Latest Gold / Platinum Singles". Radioscope. 17 July 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-07-24. Retrieved December 23, 2008.
- "UK Singles Chart: Archive Date March 29, 2008". Official Charts Company. March 29, 2008. Retrieved April 21, 2008.
- "Madonna Artist Chart History". Official Charts Company. Retrieved July 27, 2010.
- Jones, Alan (March 26, 2008). "Duffy Loses In Sales Chart Remains Top On Airplay". Music Week. Archived from the original on March 9, 2008. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- Reporter, Daily (April 20, 2008). "Madonna claims UK singles crown". BBC Online. Retrieved September 14, 2009.
- Jones, Alan (April 21, 2008). "Kooks Top Album Charts". Music Week. Retrieved May 30, 2011.
- Pahwa, Kiran (April 21, 2008). "Madonna's '4 Minutes' tops UK singles chart". TopNews.in. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Myers, Justin (February 7, 2014). "Madonna's Official Number One Singles' Sales Revealed!". Official Charts Company. Retrieved February 7, 2014.
- Rogers, Simon (March 10, 2009). "Best selling singles of 2008". The Guardian (London: Guardian Media Group). Retrieved November 20, 2011. You have to click "Data: Best selling singles of 2008"
- "British single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes". British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved March 16, 2014. Enter 4 Minutes in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Select Gold in the field By Award. Click Search
- "Eurochart Hot 100 Singles". Billboard (New York: Nielsen Business Media, Inc) 120 (22): 55. May 31, 2008. ISSN 0006-2510. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- Bull, Sarah (May 12, 2008). "Madonna's sweet success continues". News Limited (News Corporation). Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- "Madonna Sings 'Happy Birthday' To Justin Timberlake". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). January 31, 2008. Archived from the original on March 28, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
- Ganz, Caryn (March 21, 2012). "Madonna Humps Floor, Walls, Ukrainian Dancers in 'Girl Gone Wild' Video". Spin. Spin Media LLC. Retrieved June 6, 2012.
- Trombetta, Natalie (April 4, 2008). "Madonna touched up by the airbrush for her video striptease". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Heffernan, Virginia (April 17, 2008). "Madonna Cleans House". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Wilson, Eric (June 17, 2008). "Who's That Girl?". The New York Times. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- Guanlao, Nicole (April 18, 2008). "Miley Cyrus' '4 Minutes' Viral Video Gets A Reply From Madonna". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Archived from the original on March 28, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2009.
- "MTV Video Music Awards 2008 – Highlights, Winners, Performers". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Archived from the original on April 24, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Rodman, Sarah (April 30, 2008). "Madonna Opens Up "Candy" Shop". The Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- Hawgood, Alex (May 1, 2008). "Gonna Make You Sweat – Madonna at the Roseland Ballroom". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- Pareles, Jon (October 5, 2008). "Aerobic, Not Erotic: The Concert as Workout". The New York Times. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- Harris, Chris (June 6, 2008). "Madonna's Gonna Dress Herself Up In Heatherette". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- Reporter, Staff (November 7, 2008). "Britney and Justin's Mini Reunion at Madonna Concert". People (Time Inc). Archived from the original on June 2, 2009. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Kaufman, Gil (November 7, 2008). "Britney Spears And Justin Timberlake Appear Onstage With Madonna". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Madonna - Sticky & Sweet Tour with Pharrell". Yahoo!. Retrieved November 9, 2009.
- Ganz, Caryn (October 7, 2008). "Madonna's Sticky & Sweet Tour Rolls Into New York With Reworked Hits, Virtual Britney". Rolling Stone (Jann Wenner). Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Mumbi Moody, Nekesa (October 5, 2008). "Madonna gives fans a treat with 'Sticky & Sweet'". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- Get Smart (Media notes). Segal, Peter. Warner Bros. Pictures. 2008.
- Bentley, Jean (April 21, 2010). "'Glee' Recap: Madonna Invades William McKinley High". MTV Networks. MTV (Viacom). Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved April 21, 2010.
- "Billboard – Glee Cast featuring Chris Colfer and Amber Riley – 4 Minutes". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media. Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved July 15, 2011.
- 4 Minutes (UK CD-one Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. W 803.
- 4 Minutes (UK CD-two Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. 430436.
- 4 Minutes (Australian CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. 9362-49868-2.
- 4 Minutes (German Maxi CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. 2-471420 (9362-49868-2).
- 4 Minutes (UK 12-inch Vinyl Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. W803T.
- 4 Minutes (European Maxi CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. WB 463036.
- 4 Minutes (US Maxi CD Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. PRO-CDR-446652.
- 4 Minutes (US 2-by-12-inch Vinyl Single liner notes). Madonna. Warner Music Group. 2008. 463228-0.
