65th Infantry Regiment (United States)
|65th Infantry Regiment|
Coat of arms
|Country|| Puerto Rico
United States of America
|Branch||United States Army|
|Nickname||"Borinqueneers" (special designation)|
|Motto||Honor and Fidelity|
World War I
|Col. Antulio Segarra
Col. Juan César Cordero Dávila
|Distinctive unit insignia|
|U.S. Infantry Regiments|
|64th Infantry Regiment||66th Infantry Regiment|
The 65th Infantry Regiment, nicknamed "The Borinqueneers" from the original Taíno name of the island (Borinquen), is a Puerto Rican regiment of the United States Army. The regiment's motto is Honor et Fidelitas, Latin for Honor and Fidelity. The 65th Infantry Regiment participated in World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and in what is known in the United States as the War on Terror. On June 10, 2014, the 65th Infantry was awarded the Congressional Gold Medal, an award bestowed by the United States Congress which is, along with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. The 65th Infantry is the first Hispanic military unit and the first unit of the Korean War to be awarded the Congressional Gold Medal.
- 1 Early history
- 2 World War I
- 3 World War II
- 4 Operation "PORTREX"
- 5 Korean War
- 6 Twenty-first century
- 7 Legacy
- 8 Congressional Gold Medal initiative
- 9 Notable Puerto Rican members
- 10 Unit citations
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
Puerto Ricans have participated in many of the military conflicts in which the United States has been involved. For example, they participated in the American Revolution, when volunteers from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Mexico fought the British in 1779 under the command of General Bernardo de Gálvez (1746–1786), and have continued to participate up to the present-day conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Puerto Rico became a U.S. Territory after the 1898 Treaty of Paris which ended the Spanish-American War. The United States appointed a military governor and soon the United States Army established itself in San Juan. The Army Appropriation Bill created by an act of Congress on 2 March 1898, authorized the creation of the first body of native troops in Puerto Rico. On 30 June 1901, the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry" was organized.
On 1 July 1901, the United States Senate passed a bill which would require a strict mental and physical examination for those who wanted to join the regiment. It also approved the recruitment of native Puerto Rican civilians to be appointed the grade of second lieutenants for a term of four years if they passed the required tests. An act of Congress, approved on 27 May 1908, reorganized the regiment as part of the "regular" Army. Since the native Puerto Rican officers were Puerto Rican citizens and not citizens of the United States, they were required to undergo a new physical examination to determine their fitness for commissions in the Regular Army and to take an oath of U.S. citizenship with their new officers oath. By 30 January 1917, the Porto Rico Regiment of Infantry was training in Camp Las Casas which was located in Santurce, a section of San Juan in what is now Residencial Las Casas.
World War I
Different units of the regiment were stationed at other forts throughout the island. Lieutenant Teofilo Marxuach, the officer of the day, was stationed at El Morro Castle at San Juan Bay on 21 March 1915. The Odenwald, built in 1903 (not to be confused with the German World War II war ship which carried the same name), was an armed German supply ship which tried to force its way out of the San Juan Bay and deliver supplies to the German submarines waiting in the Atlantic Ocean. Marxuach gave the order to open fire on the ship from the walls of the fort. Sergeant Encarnación Correa then manned a machine gun and fired warning shots with little effect.
Marxuach fired a warning shot from a cannon located at the Santa Rosa battery of El Morro fort, in what is considered to be the first shot of World War I fired by the regular armed forces of the United States against a ship flying the colors of the Central Powers, forcing the Odenwald to stop and to return to port where its supplies were confiscated.
The Odenwald was confiscated by the United States and renamed SS Newport News. It was assigned to the U.S. Shipping Board, where it served until 1924 when it was retired.
Puerto Ricans were unaccustomed to the racial segregation policies of the United States which were also implemented in Puerto Rico and often refused to designate themselves as "white" or "black". Puerto Ricans of African descent were assigned to all-black units.
When the United States declared war against Germany, the regiment was transferred to the regular Army and on 3 May 1917, recruited 1,969 men, considered at that time as war strength.
On 14 May 1917, the regiment was sent to Panama in defense of the Panama Canal Zone. The regiment returned to Puerto Rico on March 1919 and was renamed "The 65th Infantry Regiment" by the Reorganization Act of 4 June 1920. During this period a young Puerto Rican officer of the Regular Army, Major Luis R. Esteves, was sent to Camp Las Casas to serve as an instructor in the preparation of Puerto Rican officers. In the future, Esteves would become known as the "Father of the Puerto Rican National Guard".
