Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 5th century AD.
5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era.
Overview [ edit ]
The 5th century is noted for being a time of repeated disaster and instability both internally and externally for the
Western Roman Empire, which finally collapsed, and came to an end in AD 476. The west was ruled by a succession of weak emperors, and true power began to fall increasingly into the hands of powerful generals. Internal instability and the pressing military problem of foreign invaders resulted in the ransacking of Rome by a Visigoth army in 410. Some recovery took place during the following decades, but the Western Empire received another serious blow when a second barbarian group, the Vandals, occupied Carthage, capital of the extremely important province of Africa. Attempts to retake the province were interrupted by the invasion of the Huns under Attila. After Attila's defeat, both Eastern and Western empires joined forces for a final assault on Vandal North Africa, but this campaign was a spectacular failure.
Romulus Augustus, Last Western Roman Emperor
399 – 412: The Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures.
401: Buddhist monk and translator of sutras, Kumarajiva into Chinese arrives in Chang'an Early 5th century –
Baptistry of Neon, Ravenna, Italy, is built. 5th century -
North Acropolis, Tikal, Guatemala, is built. Maya culture.
405 or 406: Mesrop Mashtots introduces number 36 of the 38 letters of the newly created Armenian Alphabet
406: The eastern frontier of the Western Roman Empire collapses as waves of Suebi, Alans, and Vandals cross the then frozen river Rhine near Mainz and enter Gaul.
407: Constantine III leads many of the Roman military units from Britain to Gaul and occupies Arles (Arelate). This is generally seen as Rome's withdrawal from Britain.
410: Rome ransacked by the Visigoths led by King Alaric.
411: Suebi establish the first independent Christian kingdom of Western Europe in Gallaecia.
413: St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, begins to write The City of God.
426: K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo' re established Copan.
430: The Ilopango volcano erupts, thereby devastating the Mayan cities in present-day El Salvador.
431: First Council of Ephesus, the third ecumenical council which upholds the title or "mother of God", for Theotokos Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ.
439: Vandals conquer Carthage. At some point after
440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. The traditional story is that they were invited there by Vortigern.
450: Several stone inscriptions were made witness to edicts from West Java. Amongst others, the Tugu inscription announced decrees of Purnavarman, the King of Tarumanagara, one of the earliest Hindu kingdoms of Java. (up until the year 669) [1 ]
451: Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council which taught Jesus Christ as one divine person in two natures.
451: The Persians declare war on the Armenians
451: The Huns under Attila facing the Romans and the Visigoths are defeated in the Battle of Chalons. [2 ]
452: The Metropolis of Aquileia is destroyed by Attila the Hun and his army.
452: Pope Leo I meets in person with Attila on the Micino River and convinces him not to ransack Rome.
453: Death of Attila. The Hun Empire is divided between Atilla's sons.
454: Battle of Nedao. Germanic tribes destroy the main Hun army and do away with the Hun domination.
455: Vandals ransack Rome.
455: The city of Chichen Itza is founded in Mexico.
469: Death of Dengizich, last Khan of the Hun Empire.
470: Riothamus, King of the Britons, helps the Roman Emperor in Brittany against the Visigoths.
476: August 28: Deposition of Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer: traditional date for the Fall of Rome in the West.
477 (or 497): Chan Buddhists found the Shaolin Monastery on Mount Song in Henan, China.
480: Assassination of Julius Nepos, the last de jure Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, in Dalmatia.
481: Clovis I becomes King of the Western Franks upon the death of Childeric I.
486: Clovis defeats Syagrius and conquers the last free remnants of the Western Roman Empire.
490: (approximate date) Battle of Mount Badon. According to legend, British forces led by Arthur defeated the invading Saxons.
491: King Clovis I defeats and subjugates the Kingdom of Thuringia in Germany.
493: Theodoric the Ostrogoth ousts Odoacer to become King of Italy.
494: Northern Gaul is united under the Frankish King Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
496: Battle of Tolbiac. King Clovis subjugates the Alamanni, and is baptized as a Catholic with a large number of Franks by Remigius, bishop of Reims.
Buddhism reaches Burma and Indonesia.
African and Indonesian settlers reach Madagascar. The
Hopewell tradition comes to an end in North America.
Significant people [ edit ]
Aetius, last of the great Roman generals
Alaric I, King of the Visigoths that ransacked Rome
Aspar, Eastern Roman general and politician
Attila the Hun, King of the Huns
Augustine of Hippo, Bishop, theologian
Bahram V, Sassanid Shah of Persia
Bodhidharma, founder of Chan Buddhism
Boniface, Roman comes in charge of the province of Africa
John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople
Clovis, the first Frankish King to unite the Franks; first Barbarian King to convert to Catholicism
Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria, theologian
Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria
Faxian, Chinese Buddhist monk
Geiseric, Vandal King and founder of the Vandal Kingdom in North Africa
Gelasius, Bishop of Rome
Huiyuan, Chinese Buddhist
Hypatia of Alexandria, woman philosopher
Jerome, Christian hermit, priest, Latin translator of the Bible and author of theological works
John Cassian, Christian monk and theologian
Kālidāsa, Great Sanskrit poet [3 ]
K'inich Popol Hol, Ruler of Copan 437-455
K'inich Yax K'uk' Mo', Ruler of Copan 426-437
Ku Ix, Ruler of Copan 465-476
Kumarajiva, (344-413), Kuchean Buddhist monk and Chinese translator
Muyal Jol, Ruler of Copan 485-504
Leo I, Bishop of Rome, theologian
Saint Mesrob, Armenian monk
Nestorius, Archbishop of Constantinople, father of Nestorian heresy
Niall Noigiallach, founder of one of Ireland's greatest dynasties
Patrick, (Patricius) Catholic Bishop, missionary to Ireland
Pelagius, Catholic priest; father of Pelagianism
Ricimer, Western Roman general, politician and ruler
Riothamus, King of the Britons, a candidate for the legendary King Arthur
Tyrannius Rufinus, priest of Aquileia, hermit, Latin translator
Socrates Scholasticus, Byzantine Church historian
Sozomen, Christian church historian
Theoderic the Great, Ostrogothic king
Yazdegerd I, Sassanid Shah of Persia
Zu Chongzhi, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
Inventions, discoveries, introductions [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Decades and years [ edit ]