From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||5th century – 6th century – 7th century|
|Decades:||510s 520s 530s – 540s – 550s 560s 570s|
|Years:||540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 540s, ordered by year.
- Emperor Justinian I offers to make peace with Vitiges, but Belisarius refuses to transmit the message. The Ostrogoths then offer to support Belisarius as emperor of the West.
- May – Gothic War: Belisarius conquers Mediolanum (modern Milan) and the Gothic capital Ravenna. Vitiges and his wife Matasuntha are taken as captives to Constantinople.
- Belisarius consolidates Italy and begins mopping-up operations, capturing the Gothic fortifications. The cities Ticinum and Verona north of River Po remain in Gothic hands.
- Ildibad succeeds Vitiges as king of the Ostrogoths and installs his nephew Totila as commander of the Gothic army. He recaptures Venetia and Liguria in Northern Italy.
- In Britain various kingdoms are united by a ruler (High King) or overlord, while wars are fought between others.
- King Custennin ap Cado is deposed and returns to Dumnonia in the south-west of Great Britain.
- King Khosrau I jealous of Justinian's victories in the West, receives an embassy from the Ostrogoths at Ctesiphon. Urging him to act before the Byzantines become too powerful.
- Khosrau I breaks the Eternal Peace after eight years. The Persian army march up the River Euphrates and follows a path to extract tributes from towns along the way to Antioch.
- Khosrau I captures Antioch after a fierce siege, he systematically plunders the city to the extent that marble statues and mosaics are transported to Persia.
- Solomon captures the Aurès Mountains from the Moors and extends Byzantine authority over Numidia and Mauretania Sitifensis. The city of Theveste (Algeria) is restored and fortified.
- Cassiodorus, former Roman statesmen, establishes a monastery in his estate in Italy. The Vivarium "monastery school" is for highly educated and sophisticated men, who copy sacred and secular manuscripts. Intending this to be their sole occupation (approximate date).
- Pope Vigilius rejects Monophysitism in letters to Justinian I and patriarch Menas of Constantinople.
- Benedict of Nursia writes his monastic rules, containing precepts for his monks (approximate date).
- Global environmental cooling probably due to a comet impact, evidenced by global tree ring growth diminution. Historical evidence records this earlier as the Extreme weather events of 535–536.
- January 1 – Anicius Faustus Albinus Basilius is appointed as consul in Constantinople, the last person to hold this office.
- Plague of Justinian: Bubonic plague appears suddenly in the Egyptian port of Pelusium, spreading to Alexandria and, the following year, to Constantinople. This is the beginning of a 200-year long pandemic that will devastate Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa.
- Emperor Justinian I recalls Belisarius from Italy to handle the situation in Armenia. He arrives in Upper Mesopotamia and attacks the fortress city of Nisbis. After an unsuccessful siege he is forced to ravage the country.
- John the Cappadocian, praetorian prefect of the East, is dismissed by the Byzantine empress Theodora for treason. He is banished to Cyzicus and his estates are confiscated.
- Autumn – Totila is elected king by the Ostrogothic nobles after the death of his uncle Ildibad. He wins the support of the lower classes by liberating slaves and distributing land to the peasants.
- Winter – Siege of Verona: Totila defends the city of Verona against a numerically superior Byzantine army. He gains control over the Po Valley and prepares a Gothic offensive in Central Italy.
- Lazic War: King Khosrau I intervenes in Lazica (modern Georgia) and supports the weakened king Gubazes II against a full-scale uprising. He sends an expeditionary force under Mermeroes and captures the Byzantine stronghold of Petra, located on the coast of the Black Sea, which provide the Persians a strategic port.
- Plague of Justinian: Bubonic plague, spread from Egypt, kills at least 230,000 in Constantinople (before counting stops) and perhaps two million or more in the rest of the empire. Emperor Justinian I, renewer of the greatness of Rome's empire and patron of the world's greatest religious building, the Hagia Sophia, contracts the disease but recovers.
- Lazic War – Justinian I sends a Byzantine army (30,000 men) to Armenia. The Persians severely outnumbered are forced to retreat, but at Dvin the Byzantines are defeated by a force of 4,000 men in an ambush and are completely routed.
- Spring – Battle of Faventia: King Totila scatters with 5,000 men the Byzantine forces near Faventia (modern Faenza), beginning the resurgence of Gothic resistance to the reconquest of Italy.
- Battle of Mucellium: Totila marched down into Tuscany and defeats the Byzantines at Florence, in the valley of Mugello. He treats his prisoners well and many are induce to join his banner.