World War II
In 1942 the 65th Infantry underwent an extensive training program and in 1943, it was sent to Panama to protect the Pacific and the Atlantic sides of the isthmus. On 25 November 1943, Colonel Antulio Segarra, proceeded Col. John R. Menclenhall as commander of the 65th Infantry, thus becoming the first Puerto Rican Regular Army officer to command a Regular Army regiment. In January 1944, the regiment was embarked for Jackson Barracks in New Orleans and later sent to Fort Eustis in Newport News, Virginia in preparation for overseas deployment to North Africa.
They also served in Casablanca after the Naval Battle of Casablanca, where the regiment underwent amphibious training. This enabled the 3rd Battalion to move on to Corsica, where it was attached to the 12th Air Force and tasked with guarding airfields.
On 22 September 1944, the 65th Infantry landed in France and was committed to action on the Maritime Alps at Peira Cava. On 13 December 1944, the 65th Infantry, under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Juan César Cordero Dávila, relieved the 2nd Battalion of the 442nd Infantry Regiment, a regiment which was made up of Japanese Americans under the command of Col. Virgil R. Miller, a native of San Germán, Puerto Rico and former member of the 65th Infantry Regiment. In December 1944, the 3rd Battalion faced the German 34th Infantry Division's 107th Grenadier Regiment.:10 They suffered a total of forty seven battle casualties. The first two Puerto Ricans to be killed in action from the 65th Infantry were Pvt. Sergio Sánchez-Sánchez and Sgt. Ángel Martínez, from the town of Sabana Grande. On 18 March 1945, the regiment was sent to the District of Mannheim, Germany and assigned to Military Government activities, anti-sabotage and security missions. In all, the 65th Infantry participated in the campaigns of Rome-Arno, Rhineland, Ardennes-Alsace, and Central Europe. On 27 October 1945, the regiment sailed from France arriving at Puerto Rico on 9 November 1945.
|You can see newsreel footage of Operation Portrex here|
The 65th Infantry Regiment distinguished itself when the United States conducted a military exercise on the island of Vieques, on the eve of the Korean War. This exercise was code named "Operation PORTREX," an acronym for "Puerto Rico Exercise." The objective was to see how the combined forces of the Army, Marines, Navy and Air Force would do as "liberators" of an enemy captured territory (Vieques) against the "aggressors." The core of the aggressor ground forces were made up of Puerto Rican soldiers, most of whom belonged to the 65th Infantry Regiment.
The liberators consisted of 32,600 combat troops from the 82nd Airborne Division's 504th Airborne Infantry Regiment and the Marine Corps, who received support from the Navy and Air Force. Despite the large number of troops deployed, the 65th Infantry (the aggressor) was able to halt the offensive forces on the beaches of the island. Colonel William W. Harris, the commanding officer of the 65th, stated: "Stopping the assault forces at the water’s edge proved that the Puerto Ricans could hold their own against the best-trained soldiers that the United States Army could put into the field." 
The successful military maneuvers during PORTREX prompted the Army's leadership to deploy the 65th Infantry to Korea.
On 27 August 1950, the 65th Infantry, with 3,920 officers and men organized into three infantry battalions, one artillery battalion and a tank company departed from Puerto Rico and arrived in Pusan, Korea on 23 September 1950. It was during the long sea voyage that the men nicknamed the 65th Infantry as the "Borinqueneers." The name is a combination of the words "Borinquen" (which was what the Taínos called the island before the arrival of the Spaniards) and "Buccaneers".
The men of the 65th, now attached to the Army's 3d Infantry Division, were among first infantrymen to meet the enemy on the battlefields of Korea. After November 1950, they fought daily against units of the Chinese People's Liberation Army after the Chinese entered the war on the North Korean side.
