19th Battalion, London Regiment (St Pancras)

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19th Battalion, London Regiment (St Pancras)
19th London Regiment badge.jpg
Active 28 February 1860–1 May 1961
Country  United Kingdom
Branch Flag of the British Army.svg Territorial Army
Type Infantry Battalion, Searchlight Regiment, Anti-Aircraft Regiment
Role Infantry, Air Defence
Nickname Christie's Minstrels (2/19th Bn)
Engagements Western Front
Salonika
Palestine
The Blitz
Commanders
Notable
commanders
Lord Enfield

The 19th Battalion, London Regiment (St Pancras) was a Volunteer unit of the British Army from 1860 to 1961 under various titles. A detachment served in the Second Boer War and two full battalions fought in World War I, receiving the surrender of Jerusalem and crossing the Jordan among other exploits. During World War II the regiment operated as a searchlight unit and briefly as an infantry battalion, before becoming an anti-aircraft regiment in the postwar years.

Origin[edit]

The invasion scare of 1859 led to the creation of the Volunteer Force and huge enthusiasm for joining Rifle Volunteer Corps (RVCs). However, in some areas such as London and its suburbs, the number of proposed units outstripped the available recruits, and the Lord Lieutenant of Middlesex, the Marquis of Salisbury, tried to rationalise them into a smaller number of better-supported RVCs. In the Parish of St Pancras, two leading Parliamentary spokesmen for the Volunteer movement proposed competing units: Lord Elcho (MP for Haddingtonshire) wanted to form the 'Euston Road Rifles', while Lord Enfield (MP for Middlesex) was organising the 'North Middlesex' RVC. Salisbury merged the two into the 29th (North Middlesex) Middlesex RVC under Enfield's command. (Elcho was already a very active Commanding Officer of the London Scottish RVC; Enfield also held the ceremonial position of Honorary Colonel of the 2nd or Edmonton Royal Rifle Regiment of Middlesex Militia.) The first commissions for officers of the 29th Middlesex were issued on 28 February 1860.[1][2][3] The uniform was grey with scarlet facings and a grey fur Busby with a plume.[4]

The new unit had its first headquarters at Kent Lodge in Park Village East, near Regent's Park, and later had a drill hall in Pratt Street, Camden Town. It was successful in attracting working-class recruits from the railway yards and densely populated areas of Camden Town, Kentish Town and Somers Town north of Euston Road.[4][5] In 1880, following mergers and disbandments of less successful units, the 29th Middlesex was renumbered 17th. The following year it became the 4th Volunteer Battalion of the Middlesex Regiment (3rd Volunteer Battalion from 1892).[1]

Boer War[edit]

The battalion sent a Service Company of volunteers to South Africa to serve alongside the Regulars of the 2nd Battalion Middlesex Regiment in the Second Boer War and as a result received its first Battle Honour: South Africa 1900–02. Four of these volunteers died on service and are commemorated by a plaque now in St Pancras Parish Church.[6]

Territorial Force[edit]

Under the Haldane Reforms, the former Volunteers were subsumed into the Territorial Force in 1908. The 17th Middlesex became the 19th (County of London) Battalion, The London Regiment (St Pancras) (TF) and formed part of (5th London Brigade) in the (2nd London Division. Its new headquarters and drill hall was at 76 Camden High Street.[1][4][7]

World War I[edit]

The outbreak of war on 4 August saw the men of the 19th Londons at Perham Down on Salisbury Plain, where they had just arrived for their annual training camp with the rest of 2nd London Division. They were immediately recalled to Camden to complete their mobilisation and by mid-August the battalion had reached its war station at Hatfield, Hertfordshire.[5][8][9][10] The County of London Territorial Force Association immediately began raising 'Second Line' battalions, which quickly led to the formation of a duplicate 2/19th London battalion; consequently the existing battalion was prefixed 1/19th. Subsequently a reserve or 'Third Line' battalion (3/19th) was organised to supply drafts to the other two battalions.[10][11][12][13][14]

