The 4-metre band has a unique character and because very few countries have an allocation there, very little dedicated commercial amateur equipment is available. Therefore most amateurs active on the band are interested in home construction or modification of private mobile radio (PMR) equipment. As a result there is a lot of camaraderie on the band and long ragchews are the norm, as long as there is some local activity.
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Before World War II, British radio amateurs had been allocated a band at 56 MHz. After the war ended, they were allocated the 5-metre band (58.5 MHz to 60 MHz) instead. This only lasted until 1949, as by then the 5-metre band had been earmarked for BBC Television broadcasts.
In 1956, after several years of intense lobbying by the Radio Society of Great Britain (RSGB), the 4-metre band was allocated to British radio amateurs as a replacement for the old 5-metre band allocation. For several years the 4-metre band allocation was only 200 kHz wide—from 70.2 MHz to 70.4 MHz). It was later extended to today's allocation of 70.0 MHz to 70.5 MHz.
A small number of countries in Europe and Africa have also allocated the 4-metre band to radio amateurs as a result of the decline in VHF television broadcasts on the 4-metre band. Movement away from the old Eastern European VHF FM broadcast band and migration of commercial stations to higher frequencies have led to slow but steady growth in the number of countries where 4-metre operation is permitted.
Allocations and propagation
Whilst not formally allocated at an ITU or Regional level, in Europe CEPT now recognises the increased access to 70 MHz by radio amateurs with footnote 'EU9' which has helped underpin further growth:
- "EU9: In a growing number of CEPT countries, parts of the band 70.0-70.5 MHz are also allocated to the Amateur Service on a secondary basis."
In practice this ranges from 70 MHz to 70.5 MHz in the United Kingdom, with other countries generally having a smaller allocation within this window. The 4-metre band shares many characteristics with the neighbouring 6-metre band. However, as it is somewhat higher in frequency it does not display the same propagation mechanisms via the F2 ionospheric layer normally seen at HF which occasionally appear in 6 metres, leastwise not at temperate latitudes. However, Sporadic E is common on the band in summer, tropospheric propagation is marginally more successful than on the 6-metre band, and propagation via the Aurora Borealis and meteor scatter is highly effective.
While Sporadic E permits Europe wide communication, it can be a mixed blessing as the band is still used for wide bandwidth, high power FM broadcasting on the OIRT FM band in a declining number of Eastern European countries. Although this has lessened in recent years, it can still cause considerable interference to both local and long distance (DX) operation.
As of 2005[update], no communication has taken place on the 4-metre band between Europe and Southern Africa, although theoretically this ought to be possible by stations with amateur power and antenna sizes around the equinoxes. It is to be hoped that the increasing availability of the band in Mediterranean countries, where the trans-equatorial path is less difficult than from the bands traditional strongholds in Britain and Ireland, might spur such interest.
First ever TEP qso on 70 MHz took place on 28 March 2011 between SV2DCD Leonidas Fiskas in Greece and ZS6WAB Willem Badenhorst in South Africa.
Equipment and power
Access to the 4-metre band has always been limited by access to suitable 4-metre transceivers. A limited number of transceivers were purposely built for amateurs on this band while converted Private Mobile Radio equipment is in widespread use e.g. Phillips FM1000 and the Ascom SE550
In most countries the maximum power permitted on the band is lower than in other allocations to minimise the possibility of interference with non-amateur services, especially in neighbouring countries. Some low power FM commercial equipment is available for the band although it is of relatively simple specifications as generally suitable for communication of up to around 50 kilometres (31 mi) or so with simple antennas.
In the Sporadic E seasons communication around Europe is possible with such equipment. Currently, the only Japanese-made, "mass-market" amateur radio transceiver to cover the Four metre band as standard is the Icom IC-7100, previously there was the UK specification Yaesu FT-847 which was discontinued in 2005. Because of this, many 4-metre users gain access to the band by using converted "Low band" VHF ex-PMR (Private Mobile Radio) transceivers but invariably these only have either AM or FM and those users who prefer to have a multi-mode capability but can't afford a second hand Yaesu FT-847 normally use transverters, either purposely built home builds or sometimes even converted 6-metre or 2-metre versions.
In recent years there have been extensive imports of Chinese PMR transceivers such as the Wouxun KG-699E 4m (66 MHz-88 MHz) and KG-UVD1P1LV DUAL BAND (TX/RX 66-88 MHz /136-174 MHz) Handheld Transceiver to Western countries mainly so far in the UK and mainland Europe.
Qixiang Electronics, the makers of the AnyTone and MyDel transceivers, have exported the AnyTone 5189 PMR 4m Mobile, and the AnyTone 3308 Handheld (66 MHz-88 MHz) transceivers from China to the UK and to Europe.