One of the hardships suffered by the Puerto Ricans was the lack of warm clothing during the cold and harsh winters.
|You may watch a newsreel of the "65th Infantry Regiment" in Korea here.|
The enemy made many attempts to encircle the regiment, but each time they failed because of the many casualties inflicted by the 65th. The 65th was part of a task force which enabled the U.S. Marines to withdraw from the Chosin Reservoir on December 1950. When the Marines were encircled by the Chinese Communist troops close to the Manchurian border, they were ordered to retreat and worked their way back to Hungnam. The men of the 65th rushed to their defense and ordered to stay behind and fight the enemy. As a result, the Marines were able to withdraw to their ships with the 65th holding the rear guard. The 65th, attached to the 1st Marine Division, was awarded the Navy Unit Commendation for their defense and were among the last units to embark from Hungnam. Among the battles and operations in which the 65th participated was Operation Killer in January 1951, becoming the first regiment to cross the Han River in South Korea during the operation.
On April 1951, the regiment participated in the Uijonbu Corridor drives and on June 1951, the 65th was the third regiment to cross the Han Ton River. The 65th took and held Chorwon and they were also instrumental in breaking the Iron Triangle of Hill 717 on July 1951. In November 1951, the regiment fought off an attack by two regimental size enemy units. Colonel Juan César Cordero Dávila was named commander of 65th Infantry on 8 February 1952, thus becoming one of the highest ranking ethnic officers in the Army.[verification needed]
Battles of Outpost Kelly and Jackson Heights
On 3 July 1952, the regiment defended the main line of resistance (MLR) for 47 days and saw action at Cognac, King and Queen with successful attacks on Chinese positions. On September 1952, the 65th Infantry defended a hill known as "Outpost Kelly." Chinese Communist forces overran the hill in what became known as the Battle for Outpost Kelly. On two occasions, the 65th Regiment was overwhelmed by Chinese artillery and driven off.
In October 1952, the regiment also saw action in the Chorwon Sector and on Iron Horse, Hill 391, whose lower part was called "Jackson Heights" in honor of Capt. George Jackson (see: Col. Carlos Betances Ramírez). Company G of the 65th fought a desperate battle to hold on to Hill 391. After enduring days of artillery bombardment with limited artillery support of their own, Company G withdrew to avoid being overrun by a numerically superior foe.
In June 1953, the 2nd Battalion conducted a series of successful raids about two and a half miles southeast of Jackson Heights and in November the regiment successfully counter-attacked enemy units in the Numsong Valley and held their positions until the armistice was reached.
Many non-Puerto Rican Hispanics served in the 65th Infantry during the war. Among those who distinguished themselves in combat and who served in the conflict as a member of the 65th Infantry was a young first lieutenant of Mexican American descent whose name is Richard Edward Cavazos. Cavazos entered the military in Texas and served as Company Commander of Company E of the 2d Battalion. Cavazos, who in 1982, became the first Hispanic to become a four-star general in the United States Army, was the recipient of the Distinguished Service Cross, the Silver Star Medal and the Bronze Star Medal.
Mass court martial
Col. Cordero Dávila was relieved of his command by Col. Chester B. DeGavre, a West Point graduate and a "continental", an officer from the mainland United States, and the officer staff of the 65th was replaced with non-Hispanic officers. DeGavre, upset over the fact that "G" company did not hold on to Hill 391, ordered that the unit stop calling itself the "Borinqueneers," cut their special rations of rice and beans, ordered the men to shave off their mustaches and had one of them wear signs that read "I am a coward." The language barrier, an NCO shortage, and poor leadership were factors that influenced some of the men of Company L in their refusal to continue to fight.
One hundred and sixty-two Puerto Ricans of the 65th Infantry were arrested. Between 23 November and 26 December 1952, ninety-five soldiers were court martialed and tried by General Court-Martial in fifteen separate trials. Ninety-one were found guilty and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one to 18 years of hard labor. It was the largest mass court-martial of the Korean War. According to cultural historian Silvia Álvarez Curbelo, the government of Puerto Rico, caught in the middle of a potentially damaging affair that could jeopardize its political agenda, kept silent for nearly two months. Finally, the incidents were made known by a local newspaper alerted by several letters written by the imprisoned soldiers to their families. Secret negotiations between the U.S. and Puerto Rican governments, were made and the Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens moved quickly to remit the sentences and granted clemency and pardons to all those involved.
An Army report released in 2001 blamed the breakdown of the 65th on the following factors: a shortage of officers and noncommissioned officers, a rotation policy that removed combat-experienced leaders and soldiers, tactics that led to high casualties, an ammunition shortage, communication problems between largely white, English-speaking officers and Spanish-speaking Puerto Rican enlisted men, and declining morale. The report also found bias in the prosecution of the Puerto Ricans, citing instances of continental soldiers who were not charged after refusing to fight in similar circumstances, before and after Jackson Heights. Though the men who were court martialed were pardoned, a campaign for a formal exoneration was launched.