1/19th Londons[edit]

In October 1914, 2nd London Division was selected for service on the Western Front and progressive training was carried out through the winter. Men who had volunteered for Home Service only were transferred to the 2/19th Battalion. 5th London Bde was the leading element of the division to land in France on 9/10 March 1915. In May the division (already known in France simply as 'The London Division' to distinguish it from the Regular Army 2nd Division) took its place in the line and was designated 47th (1/2nd London) Division, with the brigades numbered consecutively: 5th London became 141st (1/5th London) Brigade. The 1/19th served in this brigade throughout the war.[9][15][16][17]

1915[edit]

British infantry advancing through gas at Loos, 25 September 1915.

During 1915 the battalion was engaged in the following operations:[9][16][17][18]

At the Battle of Loos the 1/19th formed part of the second wave attacking the southern side of Loos village itself. Its CO, Lt-Col Collison-Morley, was killed at the head of the battalion soon after leaving the trenches, and the 1/19th encountered stiff opposition in Loos cemetery before pushing on to clear houses and cellars in the village. It ended the day at its final objective, the coal-mine winding gear known as 'Tower Bridge'. 1/19th suffered the heaviest casualties in 47th Division that day (14 officers and 372 other ranks).[19][20]

1916[edit]

During 1916 the battalion was engaged in the following operations:[9][16][17][18]

  • Vimy Ridge – the units of 47th Division were involved in frequent crater-fighting in this sector from April to July 1916, including the major German attack on 21 May.[21]
  • Battle of the Somme:
    • Battle of Flers-Courcelette 15–19 September
    • Capture of High Wood 15 September – the 1/19th were in the second wave of the attack, but got caught up in the confused fighting. Their CO, Lt-Col A.P. Hamilton, assembled all the available men and went up into the wood to try to restore order, but was killed. High Wood, which had held up the British for two months, was finally taken, but casualties were so heavy that 141 Bde had to be reorganised into a composite battalion.[22]
    • Battle of the Transloy Ridges 1–9 October
    • Capture of Eaucourt l'Abbaye 1–3 October
    • Attacks on the Butte de Warlencourt 7–8 October

1917[edit]

47th Division moved into the Hill 60 sector of the Ypres Salient in October 1916 and took part in regular raids and crater fighting for a number of months.[23] It then took part in the following operations:[9][16][17][18]

  • Battle of Messines – in the weeks leading up to the battle, 141 Bde held the divisional front and carried out preparations for the attacks, including digging new trenches and establishing ration and ammunition dumps. For the attack on 7 June it was in support, moving up to relieve 142 Bde two days later.[24]
  • 3rd Battle of Ypres – 47th Division was not directly involved in the offensive, being in reserve during the Battle of Pilckem Ridge (31 July–2 August) and spending two periods holding the line (18 August–2 September and 8–17 September), described as 'among the most unpleasant in its experience'.[25]
  • Battle of Cambrai – 141 Bde took over the recently captured Bourlon Wood on 29 November in time to be hit by the German counter-attack the following morning. 1/19th Londons were badly affected by the enemy bombardment, particularly by gas shells. Out of 15 officers and over 600 men of the battalion who took up position in the wood, only 5 officers and 65 other ranks remained in the line by the end of the day, and many of these were later evacuated to hospital suffering from the effects of gas.[26]

1918[edit]

By early 1918 the British Army was suffering a severe manpower shortage and a number of battalions were disbanded to bring others up to strength. In February the 1/19th received a large draft of 14 officers and 375 men from A, B and D Companies 1/7th Londons in 140th (4th London) Brigade.[9][27][28]

When the German Spring Offensive opened on 21 March, 47th Division had just relieved another formation in the line and were holding the right flank of Third Army. The main blow fell on Fifth Army to the south, but the Londoners were heavily bombarded and later in the day the Germans attacked behind a smoke screen. 1/19th took part in the successful counter-attack to regain the positions lost. However, Fifth Army was collapsing and 47th Division, with its flank open, was obliged to fall back on successive lines of half-dug trenches. The retirement, with rearguards contesting the German advance throughout, went on for six days and casualties were heavy. By the end, the remnants of 1/19th and 1/20th Londons were formed into a composite battalion.[29]

