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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|Centuries:||8th century BC – 7th century BC – 6th century BC|
|Decades:||670s BC 660s BC 650s BC – 640s BC – 630s BC 620s BC 610s BC|
|Years:||649 BC 648 BC 647 BC 646 BC 645 BC 644 BC 643 BC 642 BC 641 BC 640 BC|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
Events and trends 
- Assyrian king Ashurbanipal founds library, which includes our earliest complete copy of the Epic of Gilgamesh.
- 649 BC — Indabigash succeeds Tammaritu as a king of the Elamite Empire.
- 649 BC — Babylonian revolt under Shamash-shuma-ukin is crushed by the Assyrians.
- 648 BC — Pankration becomes an event at the Ancient Olympic Games.
- April 6, 648 BC—Earliest Greek-chronicled solar eclipse.
- 647 BC — King Assurbanipal of Assyria sacks Susa.
- c. 647 BC — Assurbanipal and his Queen in the garden, from the palace at Nineveh (modern Kuyunjik, Iraq) is made. It is now in The British Museum, London.
- 645 BC—In the Chinese book of the Spring and Autumn Annals, it was recorded that on December 24 of this year there were five meteors seen in the sky over what is now northern Shanqiu County, Henan Province. It was the first Chinese recording of meteors.
- 641 BC — Tullus Hostilius dies and interregnum starts (traditional date).
- 640 BC: Decisive victory of Assyria over Elamite Empire; Assurbanipal captures its last king Khumma-Khaldash III, annexes Elam, and lays waste the country.
Significant people 
- 645 BC—Death of Guan Zhong, Prime Minister of the Chinese state of Qi
- 645 BC—Death of Archilochos, Greek poet (approximate date)
- 643 BC—Death of Manasseh of Judah
- 643 BC—Death of Duke Huan of Qi in China
- 641 BC—Josiah becomes king of Judah
- 640 BC—Birth of Stesichorus, Greek poet (approximate date)
- Potts, D. T. (1999) "The Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State" (Cambridge World Archaeology)