4th United States Congress

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4th United States Congress
Congress Hall exterior.jpg
Congress Hall (2007)

Duration: March 4, 1795 – March 4, 1797

Senate President: John Adams
Senate Pres. pro tem: Henry Tazewell
Samuel Livermore
William Bingham
House Speaker: Jonathan Dayton
Members: 30-32 (two additions)(with 0-4 vacancies) Senators
106-107 (one additions)(with 0-8 vacancies) Representatives
1 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Federalist
House Majority: Democratic-Republican

Sessions
Special: June 8, 1795 – June 26, 1795
1st: December 7, 1795 – June 1, 1796
2nd: December 5, 1796 – March 3, 1797
<3rd 5th>
President of the Senate John Adams
President pro tempore Henry Tazewell
Speaker of the House
Jonathan Dayton

The Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from March 4, 1795 to March 4, 1797, during the last two years of George Washington's Presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. The Senate had a Federalist majority, and the House had a Democratic-Republican majority.

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Treaties ratified[edit]

States admitted[edit]

Party summary[edit]

This was the first Congress to have organized political parties. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.

Senate[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress (Anti-Administration)
13
(Pro-Administration)
17
30 0
Begin 10 20 30 0
End 11 21 32
Final voting share 34.4% 65.6%
Beginning of the next congress 9 22 31 1

House of Representatives[edit]

4thHouse.svg
Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic-
Republican

(DR)
Federalist
(F)
End of the previous congress (Anti-Administration)
54
(Pro-Administration)
49
103 2
Begin 59 46 105 1
End 60 106 0
Final voting share 56.6% 43.4%
Beginning of the next congress 57 49 106 0

Leadership[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

Members[edit]

This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.

Senate[edit]

Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1796; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1798; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1800.

House of Representatives[edit]

Changes in membership[edit]

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress

Senate[edit]

There were 10 resignations, 2 new seats, and 1 election to replace an appointee. There was a 1-seat gain for both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.


State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Georgia
(2)
James Jackson (DR) Resigned sometime in 1795 George Walton (F) Appointed November 16, 1795
Georgia
(2)
George Walton (F) Interim appointment expired February 20, 1796 with an election Josiah Tattnall (DR) Elected February 20, 1796
Connecticut
(1)
Oliver Ellsworth (F) Resigned March 8, 1796 James Hillhouse (F) Elected March 12, 1796
New York
(2)
Rufus King (F) Resigned May 23, 1796, having been appointed Minister to England John Laurance (F) Elected November 9, 1796
Massachusetts
(2)
Caleb Strong (F) Resigned June 1, 1796 Theodore Sedgwick (F) Elected June 11, 1796
Massachusetts
(1)
George Cabot (F) Resigned June 9, 1796 Benjamin Goodhue (F) Elected June 11, 1796
Connecticut
(3)
Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. (F) Resigned June 10, 1796 Uriah Tracy (F) Elected October 13, 1796
Tennessee
(1)
New seat Tennessee was admitted to the Union William Cocke (DR) Elected August 2, 1796
Tennessee
(2)
William Blount (DR)
Vermont
(1)
Moses Robinson (DR) Resigned October 15, 1796 Isaac Tichenor (F) Elected October 18, 1796
Maryland
(1)
Richard Potts (F) Resigned October 24, 1796 John E. Howard (F) Elected November 30, 1796
South Carolina
(2)
Pierce Butler (DR) Resigned October 25, 1796 John Hunter (DR) Elected December 8, 1796
New Jersey
(2)
Frederick Frelinghuysen (F) Resigned November 12, 1796 Richard Stockton (F) Elected November 12, 1796

House of Representatives[edit]

There were 9 resignations, 1 death of a Representative-elect, and 1 new seat. There was a 1-seat gain for both the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.


District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Pennsylvania
4th
Vacant Representative-elect James Morris died subsequent to the election John Richards (DR) Seated January 18, 1796
Maryland
3rd
Jeremiah Crabb (F) Resigned sometime in 1796 William Craik (F) Seated December 5, 1796
Rhode Island
At-large
Benjamin Bourne (F) Resigned sometime in 1796 Elisha Potter (F) Seated December 19, 1796
Massachusetts
1st
Theodore Sedgwick (F) Resigned sometime in June, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator Thomson Skinner (DR) Seated January 27, 1797
Maryland
2nd
Gabriel Duvall (DR) Resigned March 28, 1796, having been elected judge of the Supreme Court of Maryland Richard Sprigg, Jr. (DR) Seated May 5, 1796
North Carolina
4th
Absalom Tatom (DR) Resigned June 1, 1796 William Strudwick (F) Seated December 13, 1796
Massachusetts
10th
Benjamin Goodhue (F) Resigned sometime in June 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator Samuel Sewall (F) Seated December 7, 1796
Connecticut
At-large
James Hillhouse (F) Resigned July 1, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator James Davenport (F) Seated December 5, 1796
Territory South of the River Ohio James White Served until June 1, 1796, when Tennessee was admitted to the Union. District eliminated
Tennessee
At-large
New seat Tennessee was admitted to the Union June 1, 1796. Seat remained vacant until December 5, 1796 Andrew Jackson (DR) Seated December 5, 1796
Pennsylvania
5th
Daniel Hiester (DR) Resigned July 1, 1796 George Ege (F) Seated December 8, 1796
Connecticut
At-large
Uriah Tracy (F) Resigned October 13, 1796, having been elected U.S. Senator Samuel Dana (F) Seated January 3, 1797

Officers[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. 

External links[edit]