The Germans attempted to renew the offensive on 5 April. By now 47th Division had reorganised. Most of 1/19th was with 141 Bde in divisional reserve, but one company was in the front line still attached to 1/20th. The attack was made after an intense bombardment, and fighting went on all day, with reserves fed in progressively. The Germans made some gains, but the line held. 47th Division was relieved that night.[30]

47th Division now had three quiet months, resting and then holding a quiet sector of the line, which gave the battalions time to absorb the hundreds of 18-year-old recruits they were sent to fill up their ranks. It was then engaged in the following operations:[9][16][17][18]

  • Battle of Albert 22–23 August – The division joined the Allied counter-offensive in this battle. 141 Brigade began their advance at 0445, and gained their objective with little resistance, but in the morning mist and battle smoke the battalions began to consolidate a little short of the intended line; the follow-up units suffered heavily.[31]
  • 2nd Battle of Bapaume 31 August–3 September – 141 Bde advanced behind a creeping barrage at 0530, gained all the ground required, and continued to advance the following day. A new dawn attack on 5 September suffered a check, so it was successfully repeated under cover of a barrage and a thunderstorm at 1900, followed by a further push on 6 September.[32]

After a further period of rest, 47th Division was preparing for a move to the Italian Front when it was instead ordered to take part in the final operations on the Western Front. On 1 October 141 Bde was hurried forward to keep in touch with the retreating Germans. Like the rest of the brigade, 1/19th Bn was now very weak, and further casualties were suffered from German rearguards, but the brigade took Aubers Ridge, scene of previous costly attacks during the war. The pursuit continued, until on 4 October the 1/19th secured a position on the strongly-held Armentieres-Wavrin railway embankment. The advance was resumed on 16 October, 1/19th coming upon Fort d'Englos, one of the string of forts encircling Lille. On 28 October the division accompanied Third Army's commander, Sir William Birdwood on his ceremonial entry into Lille. 141 Brigade resumed its place in the Line on 31 October and took up positions along the River Schelde. The river was crossed on 9 November, and the Armistice with Germany on 11 November found the battalions of 141 Bde administering the liberated city of Tournai.[33]

1919[edit]

Demobilisation of 47 Division began in early 1919. By March the units had been reduced to cadres, and these left for England in May.[9][34]

Commanding Officers[edit]

The following officers commanded 1/19th Londons during World War I:[35]

  • Lt-Col P.T. Westmorland, CMG, DSO, to 2 June 1915
  • Lt-Col H. Collison-Morley, killed in action 25 September 1915
  • Lt-Col A.P. Hamilton, MC, killed in action 15 September 1916
  • Major C.H. Fair, DSO
  • Lt-Col J.G. Stokes, DSO, MC
  • Lt-Col E.J. Collett
  • Lt-Col R.S.I. Friend, DSO
  • Maj J.J. Sheppard, DSO, MC, to May 1918
  • Lt-Col H. De L. Fergusson, DSO, to August 1918
  • Maj J.J. Sheppard, DSO, MC, to September 1918
  • Lt-Col Hutchisson, to December 1918
  • Maj C.J. Bantick, until demobilisation

2/19th Londons[edit]

In the enthusiasm of August 1914, it took only a fortnight to recruit the 2/19th battalion to full strength. One whole company was enlisted from the Railway Clearing House and the rest of the battalion from other local businesses and organisations such as London Zoo in Regent's Park. Early training was undertaken in civilian clothes, parading in the drill hall and then marching to Regent's Park for training. The first Commanding Officer was Lt-Col E.J. Christie, a believer in singing on the march, and the battalion soon became known as 'Christie's Minstrels'. In October the battalion absorbed the unfit and Home Service men of 1/19th, but lost some of its best recruits in exchange. The Home Service men were later passed on to the 3/19th (Reserve) Battalion.[36]

