74th Academy Awards

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74th Academy Awards
74 academy awards poster.jpg
Official poster by Alex Ross
Date March 24, 2002
Site Kodak Theatre
Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Host Whoopi Goldberg
Pre-show Chris Connelly
Leeza Gibbons
Ananda Lewis[1]
Producer Laura Ziskin
Director Louis J. Horvitz
Highlights
Best Picture A Beautiful Mind
Most awards A Beautiful Mind and The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (4)
Most nominations The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (13)
TV in the United States
Network ABC
Duration 4 hours, 23 minutes[2]
Ratings 41.82 million
25.54% (Nielsen ratings)
 < 73rd Academy Awards 75th > 

The 74th Academy Awards ceremony, presented by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), took place on March 24, 2002, at the Kodak Theatre in Hollywood, Los Angeles. During the ceremony, AMPAS presented Academy Awards (commonly referred to as Oscars) in 24 categories honoring films released in 2001. The ceremony, televised in the United States by ABC, was produced by Laura Ziskin and directed by Louis J. Horvitz.[3][4] Actress Whoopi Goldberg hosted the show for the fourth time.[5] She first hosted the 66th ceremony held in 1994 and had last hosted the 71st ceremony in 1999.[6] Three weeks earlier, in a ceremony held at the Regent Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, California, on March 2, the Academy Awards for Technical Achievement were presented by host Charlize Theron.[7]

A Beautiful Mind won four awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Ron Howard.[8][9] Other winners included The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring also with four awards, Black Hawk Down and Moulin Rouge! with two, and The Accountant, For the Birds, Gosford Park, Iris, Monster's Ball, Monsters, Inc., Murder on a Sunday Morning, No Man's Land, Pearl Harbor, Shrek, Thoth, and Training Day, with one. Despite a record length of four hours, 23 minutes, the telecast garnered nearly 42 million viewers in the United States.[10]

Winner and nominees[edit]

The nominees for the 74th Academy Awards were announced on February 12, 2002, at the Samuel Goldwyn Theater in Beverly Hills, California, by Frank Pierson, president of the Academy, and the actress Marcia Gay Harden.[11] The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring earned the most nominations with thirteen. It was the seventh film to earn that many nominations. A Beautiful Mind and Moulin Rouge! tied for second place with eight apiece.[12][13]

The winners were announced during the awards ceremony on March 24, 2002.[14] By virtue of its latest Best Picture victory for A Beautiful Mind, DreamWorks became the second film studio to release three consecutive Best Picture winners; the studio had previously released American Beauty and Gladiator.[15] Denzel Washington was the second African-American to win Best Lead Actor, following Sidney Poitier for 1963's Lilies of the Field.[8] Halle Berry became the first African-American to win Best Lead Actress.[8] Nominated for their performances as the titular character in Iris, Best Actress nominee Judi Dench and Best Supporting Actress nominee Kate Winslet became the second pair of actresses nominated for portraying the same character in the same film.[12]

Awards[edit]

Portrait of a balding, red-haired Caucasian male who is wearing an unbuttoned white collared shirt over a blue suit.
Ron Howard, Best Director winner
A photo of an African-American male in his fifties. He is wearing a blue shirt.
Denzel Washington, Best Actor winner
A picture of an African-American female. She is wearing a black dress and she smiles.
Halle Berry, Best Actress winner
A portrait of a bespectacled, balding male in his late fifites. He is wearing a black coat over an unbuttoned light blue collared shirt.
Jim Broadbent, Best Supporting Actor winner
Upper torso of a Caucasian female who is seen wearing a black dress.
Jennifer Connelly, Best Supporting Actress winner
A picture of a man with greying black hair. He wears thick-rimmed glasses, a black tie, a blue and white checkered shirt, and a black coat.
Howard Shore, Best Original Score winner
Right side view of a man who is wearing glasses and a white shirt with distinctive patterns playing the piano. Several steel drums are seen behind the piano.
Randy Newman, Best Original Song winner
A blond haired woman is seen standing in front of a white wall. She is wearing a black shirt and a necklace.
Catherine Martin, Best Art Direction winner

Winners are listed first and indicated with a double-dagger (double-dagger).[16]

Best Picture Best Director
Best Actor Best Actress
Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress
Best Original Screenplay Best Adapted Screenplay
Best Animated Feature Best Foreign Language Film
Best Documentary Feature Best Documentary Short
Best Live Action Short Best Animated Short
Best Original Score Best Original Song
Best Sound Editing Best Sound
Best Art Direction Best Cinematography
Best Makeup Best Costume Design
Best Film Editing Best Visual Effects

