62 Pompeii earthquake
|Date||February 5, 62|
|Countries or regions||Roman Empire, Campania|
The 62 Pompeii earthquake occurred on 5 February, AD 62. It had an estimated magnitude of between 5 and 6 and a maximum intensity of XI or X on the Mercalli intensity scale. The towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum were severely damaged. The earthquake may have been a precursor to the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in AD 79 that destroyed the same two towns. The contemporary philosopher and dramatist Seneca the Younger wrote an account of the earthquake in the sixth book of his Naturales quaestiones entitled De Terrae Motu (Concerning Earthquakes).
The epicentre of the earthquake lies within a zone of active extensional faulting, but close to the southern flank of Vesuvius. Analysis of focal mechanisms from the area around Vesuvius indicates that active faulting in the area involves NW-SE and NE-SW trending oblique-slip normal faults and E-W trending normal faults, part of the zone of active extension that extends the full length of the Apennines mountain chain, associated with continued opening of the Tyrrhenian Sea. An association between earthquakes in the central Apennines and eruptions of Vesuvius has been proposed, but is not yet proven.
The extent of damage has been used to estimate the magnitude of the earthquake. Estimates lie in the range from about 5 to 6.1. The maximum felt intensity is estimated to be in the range IX to X, and the area of highest intensity is elongated roughly WNW-ESE. Shaking was reported to have continued for several days, presumably referring to a sequence of aftershocks. The focal depth is estimated to be in the range 5–6 km.
The towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum both suffered major damage, with damage to some buildings also reported from Naples and Nuceria. Seneca reported the death of a flock of 600 sheep that he attributed to the effects of poison gases.
The damage caused by the mainshock and the subsequent series of tremors was at least partly repaired by the time of the AD 79 eruption in both Pompeii and Herculaneum. A pair of bas-reliefs, probably from the Lararium, in the house of Lucius Caecilius Iucundus in Pompeii are interpreted to depict the effects of the earthquake on buildings including the Temple of Jupiter and the Vesuvius Gate.
The earthquake led Roman philosopher, statesman and dramatist Seneca the Younger to devote the sixth book of his Naturales quaestiones to the subject of earthquakes, describing the event of 5 February and giving the cause of earthquakes as the movement of air.
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