The organisation of the Second Line Territorials was a duplicate of the First Line, so that 2/19th Londons was assigned to 2/5th London Brigade in 2/2nd London Division. At the end of 1915, these were redesignated 180th (2/5th London) Brigade and 60th (2/2nd London) Division respectively, and sent to Sutton Veney on Salisbury Plain for intensive training prior to going overseas.[13]

By the time the 2/19th Battalion arrived at Salisbury Plain in January 1916, it was much depleted by the drafts it had sent to the 1/19th in France. It was brought up to strength by a draft from the Middlesex Regiment, the return of the Home Service men from 3/19th (the passage of the Military Service Act in January 1916 made them liable for overseas service), and by a draft of 250 volunteers from the Royal Army Medical Corps (who were untrained in infantry work).[37]

Western Front[edit]

2/19th Battalion landed in France on 25 June 1916. After a period of familiarisation alongside the experienced 1/5th Seaforth Highlanders, the battalion took over a section of the line on Vimy Ridge. Over succeeding weeks the 2/19th alternated in the line, in support and in reserve with the 2/17th Londons.[38] The 60th Division adopted coloured flashes painted on each side of the steel helmet to aid recognition: 180 Bde adopted a triangle, which was blue in the case of the 2/19th Bn.[39] During the summer the battalion was engaged in occasional crater-fighting and trench-raiding. After five months in the line, it had suffered around 200 casualties, 40 of them fatal.[40]

Salonika[edit]

On 1 November, 60th Division was ordered to prepare to move to the Macedonian front, and the battalion embarked at Marseille on 25 November and landed at Salonika on 1 December. It began the march north on 18 December and went into the line on Christmas Eve.[13][41] The battalion was peripherally involved in the Battle of Doiran 24–5 April and 8–9 May 1917.[13][42]

Palestine[edit]

The 60th Division was next transferred to the Egyptian Expeditionary Force for the Sinai and Palestine Campaign. The 2/19th left Lake Doiran on 1 June and marched back to Salonika where it embarked on 10 June. After a period of training and acclimatisation in the Canal Zone, the battalion moved up to the front in July.[43] On 31 October the battalion was with 180th Brigade in divisional reserve for the Battle of Beersheba, but the attack was so successful that it never came into action.[44] On 6 November the 2/19th was one of the attacking battalions that captured the Kauwukah position during the Battle of Hareira and Sheria. The Sheria position remaining untaken, the brigade attacked again the following day, and the 2/19th suffered heavy casualties, the acting Commanding Officer, Major A.W. Gray being killed.[45]

Nebi Samwil mosque before the battle

The pursuit through the Judaean Hills saw the battalion engaged at the Battle of Mughar Ridge and by 25 November it took over the Nebi Samwil position a few miles from Jerusalem.[46] This position had been captured after heavy fighting by British and Indian troops. On 27 November the Turks opened a heavy bombardment on the mosque that crowned the hill, which was held by D Company of 2/19th. This was followed by wave after wave of attacks, but the company, without significant artillery support, drove them all back, causing several hundred casualties.[47]

During the night of 7/8 December the 2/19th began the attack on Jerusalem by taking the Deir Yesin position. After a holdup in daylight, the battalion renewed the attack in the afternoon. The following morning, the Turks had retreated. Sergeants Hurcomb and Sedgewick went out to reconnoitre and met the Mayor of Jerusalem and a party of civilians who offered them the keys of the abandoned city. After the capture of Jerusalem, the 2/19th, reduced to some 300 men, went into billets in the city. On 11 December it provided a guard of honour for General Allenby's ceremonial entry into the city.[48][49]

Sergeants Hurcomb (right) and Sedgewick (left) with the Mayor of Jerusalem and his delegation
Monument to the surrender of Jerusalem to the 60th London Division.

