50s progression

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50s progression in C, ending with C (About this sound Play )

The 50s progression is a chord progression and turnaround used in Western popular music. As the name implies, it was common in the 1950s and early '60s and is particularly associated with doo-wop. It has also been called the "Stand by Me" changes,[1][2] the doo-wop progression[3] and, according to Hank Green, the "ice cream changes".[4]

The progression, represented in Roman numeral analysis, is: I-vi-IV-V. For example, in C major: C Am F G (macro analysis).

Theory[edit]

In Western classical music during the common practice period, chord progressions are used to structure a musical composition. The destination of a chord progression is known as a cadence, or two chords that signify the end or prolongation of a musical phrase. The most conclusive and resolving cadences return to the tonic or I chord; following the circle of fifths, the most suitable chord to precede the I chord is a V chord. This particular cadence, V-I, is known as an authentic cadence. However, since a I-V-I progression is repetitive and skips most of the circle of fifths, it is common practice to precede the dominant chord with a suitable predominant chord, such as a IV chord or a ii chord (in major), in order to maintain interest. In this case, the 50s progression uses a IV chord, resulting in the ubiquitous I-IV-V-I progression. The vi chord before the IV chord in this progression (creating I-vi-IV-V-I) is used as a means to prolong the tonic chord, as the vi or submediant chord is commonly used as a substitute for the tonic chord, and to ease the voice leading of the bass line: in a I-vi-IV-V-I progression (without any chordal inversions) the bass voice descends in major or minor thirds from the I chord to the vi chord to the IV chord.

Variations[edit]

50s progression in C variation, ending with C

(About this sound Play )

As with any other chord progression, there are many possible variations, for example turning the dominant or V into a V7, or repeated I vi progression followed by a single IV V progression. A very common variation is having ii substitute for the subdominant, IV, creating the ii-V-I turnaround.

Variations include switching the vi and the IV chord to create I IV vi V, as is used in "More Than a Feeling" by Boston[5] and "She Drives Me Crazy" by Fine Young Cannibals.[citation needed] This is also similar to the I V vi IV progression.

The harmonic rhythm, or the pace at which the chords occur, may be varied including two beats (half-measure) per chord (About this sound Play ), four (About this sound Play ) (full measure or bar), eight (About this sound Play ) (two measures), and eight beats per chord except for IV and V(7) which get four each (About this sound Play ).[6]

"Sleep Walk" by Santo & Johnny uses a similar progression, with the IV replaced by its parallel minor iv for an overall progression of I-vi-iv-V.[citation needed]

Examples[edit]

Well-known examples include the Penguins' "Earth Angel" (1954) and Gene Chandler's "Duke of Earl" (1962).[6][7] Other examples include Sam Cooke's "Lovable" and other doo-wop material of the era.[8] A modern example can be found in Green Day's "Jesus of Suburbia".[9] Many more recent examples exist, such as Neutral Milk Hotel's "In the Aeroplane over the Sea".[citation needed] . The progression is also the basis for the verses of The Bangles' 1989 hit "Eternal Flame".[10] Madonna's 1986 single "True Blue" is written in the 50s progression.[11] More notable recent examples are Daughtry's "What About Now", Sean Kingston's "Beautiful Girls", Justin Bieber's "Baby", and Rebecca Black's "Friday".[12][13][14]

Walter Everett argues that, "despite the unusual surface harmonic progressions," in The Beatles' "Strawberry Fields Forever" (1967), "the structural basis of the song is I-VI-IV-V-I [sic]."[15] The chorus of The Beatles' "Happiness Is a Warm Gun" is an example of the fifties progression.[6][16] Unchained Melody also uses the progression, but so slowly that it is often missed.

In the musical Grease, the progression is invoked for the purpose of self-parody in the song "Those Magic Changes". The chorus includes a backup vocal line with lyrics "C-C-C-C-C-C / A-A-A-A-minor / F-F-F-F-F-F / G-G-G-G-seven" (repeat).

Hank Green of the Vlogbrothers created a song showing the number of songs featuring the progression, including some of his own. It was featured in one of his videos and was also performed at the Evening of Awesome.[17]

See also[edit]

Sources[edit]

  1. ^ Moore, Allan (May 1995). "The So-Called 'Flattened Seventh' in Rock". Popular Music (Cambridge University Press) 14 (2): 185–201. ISSN 0261-1430. 
  2. ^ Clay (56). Sh-Boom!: The Explosion of Rock 'n' Roll (1953-1968). Garden City, NY: Morgan James. ISBN 1-60037-638-X. 
  3. ^ Scott, Richard (2003). Chord Progressions for Songwriters. New York: Writers Club Press. p. 204. ISBN 0-595-26384-4. 
  4. ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F4ALd-Top2A
  5. ^ Bennett, Dan (2008). The Total Rock Bassist. Van Nuys, CA: Alfred Publishing. p. 62. ISBN 0-7390-5269-1. 
  6. ^ a b c Scott (2003), p. 206.
  7. ^ Harwood, Dane (September 1982). "Review: [untitled]". Ethnomusicology (University of Illinois Press on behalf of Society for Ethnomusicology) 26 (3): 491–493. ISSN 0014-1836. 
  8. ^ Guralnick, Peter (2005). Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke. New York: Little, Brown. p. 157. ISBN 0-316-37794-5. 
  9. ^ "Acoustic Lesson 11B: Basic Chord Progressions". GuitarLessonInsider.com. Retrieved November 4, 2012. 
  10. ^ "Eternal Flame", MusicNotes.com
  11. ^ "True Blue", MusicNotes.com. (subscription required)
  12. ^ "What About Now", MusicNotes.com. (subscription required)
  13. ^ "Beautiful Girls", MusicNotes.com. (subscription required)
  14. ^ "Baby", MusicNotes.com. (subscription required)
  15. ^ Everett, Walter (1986). "Fantastic Remembrance in John Lennon's 'Strawberry Fields Forever' and 'Julia'". The Musical Quarterly (Oxford University Press) 72 (3): 360–393 [372]. ISSN 0027-4631. 
  16. ^ Riley, Tim (2002). Tell Me Why: The Beatles: Album by Album, Song by Song, the Sixties and After. Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press. p. 269. ISBN 0-306-81120-0. 
  17. ^ "[1]"