- "Madonna – 4 Minutes ft. Justin Timberlake (Song)". Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Canadian Hot 100 for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "RADIO TOP100 Oficiálna – Czech Airplay Chart". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- "Chartverfolgung > Madonna > 4 Minutes". Media Control Charts. Retrieved August 27, 2009.
- "Rádiós Top 40 játszási lista". Mahasz. Magyar Hanglemezkiadók Szövetsége. September 15, 2008. Retrieved July 22, 2010.
- "Irish Singles Chart". Irish Recorded Music Association. May 1, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2009.
- "Japan Hot 100: Week of May 23, 2008". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. May 23, 2008. Archived from the original on October 20, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2012.
- "Nielsen Music Control". Archived from the original on April 7, 2008.
- "Week of May 5, 2008: Romanian Top 100" (in Romanian). Romanian Top 100. Archived from the original on April 25, 2009. Retrieved August 14, 2011.
- "Rádio Top 100 Oficiálna – Slovakian Airplay Chart". International Federation of the Phonographic Industry. Retrieved November 3, 2010.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot 100 for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Adult Pop Songs for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Hot Dance Club Songs for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Latin Pop Songs for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Madonna Album & Song Chart History" Billboard Rhythmic Songs for Madonna. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
- "Pop Rock" (in Spanish). Record Report. May 3, 2008. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008.
- "ARIA Charts – End Of Year Charts – Top 100 Singles 2008". Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Jahreshitparade 2008" (in Dutch). Austriancharts.at Hung Medien. Archived from the original on November 27, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "2008 Belgian Flanders Year-end Singles" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "2008 Belgian Wallonia Year-end Singles" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Hung Medien. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Jaarlijsten 2008 singles" (PDF). MegaCharts. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "2008 Year-End European Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- "Classement Téléchargments Singles – année 2008" (in French). Syndicat National de l'Édition Phonographique. Archived from the original on September 25, 2013. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "German Top 20 - The Chart Of 2008" (in German). ki.informatik.uni-wuerzburg.de. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- "Éves összesített listák – année 2008" (in Hungarian). Mahasz. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Éves összesített listák – année 2009" (in Hungarian). Mahasz. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- "Irish Charts >> Best of 2008". Irish Recorded Music Association. Archived from the original on November 23, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "I singoli più venduti del 2008". Hit Parade Italia. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- "Japan Hot 100: 2008". Billboard Japan. Retrieved August 27, 2014.
- "Spanish single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes" (PDF) (in Spanish). Productores de Música de España. Retrieved March 14, 2009. Select the "Chart", enter 2008 in the field "Year". Select '' in the field "Semana". Click on "Search Charts"
- "Årslista Singlar – År 2008" (in German). Swedish Recording Industry Association. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Swiss Year-End Charts 2008" (in German). Swiss Music Charts. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "UK Best Selling Singles Chart (1999–2009)" (PDF). British Phonographic Industry. British Phonographic Industry. Retrieved October 26, 2011.
- "2008 Year-End Billboard Hot 100 Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- "2008 Year-end Billboard Hot Dance/Club Songs". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- "2008 Year-End Billboard Mainstream Top 40 Singles". Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
- "ARIA Charts – Decade End – Top 100 Singles 2000s" (PDF). Australian Recording Industry Association. Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- "Ultratop − Goud en Platina – 2008". Ultratop & Hung Medien / hitparade.ch. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Brazilian single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes" (in Portuguese). Associação Brasileira dos Produtores de Discos. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Danish single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes". IFPI Denmark. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Madonna; '4 Minutes')" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Certificaciones – Madonna" (in Spanish). Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Norwegian single certifications – Madonna – 4 Minutes" (in Norwegian). IFPI Norway. Retrieved March 16, 2014.
- "Guld- och Platinacertifikat − År 2008" (PDF) (in Swedish). IFPI Sweden. Retrieved December 31, 2008.
- "4 Minutes [Featuring Justin Timberlake And Timbaland]". Amazon.com Inc. (United States). Archived from the original on April 20, 2008. Retrieved March 19, 2007.
- "4 Minutes Dutch release" (in German). Amazon.de. Amazon.de. Amazon.com Inc. (Germany). Archived from the original on April 11, 2008. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
- "4 Minutes [Single Maxi]" (in French). Amazon.fr. Amazon.com Inc. Retrieved April 8, 2008.
- "Madonna – 4 Minutes (feat. Justin Timberlake) – EP". iTunes Store. April 18, 2008. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "4 Minutes [Single]". Amazon.com Inc. (United Kingdom). Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "4 Minutes (The Remixes) [feat. Justin Timberlake & Timbaland]". iTunes Store (United States). Apple Inc. Retrieved June 14, 2012.
- "4 Minutes – The Remixes". Amazon.com Inc. (United States). Retrieved June 14, 2012.