The Turkish counter-attack on Jerusalem began on 27 December. When 180th Brigade relieved the defenders who had beaten off the initial Turkish attacks, it went over to the offensive, with 2/19th capturing the slopes of Shab Saleh.[50] After a pause, Allenby resumed his advance and the 2/19th took part in the capture of Jericho on 19–21 February 1918, storming Talat ed Dumm.[51]

The battalion took part in the 1st and 2nd Trans-Jordan raids of 21 March–2 April and 30 April–4 May. On the first occasion (the Battle of Hijla) the leading elements of the 2/19th struggled across the river by swimming and rafting during the night of 21/22 March while other battalions were driven back. Once a pontoon bridge had been completed and reinforcements arrived, the advance continued in the afternoon of 22 March with artillery support. But the next position could not be taken and the troops were pinned down until nightfall, the 2/19th suffering heavy casualties. A second night attack succeeded in extending the bridgehead. The battalion remained in reserve during the subsequent attack on Amman, and covered the retirement of the raiding force to the bridgehead.[52]

The pontoon bridge across the Jordan

In the 2nd Transjordan raid, the 2/19th attacked out of the Jordan bridgehead. The night attack on 29/30 April became bogged down with heavy casualties against strengthened Turkish positions. The leading companies held out during the daylight hours until other units outflanked the position. The battalion then held the outpost line until the raiders returned on 4 May.[53]

In the summer of 1918 many units from 60th Division were transferred to the Western Front and the division was converted to the Indian establishment. 2/19th Londons remained, however, as the sole British battalion in 180th Bde, alongside three newly recruited Indian Army units.[13][54] The division was intensively trained for its part in the forthcoming Megiddo offensive.[55]

At Zero hour on 19 September 1918, the Indian battalions of 180th Bde attacked, and had taken all their objectives by 05.40. The 2/19th Londons then passed through, forced the passage of the shallow Nahr-el-Falik with some losses, and established a bridgehead on the far side by 07.20. 181st Brigade followed through and continued the attack. The division had accomplished all its tasks and played a major part in the final defeat of the Turkish army in Palestine.[56] This set-piece battle is known as the Battle of Sharon.[13]

The pursuit of the retreating Turks was so rapid that the infantry formations were left behind, and 2/19th Londons, together with the rest of 60th Division, was left to collect prisoners and secure captured stores along the line of advance until the Armistice with the Turks was signed on 30 October 1918.[57]

1919–20[edit]

The 2/19th Londons spent the New Year at Alexandria, where it was required to keep order among the Egyptian population. In March 1919 it embarked for Lebanon, from where it was sent to Homs in Syria. On 24 March the battalion was amalgamated with 2nd Battalion Leicestershire Regiment, but retained its identity, the HQ of 2nd Leicesters returning to the UK. In April the composite battalion moved to Aleppo to keep order during the Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire. Parties of the battalion had already been sent home for demobilisation, and in October 1919 a large draft of men arrived from the Suffolk Regiment to maintain numbers. The battalion was finally disbanded in February 1920 in Egypt.[58]

Commanding Officers[edit]

The following officers commanded 2/19th Londons:[59]

  • Lt-Col E.J. Christie, from first raising
  • Lt-Col D.C. Sword, DSO, from training on Salisbury Plain to Fall of Jerusalem; evacuated sick 2 January 1918
  • Maj A.J. Gray (Royal Scots), acting during Battle of Hareira and Sheria, killed in action 7 November 1917
  • Maj W.M. Craddock, DSO, (2/20th Londons), during Trans-Jordan raids
  • Lt-Col A.E. Norton, DSO, (2/18th Londons), from reorganisation during summer 1918 to disbandment
  • Maj C.S. Williamson, acting during final advance in Palestine

3/19th Londons[edit]

The Third-Line battalion was formed in March 1915, when it went into camp in Richmond Park. Subordinate to the 2nd London Reserve Group (later Brigade), it trained drafts for the First and Second Line battalions and never left the UK. In January 1916 it moved to Winchester. On 8 April 1916 it was redesignated 19th (Reserve) Battalion, London Regiment. It later moved to Chisledon in November 1917, and then Blackdown in March 1918 when it joined the 1st London Reserve Brigade.[10][60]

