Before becoming the 701st ADS, the unit was known as the 701st Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron and the 701st Radar Squadron. For most of its existence, the unit was located at Fort Fisher Air Force Station near Kure Beach, North Carolina. With the closure of Fort Fisher AFS in the late 1980s, the 701st was moved to Langley Air Force Base, Virginia and collocated with First Air Force headquarters. During this time the unit also became the 701st Air Defense Squadron. In 1991, both First Air Force and the 701st relocated to Tyndall AFB. Between 1995 and 1997, both organizations transitioned from the US Air Force to the Air National Guard. As part of the transition, active duty 701st military pesonnel were replaced with members of the Florida Air National Guard. After the September 11 attacks, the role of homeland defense was greatly expanded necessitating a restructuring of First Air Force units. Part of this expansion was the inactivation of the 701st and its replacement by the 601st Air Operations Group.