Awards in the Korean War
Master Sergeant Juan E. Negron was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his courageous actions while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea on 28 April 1951. His award was upgraded to the Medal of Honor on 18 March 2014.
Negron's Medal of Honor citation
JUAN E. NEGRON
UNITED STATES ARMY
For service as set forth in the following citation: The Medal of Honor is posthumously presented to Juan E. Negron (RA10406243), Master Sergeant, U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy of the United Nations while serving with the 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division. Master Sergeant Negron distinguished himself by extraordinary heroism in action against enemy aggressor forces in the vicinity of Kalma-Eri, Korea, on 28 April 1951. On that date, Sergeant Negron took up the most vulnerable position on his company's exposed right flank after an enemy force had overrun a section of the line. When notified that elements of the company were withdrawing, Sergeant Negron refused to leave his exposed position, but delivered withering fire at hostile troops who had broken through a road block. When the hostile troops approached his position, Sergeant Negron accurately hurled hand grenades at short range, halting their attack. Sergeant Negron held the position throughout the night, while an allied counter attack was organized and launched. After the enemy had been repulsed, fifteen enemy dead were found only a few feet from Sergeant Negron's position. The extraordinary heroism exhibited by Sergeant Negron on this occasion reflects great credit on himself and is in keeping with the finest traditions of the military service.
A total of 61,000 Puerto Ricans served in the military during the Korean War. The 65th Infantry was awarded battle participation credits for the following nine campaigns: UN Defense-1950, UN Offense-1950, CCF Intervention-1950, First UN Counterattack Offensive-1951, UN and CCF Spring Offensive-1951, UN Summer-Fall Offensive-1951, 2nd Korean Winter 1951–52, Korean Summer-Fall-1952 and 3rd Korean Winter-1952-53. They are credited with the last battalion-sized bayonet assault in U.S. Army history.
|Medal of Honor||
|Distinguished Service Cross||
Ten Distinguished Service Crosses, 256 Silver Stars and 606 Bronze Stars for valor were awarded to the men of the 65th Infantry. Of the ten Distinguished Service Crosses that were awarded to the members of the 65th Infantry, five were awarded to Puerto Ricans:
- Sergeant First Class Modesto Cartagena
- Private Badel Hernández Guzmán
- Master Sergeant Juan E. Negron (upgraded to the Medal of Honor)
- Corporal Fabian Nieves Laguer
- Master Sergeant Belisario Noriega
According to El Nuevo Día newspaper, 30 May 2004, a total of 756 Puerto Ricans were killed in Korea, from all four branches of the U.S. armed forces. However, according to "All POW-MIA Korean War Casualties", the total amount of Puerto Rican casualties in the Korean War was 732. However this total may vary slightly since some non-Puerto Ricans such as Captain James W. Conner were mistakenly included. Out of the 700 plus casualties suffered in the war a total of 121 men were listed as missing in action. The Battle of Outpost Kelly accounted for 73 of the men missing in action from the total of 121. Out of the 73 MIAs suffered by the regiment in the month of September 1952, 50 of them occurred on the same day, 18 September. For a list of names of those who were declared MIA, see: List of Puerto Ricans missing in action in the Korean War. According to the TAGOKOR Korean War Casualty File and the American Battle Commission site the members of the 65th who fought in Korea were awarded a total of 2,771 Purple Heart Medals. On 12 February 1951, General Douglas MacArthur, wrote in Tokyo:
The Puerto Ricans forming the ranks of the gallant 65th Infantry give daily proof on the battlefields of Korea of their courage, determination and resolute will to victory, their invincible loyalty to the United States and their fervent devotion to those immutable principles of human relations which the Americans of the Continent and of Puerto Rico have in common. They are writing a brilliant record of heroism in battle and I am indeed proud to have them under my command. I wish that we could count on many more like them.
Post Korean War
The 65th Infantry was relieved from assignment to the 3d Infantry Division on 3 November 1954, and, returning to Puerto Rico, it was assigned on 2 December 1954, to the 23rd Infantry Division, which encompassed geographically-separated units in the Caribbean region. On 10 April 1956, it was inactivated at Camp Losey, Puerto Rico, and relieved from assignment to the 23d, which itself was inactivated.
