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|Centuries:||5th century – 6th century – 7th century|
|Decades:||480s 490s 500s – 510s – 520s 530s 540s|
|Years:||510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 510s, ordered by year.
- Battle of Llongborth (possibly Langport or Portsmouth): Budic II, king of Brittany, seeks after the battle refuge at the court of Aergol Lawhir in Dyfed (Wales).
- King Theodoric the Great raises the Frankish siege at Arles, the city is heroically defended by its inhabitants assisted by the Ostrogothic general Theudis. The Ostrogoths overrun Provence (Southern Gaul) and consolidate their gains in the region.
- Theodoric the Great appoints his friend Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, Roman philosopher, to the rank of consul of the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
- Riots erupt in the streets of Antioch between supporters of patriarch Flavian II and emperor Anastasius I in sympathy of Non-Chalcedonianism.
- November 27 – King Clovis I dies at Paris (Lutetia) at age 45 and is buried in the Abbey of St. Genevieve. The Merovingian Dynasty is continued by his four sons — Theuderic I, Chlodomer, Childebert I and Chlothar I — who divide the Frankish Kingdom and rule from the capitals at Metz, Orléans, Paris and Soissons, respectively.
- King Theodoric the Great assumes the regency over Amalaric, his grandson and future king of the Visigothic Kingdom (approximate date).
- Aryabhata, Indian astronomer and mathematician, comes up with concepts of mathematical equations, one of which explains the rotation of the Earth on its axis. This concept is far ahead of its time and he is fairly accurate in his description of it. He also comes with a lot of other ideas about the Solar System but many of them are flawed because he considers the Earth to be the center of the universe, not the Sun. Aryabhata is often given credit for coming up with the number zero and using it as a placeholder.
- First Council of Orléans: Clovis I convenes a synod of Gallic bishops to reform the Church and create a link between the Crown and the Catholic episcopate.
- Macedonius II is deposed as patriarch of Constantinople and replaced by Timothy I.
- The convent of Saint-Césaire is built in Arles.
- Emperor Anastasius I ends a period of moderate eclectic policy, and starts strongly favoring his own monophysitist beliefs.
- Areobindus, Byzantine general, is proclaimed emperor during a riot at Constantinople but refuses to take part in the usurpation.
- Anastasius I constructs a wall from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara to protect Constantinople from raiding Bulgars and Slavs.
- King Theodoric the Great grants citizens on Mount Vesuvius exemption from taxes after a severe eruption in southeastern Italy.
- The Ostrogoths conquer the Frankish province Rouergue (Southern Gaul).
- Revolt of Vitalian: Vitalian, Byzantine general, revolts against emperor Anastasius I and conquers a large part of the Diocese of Thrace. He gains the support of the local people and assembles an army of 50,000–60,000 men.
- Anastasius I reduces taxes in the provinces of Bithynia and Asia to prevent them from joining the rebellion. Vitalian marched to Constantinople and encamps at the suburb of Hebdomon (modern Turkey).
- Anastasius I sends an embassy under the former consul Patricius to start negotiations. Vitalian declares his aims: restoration of Chalcedonian Orthodoxy and the settling of the Thracian foederati.
- Vitalian accepts a agreement and returns with his army to Lower Moesia. After a few inconclusive skirmishes, Anastasius I sends an Byzantine army (80,000 men) under his nephew Hypatius.
- Vitalian defeats the Byzantines at Acris (Bulgaria) on the Black Sea coast. He attacks their fortified Laager in darkness and in a crushing defeat kills a large part of the imperial army.
- King Kavadh I adopts the doctrine of the Mazdakites and breaks the influence of the magnates (nobility). 
- The Jewish community revolt at Ctesiphon against Mazdakism and establish an independent Jewish kingdom that last for seven years.
- Vigor becomes bishop of Bayeux. He opposes paganism and found a monastery later known as Saint-Vigor-le-Grand (Normandy).
- Vitalian, Byzantine general, marched again to Constantinople. A fleet of 200 vessels sails from the Black Sea ports and blockade the entrance of the harbor capital. Emperor Anastasius I is disquieted by riots in the city, which cost many casualties, and decides to negotiate with Vitalian.
- Vitalian accepts the receipt of ransom money and gifts worth in total 5,000 pounds of gold for the release of Hypatius. He is a nephew of Anastasius I and is taken prisoner during the attack at Acris (see 513). Vitalian retreats his forces back to Lower Moesia.