Interwar[edit]

On 16 February 1920, the 47th Division began to reform in the new Territorial Army, and by 1922 the regiment had fully reformed as the 19th London Regiment (St Pancras) (TA) in 141 (5th London) Bde. (The London Regiment had disappeared as a separate entity during World War I, and its battalions were now designated as 'Regiments' within their previous parent regiment – the Middlesex Regiment in the case of the 19th Londons.)[1][61][62]

The regiment's 1930s drill hall at Albany Street
Detail of the drill hall, showing changes of name painted over

In 1935 the 47th Division was converted into the 1st Anti-Aircraft Division and 19th London was selected as one of its TA infantry battalions to be converted into searchlight units; on 1 November it was transferred to the Royal Engineers and redesignated 33rd (St Pancras) Anti-Aircraft Battalion RE (TA).[1][62] Shortly afterwards it joined 29th (East Anglian) Anti-Aircraft Brigade. At this point the battalion's HQ and three searchlight companies (Nos 332–4) were still based at 76 Camden High Street, but soon afterwards they moved to a new drill hall at Albany Street, except 334 Company which moved to Barnet.[63][64] Despite their transfer to the Royal Engineers, the men retained their 'XIX County of London' cap badge.[65]

World War II[edit]

Anti-Aircraft Command expanded rapidly in the run-up to World War II, and by the outbreak of war on 3 September 1939, 33rd AA Bn was attached to the new 40th Anti-Aircraft Brigade, still covering East Anglia.[66][67]

In August 1940 the RE 'Anti-Aircraft' (searchlight) battalions were transferred to the Royal Artillery, so the battalion became the 33rd (St Pancras) Searchlight Regiment RA (TA).[64][68] During the Battle of Britain in the summer of 1940, it was part of 6th Anti-Aircraft Brigade defending airfields in Essex.[69][70]

By the end of 1944, 21st Army Group was suffering a severe manpower shortage, particularly among the infantry.[71] At the same time the German Luftwaffe was suffering from such shortages of pilots, aircraft and fuel that serious aerial attacks on the United Kingdom could be discounted. In January 1945 the War Office began to reorganise surplus anti-aircraft and coastal artillery regiments in the UK into infantry battalions, primarily for line of communication and occupation duties in North West Europe, thereby releasing trained infantry for frontline service.[72][73] 27th (Home Counties) Anti-Aircraft Brigade was one of the HQs selected for conversion, becoming 303rd Infantry Brigade on 22 January 1945. Within the brigade, 33 Searchlight Regiment was redesignated 632nd (St Pancras) Infantry Regiment RA.[1][64][74][75][76]

After infantry training, including a short period attached to 61st Infantry Division, 632 Regiment was sent to Norway in June 1945 following the liberation of that country (Operation Doomsday).[64][74]

Postwar[edit]

The regiment was reformed on 1 April 1947 in 52 AA Brigade of the postwar TA as 568th (St Pancras) Searchlight Regiment RA, changing its designation on 16 March 1949 to 568th (St Pancras) (Mixed) Light Anti-Aircraft/Searchlight Regiment RA ('Mixed' indicating that it was composed partly of women of the Women's Royal Army Corps.)[1][64][77]

In 1955 the unit merged with the 512th (Finsbury Rifles) and 656th (Tower Hamlets) LAA Regiments, becoming Q (St Pancras) Battery of the resulting 512 LAA Regiment in 33 AA Brigade. This regiment in turn was absorbed into 300 LAA Regt in 1961 when the St Pancras lineage was discontinued.[1][78][79]

Battle honours[edit]

The 19th Londons were awarded the following honours:[1]

South Africa 1900–02

(1/19th): Festubert 1915, Loos, Somme 1916 '18, Flers-Courcelette, Morval, Le Transloy, Messines 1917, Ypres 1917, Langemarck 1917, Cambrai 1917, St Quentin, Bapaume 1918, Ancre 1918, Albert 1918, Pursuit to Mons

(2/19th): France and Flanders 1915–16, Doiran 1917, Macedonia 1916–17, Gaza, El Mughar, Nebi Samwil, Jerusalem, Jericho, Jordan, Megiddo, Sharon, Palestine 1917–18

Bold text indicates those honours selected to be displayed on the regiment's Colours. The Royal Artillery does not carry battle honours, so none were awarded to the regiment after its conversion.