On 6 February 1959, the regiment was deactivated from the Regular Army but the Puerto Rican Army National Guard soon adopted its identifying number, the famous "65th", for their existing 296th Regimental Combat Team at Camp Losey, mainly composed of reserve component personnel.
On 15 February 1959, it was organized to consist of the 1st Battle Group, 65th Infantry, an element of the 92d Infantry Brigade. On 1 May 1964, it was reorganized to consist of the 1st Battalion, 65th Infantry, and remained assigned to the 92d. It was reorganized again on 1 April 1971, to consist of the 1st Battalion and the separate Company E. This was followed by another reorganization on 1 September 1978, to consist of the 1st and 2d Battalions within the 92d, as well as the separate Company E. Less than two years later another reorganization on 29 February 1980, eliminated the separate Company E while retaining the 1st and 2d Battalions.
On 27 October 1987, the regiment was withdrawn from CARS and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System with Headquarters at Cayey. It was reorganized on 1 September 1992, to consist of the 1st Battalion, 65th Infantry, and remained assigned to the 92d Infantry Brigade.
On 14 February 2003, it was ordered into active federal service at home stations and released on 12 February 2005, reverting to territorial control. On 1 October, of that year it was reorganized as the 65th Infantry Regiment in which only the 1st Battalion was active.
The separate Company E was a Ranger unit given federal recognition effective 1 April 1971, and had a total authorized strength of 198 personnel. It was added to the PR ARNG on that date while the 755th Transportation Company (Medium Truck, Cargo) was deleted. Co E (Ranger), 65th Infantry relocated from Vega Baja to San Juan on 2 February 1976, and was inactivated as federal recognition was withdrawn effective 29 February 1980. This resulted in the allocation of an ARNG ranger company being transferred from the PR ARNG to the Texas ARNG, in which Company G (Ranger), 143d Infantry was activated in Houston from elements of the 2d Battalion (Airborne), 143d Infantry, 36th Airborne Brigade, which was being inactivated effective 1 April 1980.
The 65th Infantry Regiment's 1st Battalion, along with its sister battalion, the 1–296th Infantry, was transferred to the 92d Infantry Brigade, PRARNG (now the 92nd Maneuver Enhancement Brigade). Both battalions have served in what the United States and its allies call the War against Terrorism and Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom.
In 2009, Company C, 1st Battalion, 65th Infantry Regiment was deployed to the Horn of Africa and stationed at Camp Lemonnier in Djibouti, after completing a 14-month deployment at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Company C carried the crew-served weapons to protect the camp. It also operated the entry control checkpoints, protected U.S. and allied ships at the massive Djibouti Port, and guarded the U.S. Embassy there. By mid-2009, the rest of the battalion deployed there in case a larger combat maneuver element was needed to operate from the base. The area is considered to be the most unstable part of Africa, and the Somalian border is less than 10 miles from Camp Lemonnier.
Puerto Rico honored the unit by naming one of its principal avenues "La 65 de Infantería" in San Juan. The names of those killed in combat are inscribed in "El Monumento de la Recordación" (Monument of Remembrance), which was unveiled on 19 May 1996 and is situated in front of the Capitol Building in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
In November 1999, Governor Pedro Rosselló, along with the Senate of Puerto Rico, chartered the 65th Infantry Honor Task Force and appointed Anthony Mele as chairman to work with Major General Nels Running, Director, Committee of the 50th Anniversary of the Korean War to commemorate the 65th Infantry Regiment. The 65th Infantry Honor Task Force is a coalition of individuals, veterans organizations, and groups dedicated to advocate and preserve the legacy of the 65th Infantry Regiment. The group organized tree planting and plaque commemoration ceremonies around the USA, to include Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia; Fort San Felipe del Morro in San Juan, Puerto Rico; and Fort Logan National Cemetery in Denver.
On 20 May 2001, the government of Puerto Rico unveiled a monument honoring the 65th Infantry Regiment. The monument was made by artist Sonny Rodríguez, and is called "Mission Accomplished". It contains a statue of a soldier wearing a poncho with his rifle in one hand and the regiment's flag in the other hand.
On 7 June 2007, PBS aired The Borinqueneers, a documentary about the 65th Infantry written and directed by Noemí Figueroa Soulet with Raquel Ortiz as co-director. The narrators were Héctor Elizondo (English) and David Ortiz-Anglero (Spanish).