- July 19 – Pope Symmachus dies at Rome after a 16-year reign and is succeeded by Hormisdas as the 52nd pope.
- Autumn – Revolt of Vitalian: Vitalian, Byzantine general (magister militum), mobilises his army and marched again towards Constantinople. He captures the suburb of Sycae (modern Turkey) across the Golden Horn and encamps there.
- Emperor Anastasius I gives Marinus, former praetorian prefect of the East, command over the Byzantine army. He defeats the rebel fleet at the harbor entrance, using a sulfur-based chemical substance, similar to the later Greek fire.
- Marinus lands with an army on the shore of Sycae and defeats the rebels. Disheartened by the losses suffered, Vitalian flees north under cover of the night.
- Anastasius I leads, as a sign of his victory, a procession to Sosthenion and attends a service of thanks at the local church dedicated to the Archangel Michael.
- Empress Ariadne, wife of Anastasius I, dies at Constantinople and is buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles.
- Amalasuntha, daughter of king Theodoric the Great, marries Eutharic, an Ostrogoth noble of the old Amal line.
- The St. Maurice's Abbey (Switzerland) is founded by Sigismund of Burgundy. He sets up five groups of monks to whom he entrusts the liturgy of the praise of God.
- Hygelac, king of the Geats (Sweden), raids the Lower Rhine and is defeated by a Frankish force led by Theudebert (according to the "History of the Franks").
- King Gundobad of the Burgundians dies peacefully after a 43-year reign and is succeeded by his eldest son Sigismund.
- King Sigismund is opposed by his son Sigeric and has him strangled. Overcome with remorse, he retreats to the monastery that he founded, St. Maurice's Abbey (modern Switzerland).
- Emperor Wu Di of the Liang Dynasty becomes a Buddhist and introduces the new religion to central China. He demands that sacrifices to imperial ancestors are changed to using dried meat, instead of the traditional animals (goats, pigs and cows).
- Council of Epaone: Bishops of southern Gaul convene near Epao (present Anneyron) in Burgundy. The synod enacts the first legislation against wooden altars, forbidding the building of any but stone altars with chrism (a mixture of oil and spice).
- July 9 – Emperor Anastasius I dies childless at Constantinople, age 88, after an 27-year reign in which he has abolished the sale of offices, reformed taxation, perfected the empire's monetary system, but antagonized some with his heretical Monophysite religious policies. He is succeeded by Justin (Flavius Justinus), his comes excubitorum, commander of the palace guard. After his death, he leaves the imperial treasury richer by 23,000,000 solidi or 320,000 pounds of gold.
- Justin I founded the Justinian Dynasty and makes his nephew Flavius Petrus Sabbatius (later Justinian I) his trusted advisor. He becomes the emperor's close confidant and acts possibly as regent. Theocritus, candidate to the throne, is accused of a conspiracy and executed.
- An earthquake destroys the Illyrian (Macedonian) city of Scupi (later Skopje) in what once was the Roman province of Moesia Superior.
- Jabalah IV becomes the king of the Ghassanids. He invades Palestine but is defeated by a Byzantine army under general (dux) Romanus.
- September 29 – Severus, patriarch of Antioch, is deposed by a synod for his Monophysitism. Paul the Jew is appointed to replace him.
- The synagogues of Ravenna are burnt down in a riot; Theodoric the Great orders them to be rebuilt at Ravenna's expense.
- March 28 – The Eastern and Western churches reconcile their differences, ending the Acacian Schism.
- Jacob of Serugh becomes bishop of Batnan.
- The Memoirs of Eminent Monks is compiled.
- In Ireland, the Diocese of Kildare is erected.
- Martindale, Jones & Morris 1980, p. 840
- Richard Nelson Frye, The History of Ancient Iran, Vol.3, (Beck'sche Verlangbuchhandlung, 1984), p. 323
- Bury 1958a, p. 451
- Bury 1958a, p. 451-452; Cameron, Ward-Perkins & Whitby 2000, pp. 57, 294
- Bury 1958a, p. 452
- "Beowulf on Steorarume".
- P. Brown, The world of late antiquity, W.W. Norton and Co. 1971 (p. 147)
- Moorhead (1994), p. 21-22, with a reference to Procopius, Secret History 8.3.
- Martindale & Morris (1980), p. 489
- Shahîd 1989, p. 121, 125–127; Greatrex & Lieu 2002, p. 51