Honorary Colonels[edit]

The following were appointed Honorary Colonel of the regiment:

  • George Byng, 3rd Earl of Strafford (formerly Lord Enfield), died 1898.[1][3]
  • Hon Col Sir W.J. Brown, KCB, VD, appointed 1899.[1][80]
  • Maj-Gen Sir William Thwaites, CB, KCMG, commander of 141 Bde 1915–16, appointed 1918.[1][80]
  • Brevet-Col R.W. Eaton, TD, appointed 1928[1]
  • Col Harry Louis Nathan, 1st Baron Nathan, PC, TD, DL, JP, appointed 1937.[1][3][81]

Memorials[edit]

The 19th Londons' WWI memorial at St Pancras Church
The London Troops memorial at the Royal Exchange

The 1914–18 war memorial panel of the 19th Londons, formerly at the old drill hall in Camden High Street, is now in the South Vestibule of St Pancras Parish Church. It carries the names of 1069 members of the regiment who died during World War I. The 19th London's regimental badge is also included in the stained glass war memorial window in the North Gallery at St Pancras Church.[82][83]

The 19th London is listed on the City and County of London Troops Memorial in front of the Royal Exchange, London, with architectural design by Sir Aston Webb and sculpture by Alfred Drury.[84] The right-hand (southern) bronze figure flanking this memorial depicts an infantryman representative of the various London infantry units.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n 19th Londons at Regiments.org
  2. ^ Beckett, pp. 45, 48, 154, 269, 275, 299.
  3. ^ a b c Burke's Peerage: 'Earl of Strafford'.
  4. ^ a b c Ernest F. Rashbrook, 'The Rifle Volunteers of Camden', Camden History Review, No 3, 1975.
  5. ^ a b Eames, p. 1.
  6. ^ UKNIWM Ref 61743
  7. ^ Maude, Appendices C, D, F.
  8. ^ Maude, pp. 2–3.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Becke, Part 2a, pp. 69–75.
  10. ^ a b c London Regiment at Long, Long Trail
  11. ^ Maude, p. 287.
  12. ^ Eames, p. 2.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Becke, Part 2b, pp. 25–30.
  14. ^ London Regiment at Regimental Warpath
  15. ^ Maude, pp. 11–19.
  16. ^ a b c d e 47th Division at Long, Long Trail
  17. ^ a b c d e 47 Division at Regimental Warpath
  18. ^ a b c d Maude, Appendix E.
  19. ^ Maude, pp. 301.
  20. ^ Cherry, pp. 109–14, 120–22.
  21. ^ Maude, pp. 50–60.
  22. ^ Maude, pp. 64–5.
  23. ^ Maude, pp. 80–96.
  24. ^ Maude, pp. 97–103.
  25. ^ Maude, pp. 104–11, 240.
  26. ^ Maude, pp. 123–6, 133.
  27. ^ Planck, pp.140–2, 183.
  28. ^ Maude, p. 145.
  29. ^ Maude, pp. 149–67.
  30. ^ Maude, pp. 167–71.
  31. ^ Maude, pp. 187–9.
  32. ^ Maude, pp. 193–4.
  33. ^ Maude, pp. 199–206.
  34. ^ Maude, pp.207–12.
  35. ^ Maude, Appendix D.
  36. ^ Eames, pp. 1–8.
  37. ^ Eames, pp. 14–8.
  38. ^ Eames, pp. 20–30.
  39. ^ Elliot, p. 26.
  40. ^ Eames, pp. 31–41.
  41. ^ Eames, pp. 40–7
  42. ^ Eames, pp. 55–7.
  43. ^ Eames, pp. 57–66.
  44. ^ Eames, p. 78.
  45. ^ Eames, pp. 79–83.
  46. ^ Bullock, p. 90.
  47. ^ Eames, pp. 83–91.
  48. ^ Eames, pp. 94–8, 99–101, 107–8.
  49. ^ Bullock, pp. 94–5.
  50. ^ Eames, pp. 118–21.
  51. ^ Eames, pp. 126–9.
  52. ^ Eames, pp. 132–41.
  53. ^ Eames,pp. 142–7.
  54. ^ Eames, pp. 148–9
  55. ^ Eames, p. 153.
  56. ^ Eames, pp. 153–5.
  57. ^ Eames, pp. 156–7.
  58. ^ Eames, pp. 157–8.
  59. ^ Eames, pp. 159–60.
  60. ^ Training Battalions at Regimental Warpath
  61. ^ Maude, p. 212.
  62. ^ a b 47 Division 1930–36 at British Military History
  63. ^ 1 AA Division 1936–38 at British Military History
  64. ^ a b c d e Litchfield, p. 171.
  65. ^ Regimental Badges.
  66. ^ AA Command at Patriot Files
  67. ^ 2 AA Division 1939 at British Military History
  68. ^ 33 SL Rgt at RA 39–45
  69. ^ 6 AA Division at RA 39–45
  70. ^ 6 AA Division 1940 at British Military History
  71. ^ Ellis, pp. 141–2.
  72. ^ Ellis, pp. 369, 380.
  73. ^ http://www.ra39-45.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/infidx/index.html
  74. ^ a b Joslen, p. 399.
  75. ^ http://www.ra39-45.pwp.blueyonder.co.uk/infidx/page2.html
  76. ^ 47 Division at British Military History
  77. ^ 564–591 Regiments at British Army units from 1947 on
  78. ^ Litchfield, pp. 168 & 171.
  79. ^ 474–519 Regiments at British Army units from 1947 on
  80. ^ a b Maude, Appendix F.
  81. ^ Burke's Peerage: 'Baron Nathan'.
  82. ^ UKNIWM Ref 2817
  83. ^ War Memorials in St Pancras Church
  84. ^ UKNIWM Ref 11796