On 1 October 2013: The 65th Infantry Honor Task Force organized veterans from the 65th and their families to attend a salute to the regiment by the 3d US Infantry [The Old Guard] at Fort Myer, Virginia, a tour of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers, and wreath laying ceremony at the Korean War Combat Veterans Memorial in Washington, DC. Video credits to Jose R. Guerra:
22-23 March 2014: The 65th Infantry Honor Task Force organized the salute of the first Medal of Honor awarded to a Borinqueneer; MSG Juan E. Negron in New York with Iris Negron, daughter of MSG Negron, and BG Jose Burgos. In attendance were New York State Senators William E. Larkin, a Korean War combat veteran, and David Carlucci who presented a proclamation from the New York State Senate.
Congressional Gold Medal initiative
A Congressional Gold Medal is an award bestowed by the United States Congress and is, along with the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. It is awarded to persons "who have performed an achievement that has an impact on American history and culture that is likely to be recognized as a major achievement in the recipient's field long after the achievement."
|You can hear a radio interview about the Borinqueneer CGM movement here|
|You can see a commemorative video, covering over 60 years of Borinqueneer history here|
Congressional Gold Medals have also been awarded to: the Navaho Wind Talkers – Native American Marines whose primary job was the transmission of secret tactical messages with the use of their Native language; the Japanese American 100th Infantry Battalion and 442nd Infantry Regiment; the Tuskegee Airmen; the Montford Point Marines; and the Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASP).
S. 1174, the bill that would confer the Congressional Gold Medal on the 65th Infantry Regiment, was introduced in both the United States House of Representatives and in the United States Senate.
Advocates garnered support from governors, mayors, county commissioners and state legislators, Vietnam Veterans of America, Hispanic American Veterans of Connecticut and the League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC), Military Order of the Purple Heart (MOPH), American GI Forum (AGIF), and National Puerto Rican Coalition (NPRC). The Borinqueneers Congressional Gold Medal Alliance helped lead the effort. There are also 10 memorials and monuments honoring the 65th Infantry around the nation.
|You can see a video of President Barack Obama awarding the Congressional Medal of Honor to the Borinqueneers HERE|
Notable Puerto Rican members
Amongst the notable Puerto Ricans who served in the "65th Infantry Regiment" and/or its predecessor the "Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry":
|Major General Juan César Cordero Dávila||
||Commanding officer of the 65th Infantry Regiment during the Korean War.|
|Brigadier General Antonio Rodríguez Balinas||
||First commander of the Office of the First U.S. Army Deputy Command (awarded two Silver Stars).|
|Colonel Virgil R. Miller||
||Miller was commissioned a second lieutenant in the infantry in 1924 upon his graduation from the United States Military Academy. In 1926, he returned to Puerto Rico where he served with Puerto Rico's 65th Infantry Regiment at Camp Las Casas. In 1940, he was transferred 24th Infantry Division stationed in Hawaii. During World War II he was the commander of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and led the rescue of the "Lost Battalion".|
|Colonel Carlos Betances Ramirez||
||Only Puerto Rican officer to command an infantry battalion in the Korean War.|
|Colonel Antulio Segarra||
||First Puerto Rican Regular Army officer to command a Regular Army regiment.|
|Lieutenant Colonel Teófilo Marxuach||
||Marxuach served in the Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry which was renamed the 65th Infantry Regiment. He fired what is considered to be the first shot of World War I by the regular armed forces of the United States against any ship flying the colors of the Central Powers. |
|Second Lieutenant Pedro Albizu Campos||
||Served in the Army Reserves from 1914 to 1918. In 1917, he was assigned to the 375th of the Porto Rico Provisional Regiment of Infantry. The segregated unit was made up of Afro-Puerto Ricans. The war ended before the unit could be deployed. He later presided over the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party.|
|Master Sergeant Juan E. Negrón||
||On 18 March 2014, was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his courageous actions while serving as a member of Company L, 65th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division during combat operations against an armed enemy in Kalma-Eri, Korea on 28 April 1951.|
|Master Sergeant Pedro Rodriguez||
||Awarded two Silver Stars in one week.|
|Sergeant First Class Agustín Ramos Calero||
||Among the most decorated (22 decorations) soldiers in the United States during World War II.|
|Sergeant First Class Modesto Cartagena||
||The most decorated Puerto Rican soldier in history.|
The 65th Infantry has been awarded the following citations:
|– Navy Unit Commendation|
|– National Defense Service Medal|
|– World War I Victory Medal|
|– American Defense Service Medal|
|– American Campaign Medal|
|– European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal|
|– World War II Victory Medal|
|– Army of Occupation Medal|
|– Presidential Unit Citation (two awards)|
|– Meritorious Unit Commendation (two awards)|
|– Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation (two awards)|
|– Chryssoun Aristion Andrias (Bravery Gold Medal of Greece)|
Other military articles related to Puerto Rico:
- Military history of Puerto Rico
- El Grito de Lares
- Intentona de Yauco
- Puerto Rican Campaign
- Puerto Ricans in World War I
- Puerto Ricans in World War II
- Puerto Ricans in the Vietnam War
- Puerto Rican women in the military
- Puerto Rico National Guard
- In accordance to the "TAGOKOR Korean War Casualty File" and the "American Battle Commission", of the 2,771 Purple Hearts awarded 670 were "KIA" (Killed in action) and 2,101 were non casualties. The non-casualties included those who were awarded more than one Purple Heart and those who were "MIA's" (Missing in action).