Both Transceivers have been selling extensively well in the UK and in Europe.
There also have been rumours about a 4m/6m dual band multi-mode transceiver being released in late August or early September. It is not known at this time who is manufacturing this transceiver.
In some parts of the UK the band is little utilised, while in others, notably Belfast, Bristol, South Wales, North London and Hertfordshire, there is extensive local FM operation. There is considerable AM activity in the Dublin area. As band occupancy is relatively low, FM operation tends to take place on the calling frequency, 70.450 MHz, and AM operation on that calling frequency, 70.260 MHz. In the UK, the band is also used considerably for emergency communications, Internet Radio Linking Project links (IRLP), data links and low powered remote control.
In continental Europe the band is still primarily used for more serious DX operation. Cross-band working between the 6-metre band or the 10-metre band is common to make contacts countries where the band is not allocated.
Countries in which operation is permitted
Countries with a known band allocation:
- Bahrain (69.900-70.400 MHz)
- Belgium (69.950 MHz center frequency, 70.190-70.4125)
- Croatia (70.000-70.450 MHz)
- Czech Republic (70.100-70.300 MHz)
- Denmark (69.9875-70.0625, 70.0875-70.1125, 70.1875-70.2875, 70.3125-70.3875 and 70.4125-70.5125 MHz)
- Estonia (70.140-70.300 MHz)
- Faroe Islands (69.950-70.500 MHz)
- Finland (70.000-70.175 and 70.225-70.300 MHz)
- Greece (70.200-70.250 MHz)
- Greenland (70.000-70.500 MHz)
- Hungary (70.000-70.500MHz)
- Ireland (Republic of) (70.125-70.450 MHz)
- Italy (70.0875-70.1125, 70.1875-70.2125 and 70.2875-70.3125 MHz)
- Luxembourg (70.150-70.250 MHz)
- Monaco (70.000-70.500 MHz)
- Namibia (70.000-70.300 MHz)
- Netherlands (70.000 - 70.500 MHz)
- Norway (70.0625-70.0875, 70.1375-70.1875, 70.2625-70.3125, 70.3625-70.3875 and 70.4125-70.4625 MHz)
- Poland (70.1 - 70.3 MHz)
- Portugal (70.1570-70.2125 and 70.2375-70.2875 MHz)
- Romania (70.000-70.300 MHz)
- Slovakia (70.250-70.350 MHz)
- Slovenia (70.000-70.450 MHz)
- Somalia (70.000-70.500 MHz)
- South Africa (70.000-70.300 MHz)
- Spain (70.150 and 70.200 MHz)
- UAE (70.000-70.500 MHz)
- United Kingdom (70.000-70.500 MHz)
Countries with past or current experimental operation
In "experimental" countries, authorities authorized amateur radio experiments on the band for a limited period of time.
- Germany (69.950 MHz center frequency)
- Sovereign UK bases in Cyprus (70.000-70.500 MHz)
- An automatic beacon has also been authorized in Austria, Cyprus and Hungary
- United States has one experimental transmitter in Virginia transmitting CW on 70.005 MHz. Call sign is WE9XFT.
- Glen Zook, K9STH, the Head Moderator of QRZ.com and a longtime magazine writer on VHF related topics, filed a petition with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission on 27 January 2010 to create a new U.S. 4-Meter amateur radio allocation at 70 MHz to parallel those in Europe and other parts of the world.
Common Uses of the 4-meter band
- "World's first TEP QSO on 70 MHz". The Four Metres website. 2011-03-31. Video on YouTube
- "International 70 MHz allocations". The Four Metres Website. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "The EDR 70 MHz bandplan for Denmark". The Four Metres Website. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Procedure for grant of radio amateur qualification and use of radio frequencies for the purpose of radio amateur communications" (DOC - Microsoft Word). Estonian Technical Surveillance Authority. 21 November 2007. p. 16. Retrieved 15 November 2009.[dead link]
- "The Estonian radio frequency allocation plan - Radio frequency range 29.7 MHz to 3600 MHz" (XLS - Microsoft Excel). Estonian Technical Surveillance Authority. Retrieved 15 November 2009.[dead link] Line 74.
- "Radioamatöörimääräys" (PDF). The Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA). 4 November 2009. pp. 11 & 13. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Licensing". The National Radio Amateur Association of Greece. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.[dead link]
- "Radio Amateur Technical Licence Conditions". ComReg. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Monaco gets 70 MHz allocation". The Southgate Amateur Radio Club. March 2006. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Regeling van de Minister van Economische Zaken, Landbouw en Innovatie van 20 december 2011, nr. AT-EL&I/6621235, tot wijziging van de Regeling gebruik van frequentieruimte zonder vergunning 2008 in verband met de implementatie van twee besluiten van de Commissie van de Europese Gemeenschappen en het vergunningvrij maken van het gebruik van grond- en muur penetrerende radar". overheid.nl. 2011-12-30. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- "Forskrift om radioamatørlisens". The Norwegian Law Gazette. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "70 MHz, 2.4 and 3.4 GHz now available in Poland". Southgate ARC. 2012-05-23. Retrieved 2012-05-23.