References[edit]

  • Anon, Regimental Badges and Service Caps, London: George Philip & Sons, 1941.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2a: The Territorial Force Mounted Divisions and the 1st-Line Territorial Force Divisions (42–56), London: HM Stationery Office, 1935/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–73rd) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Ian F.W. Beckett, Riflemen Form: A study of the Rifle Volunteer Movement 1859–1908, Aldershot: Ogilby Trusts, 1982, ISBN 0-85936-271-X.
  • David L. Bullock, Allenby's War: The Palestine-Arabian Campaigns 1916–1918, London: Blandford Press, 1988, ISBN 0-7137-1869-2.
  • Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage, 100th Edn, 1953.
  • Niall Cherry, Most Unfavourable Ground: The Battle of Loos 1915, Solihull: Helion, 2005, ISBN 1-874622-03-5.
  • F.W. Eames, Second Nineteenth, being the History of the 2/19th London Regiment During the Great War, London: Waterlow, 1930/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2005, ISBN 1-84574-271-0.
  • Capt W.R. Elliot, The Second Twentieth: Being the History of the 2/20th Bn London Regiment, 1920/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press/Imperial War Museum, 2005, ISBN 1-84574-282-6.
  • Norman E.H. Litchfield, The Territorial Artillery 1908–1988 (Their Lineage, Uniforms and Badges), Nottingham: Sherwood Press, 1992, ISBN 0-9508205-2-0.
  • Alan H. Maude (ed.), The History of the 47th (London) Division 1914–1919, London: Amalgamated Press, 1922/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2002, ISBN 1-84342-205-0.
  • C. Digby Planck, The Shiny Seventh: History of the 7th (City of London) Battalion London Regiment, London: Old Comrades' Association, 1946/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2002, ISBN 1-84342-366-9.

External sources[edit]