- "Special Designation Listing". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 14 July 2010.
- Maryland General Assembly (8 April 1997). "Participation of Hispanics in the American Revolution". SJR2. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Special Announcements
- Villahermosa, Gilberto N. (2009). Honor and Fidelity: The 65th Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953. Government Printing Office. ISBN 978-0-16-083324-3.
- Héctor Andrés Negroni (1992). Historia militar de Puerto Rico. Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario. p. 370. ISBN 978-84-7844-138-9. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- "US Naval Institute Proceedings"; "A Breach of Neutrality"; by: Lt. Isaiah Olch, US Navy; Vol. 62; July – December 1936
- "CALLS ODENWALD AFFAIR AN ATTACK; Fired On Without Warning Shot, Germany Asserts, Contradicting San Juan Commander. SAYS SHE WAS UNDULY HELD Violated Clearance to Elude Enemy Cruisers That Had Been Warned She Was About to Sail.". New York Times. 7 April 1915. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
- "Newport News". U.S. Navy. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Briggs, Laura (2002). Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico. University of California Press. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-520-93631-7.
- Puerto Rico National Guard, Retrieved 8 September 2007
- Richard A. Stewart, ed. (2005). "2. Between World Wars". American Military History Volume II. Army Historical Series. Washington, D.C. CMH Pub 30-22. Retrieved 8 September 2007.
- "World War II Order Of Battle"-Revised Edition; by: Captain Shelby L. Stanton, U.S. Army Special Forces (Retired); Publisher: Presidio; ISBN 0883657759; ISBN 0-88365-775-9
- Villahermosa, Gilberto (July 2004). "The 65th Infantry Regiment, Prelude to Inchon: The Puerto Rico Exercises of 1950". Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Villahermosa, Gilberto (September 2000). "Honor and Fidelity: The 65th Infantry in Korea 1950-1954". Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "General Order 38". Department of the Army. 30 July 1957. pp. 2–3. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- "Outpost Kelly". Retrieved 10 October 2006.
- Celebrating Hispanic Heritage.
- Richard E. Cavazos Distinguished Service Cross citation
- Richard Cavazos Silver Star citation
- Brown, Matthew Hay (26 May 2002). "Clearing The Borinqueneers". Hartford Courant. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Villahermosa, Gilberto (September 2001). "From Glory to Disaster and Back". Army Magazine. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- ReVista, "War, Modernity and Remembrance", by: Silvia Alvarez Curbelo
- Obama to award Medal of Honor to 24 Army veterans
- U.S. House of Representatives. 2007. Hispanic American Heroes Resolution. 110th Congress, 18th session. H. Con. Res. 253.
- "All POW-MIA Korean War Casualties: Puerto Rico". Advocacy & Intelligence Index For POWs-MIAs Archives. Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2007.
