6-polytope

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Graphs of three regular and five uniform polytopes
6-simplex t0.svg
6-simplex
6-cube t5.svg
6-orthoplex, 311
6-cube t0.svg
6-cube (Hexeract)
Up 2 21 t0 E6.svg
221
6-simplex t05.svg
Expanded 6-simplex
6-cube t4.svg
Rectified 6-orthoplex
6-demicube t0 D6.svg
6-demicube 131
(Demihexeract)
Up 1 22 t0 E6.svg
122

In six-dimensional geometry, a 6-polytope is a polytope, bounded by 5-polytope facets.

In the context of uniform polytopes, a proposed name polypeton (plural: polypeta) has been advocated, from the Greek root poly- meaning "many", a shortened penta- meaning "five", and suffix -on. "Five" refers to the dimension of the 5-polytope facets.

Definition[edit]

A 6-polytope, or polypeton, is a closed six-dimensional figure with vertices, edges, faces, cells (3-faces), 4-faces, and 5-faces. A vertex is a point where six or more edges meet. An edge is a line segment where four or more faces meet, and a face is a polygon where three or more cells meet. A cell is a polyhedron. A 4-face is a polychoron, and a 5-face is a polyteron. Furthermore, the following requirements must be met:

  • Each 4-face must join exactly two 5-faces (facets).
  • Adjacent facets are not in the same five-dimensional hyperplane.
  • The figure is not a compound of other figures which meet the requirements.

Regular 6-polytopes[edit]

Regular 6-polytopes can be generated from Coxeter groups represented by the Schläfli symbol {p,q,r,s,t} with t {p,q,r,s} polyteron facets around each cell.

There are only three such convex regular 6-polytopes:

There are no nonconvex regular polytopes of 5 or more dimensions.

Euler characteristic[edit]

The Euler characteristic for 6-polytopes that are topological 5-spheres (including all convex 6-polytopes) is zero: χ=V-E+F-C+f4-f5=0.

For the 3 convex regular 6-polytopes, their elements are:

Name Schläfli
symbol
Coxeter
diagram
Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces χ Symmetry (order)
6-simplex {3,3,3,3,3} CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png 7 21 35 35 21 7 0 A6 (720)
6-orthoplex {3,3,3,3,4} CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.png 12 60 160 240 192 64 0 BC6 (46080)
6-cube {4,3,3,3,3} CDel node 1.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png 64 192 240 160 60 12 0 BC6 (46080)

Here are six more simple uniform convex 6-polytopes, including the 6-orthoplex repeated with its alternate construction.

Name Schläfli
symbol(s)
Coxeter
diagram(s)
Vertices Edges Faces Cells 4-faces 5-faces χ Symmetry (order)
Expanded 6-simplex t0,5{3,3,3,3,3} CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png 42 210 490 630 434 126 0 2×A6 (1440)
6-orthoplex, 311
(alternate construction)
{3,3,3,31,1} CDel nodes.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.png 12 60 160 240 192 64 0 D6 (23040)
6-demicube {3,33,1}
h{4,3,3,3,3}
CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
CDel node h.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
32 240 640 640 252 44 0 D6 (23040)
½BC6
Rectified 6-orthoplex t1{3,3,3,3,4}
t1{3,3,3,31,1}
CDel node.pngCDel 4.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
CDel nodes.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.png
60 480 1120 1200 576 76 0 BC6 (46080)
2×D6
221 polytope {3,3,32,1} CDel nodea 1.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png 27 216 720 1080 648 99 0 E6 (51840)
122 polytope {3,32,2} CDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel branch 01lr.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.pngCDel 3a.pngCDel nodea.png 72 720 2160 2160 702 54 0 E6 (51840)

The expanded 6-simplex is the vertex figure of the uniform 6-simplex honeycomb, CDel node 1.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel branch.png. The 6-demicube honeycomb, CDel nodes 10ru.pngCDel split2.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes.png, vertex figure is a rectified 6-orthoplex and facets are the 6-orthoplex and 6-demicube. The uniform 222 honeycomb,CDel node 1.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel 3.pngCDel node.pngCDel split1.pngCDel nodes.pngCDel 3ab.pngCDel nodes.png, has 122 polytope is the vertex figure and 221 facets.

Classification[edit]

6-polytopes may be classified by properties like "convexity" and "symmetry".

  • A 6-polytope is convex if its boundary (including its 5-faces, 4-faces, cells, faces and edges) does not intersect itself and the line segment joining any two points of the 6-polytope is contained in the polypeton or its interior; otherwise, it is non-convex. Self-intersecting 6-polytope are also known as star 6-polytopes, from analogy with the star-like shapes of the non-convex Kepler-Poinsot polyhedra.
  • A regular 6-polytope has all identical regular 5-polytope facets. All regular 6-polytope are convex.
Main article: Uniform polypeton
  • A prismatic 6-polytope is constructed by the Cartesian product of two lower-dimensional polytopes. A prismatic 6-polytope is uniform if its factors are uniform. The 6-cube is prismatic (product of a squares and a cube), but is considered separately because it has symmetries other than those inherited from its factors.
  • A 5-space tessellation is the division of five-dimensional Euclidean space into a regular grid of 5-polytope facets. Strictly speaking, tessellations are not 6-polytopes as they do not bound a "6D" volume, but we include them here for the sake of completeness because they are similar in many ways to 6-polytope. A uniform 5-space tessellation is one whose vertices are related by a space group and whose facets are uniform 5-polytopes.

References[edit]

  • T. Gosset: On the Regular and Semi-Regular Figures in Space of n Dimensions, Messenger of Mathematics, Macmillan, 1900
  • A. Boole Stott: Geometrical deduction of semiregular from regular polytopes and space fillings, Verhandelingen of the Koninklijke academy van Wetenschappen width unit Amsterdam, Eerste Sectie 11,1, Amsterdam, 1910
  • H.S.M. Coxeter:
    • H.S.M. Coxeter, M.S. Longuet-Higgins und J.C.P. Miller: Uniform Polyhedra, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Londne, 1954
    • H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, 3rd Edition, Dover New York, 1973
  • Kaleidoscopes: Selected Writings of H.S.M. Coxeter, edited by F. Arthur Sherk, Peter McMullen, Anthony C. Thompson, Asia Ivic Weiss, Wiley-Interscience Publication, 1995, ISBN 978-0-471-01003-6 [1]
    • (Paper 22) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi Regular Polytopes I, [Math. Zeit. 46 (1940) 380-407, MR 2,10]
    • (Paper 23) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes II, [Math. Zeit. 188 (1985) 559-591]
    • (Paper 24) H.S.M. Coxeter, Regular and Semi-Regular Polytopes III, [Math. Zeit. 200 (1988) 3-45]
  • N.W. Johnson: The Theory of Uniform Polytopes and Honeycombs, Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Toronto, 1966
  • Richard Klitzing, 6D, uniform polytopes (polypeta)

External links[edit]