5th millennium BC
Urban cultures in Mesopotamia and Anatolia flourished, developing the wheel. Copper ornaments became more common, marking the beginning of the Chalcolithic. Animal husbandry spread throughout Eurasia, reaching China. World population grew slightly throughout the millennium, possibly from 5 to 7 million people.
- Badari culture on the Nile (c. 4400 BC–4000 BC)
- Comb Ceramic culture (also endured the 6th, 4th)
- Maykop culture
- Yangshao culture
- Merimde culture on the Nile (c. 4570 BC–4250 BC)
- The Merimde culture in Prehistoric Egypt
- Proto-Austronesian culture is based on the south coast of China. They combine extensive maritime technology, fishing with hooks and nets and gardening. (c. 5000 BC).
- Samara culture
- Sredny Stog culture
- Lengyel culture in Eastern Europe
- Ubaid culture
- Cycladic culture—a distinctive Neolithic culture amalgamating Anatolian and mainland Greek elements arose in the western Aegean before 4000 BC
- Vinča culture (also endured the 6th, 4th, and 3rd millennia)
- Yumuktepe and Gözlükule cultures in south Anatolia
- 5000–4500 BC: Għar Dalam phase of Neolithic farmers on Malta, possibly immigrant farmers from the Agrigento region of Sicily
- 5000–4000 BC: Bowl, from Banpo, near Xi'an, Shaanxi, is made. Neolithic period. Yangshao culture. It is now kept at Banpo Museum.
- 5000–2000 BCE: Neolithic period in China
- 4900–4600 BC: Arrangements of circular ditches are built in Central Europe (the Goseck circle was constructed ca. 4900 BC)
- 4800 BC: Dimini culture replaces the Sesklo culture in Thessaly (4800–4000 BC)
- c. 4500 BC: Settlement of Chirokitia dates from this period
- c. 4500 BC: Ending of Neolithic IA (the Aceramic) in Cyprus
- c. 4350 BC: Kikai Caldera forms in a massive VEI7 eruption.
- c. 4300 BC: First Funnelbeaker Culture in north and east Germany
- 4300 BC: Theta Boötis became the nearest visible star to the celestial north pole. It remained the closest until 3942 BC when it was replaced by Thuban.
- c. 4250–3750 BC: Menhir alignments at Menec, Carnac, France are made
- 4200 BC: Date of Mesolithic examples of Naalebinding found in Denmark, marking spread of technology to Northern Europe (Bender 1990)
- 4100–3500 BC: New wave of immigration to Malta from Sicily leads to the Żebbuġ and Mġarr phases, and to the Ġgantija phase of temple builders
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Rice is domesticated in China. Later, it is introduced in the Ganges Valley and the rest of Asia (c. 5000 BC).
- Farming reaches Atlantic coast of Europe from Ancient Near East (c. 5000 BC)
- Maize is cultivated in Mexico (c. 5000 BC).
- Proto-writing, such as ideographic Vinča symbols, Tartaria tablets (c. 5000 BC)
- c. 5000 BC, Metallurgy during the Copper Age in Europe
- c. 5000 BC, agriculture starts in Ancient Japan. Beans and gourds are cultivated.
- Plough is introduced in Europe (c. 4500 BC)
- Copper pins dating to 4000 BC found in Egypt
- Water buffalo are domesticated in China
- Beer brewing is developed
- Wheel is developed in Mesopotamia and India
- 5000–4900 BC: The Older Peron transgression, a warm period that would dominate the 5th millennium, begins in this period
- According to Early Anthropocene Hypothesis the early farming practises started to raise the atmospheric CO2-levels to preindustrial levels
Calendars and chronology
- 4713 BC: The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero.
- 4241 BC: Eduard Meyer's (supposed, and long since rejected) date for the creation of the Egyptian calendar, based on his calculations of the Sothic cycle.
In Biblical Chronology
- 4004 BC: According to the Ussher chronology, created by James Ussher based on the Old Testament of the Bible, this is when the universe is created at nightfall preceding October 23.
- Roberts, J: "History of the World." Penguin, 1994