- Siewert, Jack R. (28 October 2006). Outpost Kelly: A Tanker's Story. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-5341-4. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- Non Fatal Casualties
- The 65th Infantry Regiment "Honor and Fidelity", Retrieved 8 September 2007
- Foos, Larry. "Puerto Rico's 1/65th Army Borinqueneers Takes Over Security in Horn of Africa". Defense Video and Informations Distribution System (U.S. government). Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Legendary “Borinqueneers” Deserve the Congressional Gold Medal; Fox News Latino, 1/8/2003; by Larry Brystran Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "Polícia Municipal custodia monumento en Río Piedras". Primera Hora. 6/8/2012.
- Puerto Rico Herald - Puerto Rico Perfil: El Regimiento del 65 de Infantería en Corea, Retrieved 8 September 2007
- "The Borinqueneers: A Documentary". El Pozo Productions. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
- NBC Latino
- Parade Dedicated to the Borinqueneers, National Puerto Rican Day Parade, Sunday, 8 June 2014.
- "Congressional Research Service, Congressional Gold Medals, 1776-2012 CRS Report RL30076". senate.gov. Retrieved 2012-09-09.
- "Most Popular E-mail Newsletter". USA Today. 28 June 2012.
- Library of Congress; Bill Text: H.R.1726
- Library of Congress; Bill Summary Status: S.1174
- Burnham, Johnny J. (August 9, 2013). "Push to Honor Puerto Rican Regiment Gains Momentum". New Britain Herald.
- Recognize the Borinqueneers Ahora!; Fox News Latino; 8/26/13; by Larry Brystran. Retrieved 26 August 2013.
- Former Bridgeport Man a Driving Force Behind Borinqueneers Effort; Connecticut Latino News; 7/1/2013; by Barbara Thomas Retrieved 13 August 2013.
- Obama honors Puerto Rican Infantry Regiment with Congressional Gold Medal, Washington Post, June 10, 2014.
- Dan Friedman, "Puerto Rico's Borinqueneers recognized with Congressional Gold Medal," New York Daily News, June 11, 2014.
- Obama awards Borinqueneers Congressional Medal of Honor, NBC News, June 10, 2014.
- Richard Payerchin, "President Obama to honor Army's Puerto Rican regiment the Borinqueneers," The Morning Journal, June 9, 2014.
- Juan Cordero Davila
- "War Heroes". American Veterans Committee for Puerto Rico Self-Determination. Archived from the original on 1 January 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-15.
- "Dr. Arthur Yager; Served as Governor of Puerto Rico for 8 years After 1913" (obituary)". New York Times. 25 December 1941. p. 25..
- Carlos Betances Ramírez
- Puerto Rico Herald
- Who was Agustín Ramos Calero?
- "Interview: 'The Borinqueneers'", August 2005; Captain Charles E. Boyle; Operations and Intelligence Section of the 65th Regimental Headquarters from 1950-1951
- "Alcalde de Cayey lamenta fallecimiento del soldado puertorriqueño más condecorado en la historia de EE.UU.". Primera Hora. 3 March 2010. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
- Puertorriquenos Who Served With Guts, Glory, and Honor. Fighting to Defend a Nation Not Completely Their Own; by : Greg Boudonck; ISBN 978-1497421837
- Historia militar de Puerto Rico; by: Hector Andres Negroni; Sociedad Estatal Quinto Centenario (1992); ISBN 84-7844-138-7
- 65th Infantry Division; Publisher: Turner Publishing; ISBN 1-56311-118-7
- Los Soldados Son_Asi; by: Esteves, General Luis Raúl Esteves; Publisher: Star Publishing Co.
- Right to be proud: History of the 65th infantry division's march across Germany; by: Bill Gordy; Publisher: J. Wimmer; ASIN B0007J8K74
- Hispanics in the Defense of America; Publisher=America USA
- U.S. Latino and Latina World War II Oral History Project; Publisher: University of Texas at Austin
- Hispanic Americans in the U.S. Army; Publisher: United States Army
- Autopsy of a Battle, the Allied Liberation of the French Riviera; by : Jean-Loup Gassend; ISBN 9780764345807
- www.borinqueneers.net by webmaster Danny Nieves - a historic archive for scholarly study of awards and decorations by individual and unit
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gm0d3zsN2Xc Presidential Honor Guard salute to the 65th Infantry Regiment 1 Oct 2013 - Fort Myer, Va.
- Suggested Reading on the 65th Infantry compiled by the United States Army Center of Military History
- Hispanic Heritage in the U.S. Army
- www.honortaskforce.com video legacy honoring the 65th infantry veterans