- "Faixa dos 70 MHz". ANACOM. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Slovak Radio Amateurs gain access to 70 MHz band". The Southgate Amateur Radio Club. May 2009. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "70 MHz Band Plan for South Africa". The South African Radio League. 26 August 2003. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "Telecommunications Act of 1996 as amended" (PDF). The South African Radio League. February 2005. p. 23. Retrieved 15 November 2009. "70.000 - 70.300 Secondary"
- "United Kingdom Table of Radio Frequency Allocations". Ofcom. Retrieved 15 November 2009. "The band 70.0-70.5 MHz is allocated to the Amateur service."
- "UK Interface Requirement 2028 - Amateur Radio Licences – Foundation, Intermediate and Full" (PDF). Ofcom. January 2007. p. 12. Retrieved 15 November 2009.
- "FCC Petition for 4-Meter Band". QRZ.com. January 2010. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
- The Four Metres Website
- DXMaps.com real-time 4m propagation maps (was DX-Sherlock's real-time 4m propagation maps prior to domain merger)
- DXMaps.com real-time VHF&up propagation ticker (was DX-Sherlock's real-time VHF&up propagation ticker prior to domain merger)
|International amateur radio frequency allocations|
|Range||Band||ITU Region 1||ITU Region 2||ITU Region 3|
|LF||2200 m||135.7 kHz - 137.8 kHz|
|MF||600 m||472 kHz - 479 kHz|
|160 m||1.810 MHz - 1.850 MHz||1.800 MHz - 2.000 MHz||1.800 MHz - 2.000 MHz|
|HF||80 / 75 m||3.500 MHz - 3.800 MHz||3.500 MHz - 4.000 MHz||3.500 MHz - 3.900 MHz|
|60 m1||5.250 MHz - 5.450 MHz|
|40 m||7.000 MHz - 7.200 MHz||7.000 MHz - 7.300 MHz||7.000 MHz - 7.200 MHz|
|30 m2||10.100 MHz - 10.150 MHz|
|20 m||14.000 MHz - 14.350 MHz|
|17 m2||18.068 MHz - 18.168 MHz|
|15 m||21.000 MHz - 21.450 MHz|
|12 m2||24.890 MHz - 24.990 MHz|
|10 m||28.000 MHz - 29.700 MHz|
|VHF||6 m||50.000 MHz - 52.000 MHz1||50.000 MHz - 54.000 MHz||50.000 MHz - 54.000 MHz|
|4 m1||70.000 MHz - 70.500 MHz|
|2 m||144.000 MHz - 146.000 MHz||144.000 MHz - 148.000 MHz||144.000 MHz - 148.000 MHz|
|1.25 m||222.000 MHz - 225.000 MHz|
|UHF||70 cm||430.000 MHz - 440.000 MHz||420.0 or 430.0 MHz - 450.000 MHz3||420.000 MHz - 450.000 MHz3|
|33 cm||902.000 MHz - 928.000 MHz|
|23 cm||1.240 GHz - 1.300 GHz|
|13 cm||2.300 GHz - 2.450 GHz|
|SHF||9 cm||3.400 GHz - 3.475 GHz3||3.300 GHz - 3.500 GHz||3.300 GHz - 3.500 GHz|
|5 cm||5.650 GHz - 5.850 GHz||5.650 GHz - 5.925 GHz||5.650 GHz - 5.850 GHz|
|3 cm||10.000 GHz - 10.500 GHz|
|1.2 cm||24.000 GHz - 24.250 GHz|
|EHF||6 mm||47.000 GHz - 47.200 GHz|
|4 mm3||75.500 GHz1 - 81.500 GHz||76.000 GHz - 81.500 GHz||76.000 GHz - 81.500 GHz|
|2.5 mm||122.250 GHz - 123.000 GHz|
|2 mm||134.000 GHz - 141.000 GHz|
|1 mm||241.000 GHz - 250.000 GHz|
|THF||Sub-mm||Some administrations have authorized spectrum for amateur use in this region.|
1 This is not mentioned in the ITU's Table of Frequency Allocations, but individual administrations may make allocations under Article 4.4 of the ITU Radio Regulations. See the appropriate Wiki page for further information.
|See also: Radio spectrum · Electromagnetic spectrum|