- March – Totila bypasses Rome and begins his expedition in Southern Italy. He captures Beneventum and receives the submmission of the provinces of Apulia, Lucania and Bruttium.
- Siege of Naples: Totila besieges the city of Naples in Campania. A Byzantine relief force from Sicily is intercepted and almost destroyed by Gothic warships.
- King Childebert I and his brother Chlothar I invade Visigothic Spain. They capture Pamplona, but Zaragoza withstand a siege and the Franks retreat to Gaul. From this expedition Childebert brings back to Paris a relic, the tunic of Saint Vincent.
- Gothic War: Emperor Justinian I sends Belisarius back to Italy with an inadequate Byzantine expeditionary force (4,000 men and 200 ships) to once more fight the Ostrogoths.
- Belisarius defeats the Gothic army under king Totila who unsuccessful besiege the city of Otranto (Southern Italy). After their retreat, the Byzantines marched towards Rome.
- Justinian I issues a new edict condemning the Three Chapters. In Western Europe pope Vigilius refuses to acknowledge the imperial edict and is ordered to Constantinople.
- King Khosrau I unsuccessfully attacks the Byzantine fortress city of Dara. The siege of Edessa is repulsed and the Persians are forced into a stalemate.
- Battle of Cillium: A Byzantine army under Solomon is defeated by the Moors on the border of Numidia. Solomon and his bodyguard are forced to retreat, but are later killed.
- February – Ly Bi is declared emperor and establish the empire Van Xuân (modern Vietnam). His armies repel attacks from the kingdom of Champa.
- October – The Liang Dynasty retaliates against Van Xuân and sends an imperial army (120,000 men) under Chen Baxian to re-occupy the region.
- Jacob Baradaeus consecrates Sergius of Tella as patriarch of Antioch, opening a permanent schism between the Syrian Orthodox Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church.
- Emperor Justinian I sends Narses, Byzantine general, to the rulers of the Heruli, to recruit troops for the campaigns in Italy and Syria.
- Gothic War: King Totila establishes his military base at Tivoli (Central Italy) and prepares a campaign to reconquer the region of Latium.
- King Khosrau I signs a five year truce with the Byzantine Empire but war continues to ravage the Caucasus region, especially in Armenia.
- The monastery of Clonmacnoise is founded by Ciarán Mac a tSaor on the River Shannon (approximate date).
- The Synod of Brefi is held at Llanddewi Brefi to condemn the Pelagian heresy. Dubricius, archbishop of South Wales, resigns his position in favour of David (approximate date).
- Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoths under king Totila retake Rome, by bribing the Byzantine garrison. Belisarius tries to relieve the city, but Gothic ships intercept the imperial fleet near the mouth of the Tiber.
- December 17 – Totila plunders Rome and destroys the fortifications of the city.He withdraws the Gothic army and moves into Apulia (Southern Italy).
- Winter – Pope Vigilius arrives in Constantinople to meet with emperor Justinian I. The future pope Pelagius is sent by Totila to negotiate with Justinian.
- Audoin succeeds Walthari as king of the Lombards. He is murdered, in order to gain the throne for himself.
- Audoin receives subsidies, Justinian I encourages him to battle the Gepids in the Carpathian Mountains.
- Audoin leads the Lombards across the Danube into Pannonia and becomes an ally of the Byzantines.
- The Basilica of San Vitale (Ravenna) is completed by bishop Maximianus during the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna.
- The Diocese of Bangor is established in the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd with Deiniol consecrated as first bishop (approximate date).
- Gothic War: Belisarius recaptures Rome from the Ostrogoths but his Italian campaign is unsuccessful. Due to be starved of supplies and reinforcements from Constantinople.
- The mosaic panels of Justinian I and Theodora I with attendants, in the Basilica of San Vitale (Ravenna), are made (approximate date).
- Theodebald, age 13, succeeds his father Theudebert I after a reign of 14 years and becomes king of Austrasia (or 548).
- King Ida establishes the kingdom of Bernicia. He builds Bamburgh Castle (North East England) as a fortress that will become the seat of Anglo-Saxon kings (This according to the Historia Brittonum).
- Battle of Marta: The Byzantine army under John Troglita is defeated by Moorish tribes in Tripolitania. He flees to Lunci (9 km south of Mahares) and is forced to withdraw north to the fortress of Laribus (near modern Le Kef).
- June 28 – Empress Theodora I, age 48, dies probably of breast cancer (according to bishop Victor of Tunnuna). Her body is buried in the Church of the Holy Apostles (Constantinople).
- Emperor Justinian I relieves Belisarius from military service in favour of the 70-year-old Byzantine general Narses.
