4th century BC

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Millennium: 1st millennium BC
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The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.

Overview[edit]

Map of the world in 323 BC (at the death of Alexander the Great)

This century marked the height of Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects. By the year 400 Greek philosophy, art, literature and architecture had spread far and wide, with the numerous independent Greek colonies that had sprung up throughout the lands of the eastern Mediterranean.

Arguably the most important series of political events in this period were the conquests of Alexander, bringing about the collapse of the once formidable Persian Empire and spreading Greek culture far into the east. Alexander dreamed of an east/west union, but when his short life ended, his vast empire was plunged into civil war as his generals each carved out their own separate kingdoms. Thus began the Hellenistic age, a period characterized by a more absolute approach to rule, with Greek kings taking on royal trappings and setting up hereditary successions. While a degree of democracy still existed in some of the remaining independent Greek cities, many scholars see this age as marking the end of classical Greece.

Events[edit]

. *Pectoral, from the tomb of a Scythian at Ordzhonikidze, now at the National Historical Museum of Ukraine, Kiev.

Inventions, discoveries, introductions[edit]

A Han Dynasty Chinese crossbow from the 2nd century BC.

Significant people[edit]

Visual arts[edit]

Literature[edit]

Science and philosophy[edit]

Decades and years[edit]