- Theudigisel, Visigothic general, proclaims himself ruler over the Visigothic Kingdom after king Theudis is murdered.
- Lazic War: King Gubazes II revolts against the Persians and requests for aid from Justinian I. He sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (8,000 men) to Lazica (modern Georgia).
- Gubazes II besieges the fortress of Petra, located on the Black Sea. The Persian army under Mermeroes defeat a small Byzantine force guarding the mountain passes and relieve Petra.
- Mermeroes stations a garrison of 3,000 men in the stronghold of Petra and marched to Armenia. The Persians lack of sufficient supplies, securing the supply routes and plunder Lazica.
- Spring – Battle of the Fields of Cato: The Byzantine army under John Troglita crush the Moorish revolt in Byzacena (Tunesia).
- April 13 – Emperor Ly Nam De of Vietnam is killed by Laotian tribesmen while on retreat from the Hong River Plain. He is succeeded by his elder brother Ly Thien Bao.
- Cosmas Indicopleustes, Alexandrian merchant, writes his work "Christian Topography". He describes the importance of the spice trade (especially in cloves and sweet aloes) in Ceylon and the harvesting of pepper in India (approximate date).
- Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoths under Totila besiege Rome for the third time after Belisarius has returned to Constantinople. He offers a peace agreement, but this is rejected by emperor Justinian I.
- Totila conquers the city of Perugia (Central Italy) and stations an Gothic garrison. He takes bishop Herculanus prisoner and orders him to be completely flayed. The Ostrogoth soldier ask to perform this gruesome execution shows pity and decapitates Herculanus before the skin on every part of his body is removed.
- In the Circus Maximus, first and largest circus in Rome, are the last chariot races held.
- Agila I succeeds Theudigisel as king of the Visigoths after he is murdered by a group of conspirators during a banquet in Seville.
- Spring – Lazic War: The Byzantine army under Bessas combine forces with king Gubazes II and defeat the Persians in Lazica (modern Georgia) in a surprise attack. The survivors retreat into Caucasian Iberia.
- c. 549–564 – Transfiguration of Christ, mosaic in the apse, Church of the Virgin, Saint Catherine's Monastery in Egypt, is made.
- Fifth Council of Orléans: Nine archbishops and forty-one bishops pronounce an anathema against the errors of Nestorius and Eutyches.
- Bishop Maximianus of Ravenna consecrates the Basilica of Sant'Apollinare in Classe.
- The Roman Catholic Diocese of Ossory (which still exists) is founded in Ireland.
- Herwig Wolfram, History of the Goths (University of California Press), 1990
- Rome at War (p. 56). Michael Whitby, 2002. ISBN 1-84176-359-4
- Graham & 2002 p. 44
- "In 1986 I discovered that a series of Irish oaks exhibited their narrowest rings in the immediate vicinity of..". 080205 aryabhata.de
- Baillie, M.G.L. (2007). Tree-Rings Indicate Global Environmental Downturns that could have been Caused by Comet Debris, Chap. 5 in Bobrowsky, Peter T. and Hans Rickman (eds.), Comet/Asteroid Impacts and Human Society: An Interdisciplinary Approach, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. ISBN 3-540-32709-6, pp. 105–122.
- Highfield, Roger; Robert Uhlig and David Derbyshire (9 Sep 2000). "Comet caused Dark Ages, says tree ring expert". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
- Frye Ancient Iran
- Bury 1923, Volume 2, p. 57–58; Martindale et al. p. 633, 815, 915
- Farrokh 2007, p. 235
- J.B. Bury, 1923. History of the later Roman Empire, chapter XIX
- J. Norwich, A Short History of Byzantium, p. 77
- Kazhdan 1991, "Solomon", pp. 1925–1926.
- Martindale et al. p. 1175–1176; Bury & 1958 p. 145
- Procopius. History. XXV. 26 Vol. IV 261
- A Traveller in Rome, H. V. Morton, 2003, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0306811316
- Pringle & 1981 p. 202
- Pringle & 1981 p. 205-206
- Saint of the Day, November 7: Herculanus of Perugia at SaintPatrickDC.org
- O'Donnell, James (2008). The Ruin of the Roman Empire. New York: HarperCollins. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-06-078737-0.
- Isidore of Seville, Historia de regibus Gothorum, Vandalorum et Suevorum, chapter 44. Translation by Guido Donini and Gordon B. Ford, Isidore of Seville's History of the Goths, Vandals, and Suevi, second revised edition (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1970), p.21
- Martindale et al. p. 381-382
- Council of Orléans at the Catholic Encyclopedia