Academy Honorary Award[edit]

Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award[edit]

Multiple nominations and awards[edit]

Presenters and performers[edit]

The following individuals (in order of appearance) presented awards or performed musical numbers.[20][21]

Presenters[edit]

Name(s) Role
Close, GlennGlenn Close
Donald Sutherland
Announcers for the 74th annual Academy Awards
Cruise, TomTom Cruise Presenter of the Errol Morris montage on movie memories
del Toro, BenicioBenicio del Toro Presenter of the award for Best Supporting Actress
Pierson, FrankFrank Pierson (AMPAS President) Gave remarks welcoming guests to the awards ceremony
Smith, WillWill Smith Presenter the award for Best Film Editing
Phillippe, RyanRyan Phillippe
Reese Witherspoon
Presenters of the award for Best Makeup
Goldberg, WhoopiWhoopi Goldberg Presenter of the film In the Bedroom on the Best Picture segment
Stiller, BenBen Stiller
Owen Wilson
Presenters of the award for Best Costume Design
Allen, WoodyWoody Allen Presenter of the New York films tribute montage directed by Nora Ephron
Foster, JodieJodie Foster Presenter of the award for Best Cinematography
Goldberg, WhoopiWhoopi Goldberg Presenter of the film Gosford Park on the Best Picture segment
Hunt, HelenHelen Hunt Presenter of the Documentary films tribute montage directed by Penelope Spheeris
Jackson, Samuel L.Samuel L. Jackson Presenter of the awards for Best Documentary Feature and Best Documentary Short Subject
Diaz, CameronCameron Diaz Presenter of the award for Best Art Direction
Theron, CharlizeCharlize Theron (pre-recorded footage) Presenter of the award for Academy Scientific and Technical Award and Gordon E. Sawyer Award
Lane, NathanNathan Lane Presenter of the award for Best Animated Feature
Berry, HalleHalle Berry Presenter of the award for Best Sound Mixing and Best Sound Editing
Harden, Marcia GayMarcia Gay Harden Presenter of the award for Best Supporting Actor
Goldberg, WhoopiWhoopi Goldberg Presenter of the film The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring on the Best Picture segment
McKellen, IanIan McKellen
Maggie Smith
Introducers of the performance by Cirque du Soleil
Dunst, KirstenKirsten Dunst
Tobey Maguire
Presenters of the award for Best Visual Effects
MacGraw, AliAli MacGraw
Ryan O'Neal
Presenters of the Jean Hersholt Humanitarian Award to Arthur Hiller
Kingsley, BenBen Kingsley Presenter of the tribute to musical scores in films conducted by John Williams
Bullock, SandraSandra Bullock
Hugh Grant
Presenters of the award for Best Original Score
Mirisch, WalterWalter Mirisch
Denzel Washington
Presenters of the award for Academy Honorary Award to Sidney Poitier
Jackman, HughHugh Jackman
Naomi Watts
Presenters of the award for Best Live Action Short Film and Best Animated Short Film
Goldberg, WhoopiWhoopi Goldberg Presenter of the film Moulin Rouge! on the Best Picture segment
Hartnett, JoshJosh Hartnett Introducer of the performances the Best Original Song nominees
Lopez, JenniferJennifer Lopez Presenter of the award for Best Original Song
Hawke, EthanEthan Hawke
Gwyneth Paltrow
Presenters of the award for Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Original Screenplay
Stone, SharonSharon Stone
John Travolta
Presenters of the award for Best Foreign Language Film
Spacey, KevinKevin Spacey Presenter of the award for In Memoriam Tribute
Streisand, BarbraBarbra Streisand Presenter of the award for Academy Honorary Award to Robert Redford
Crowe, RussellRussell Crowe Presenter of the award for Best Actress
Goldberg, WhoopiWhoopi Goldberg Presenter of the film A Beautiful Mind on the Best Picture segment
Roberts, JuliaJulia Roberts Presenter of the award for Best Actor
Gibson, MelMel Gibson Presenter of the award for Best Director
Hanks, TomTom Hanks Presenter of the award for Best Picture

Performers[edit]

Name(s) Role Performed
Williams, JohnJohn Williams Musical arranger Orchestral
Cirque du Soleil, Cirque du Soleil Performers Special performance in a tribute to movie visual effects
Sting Sting Performers "Until" from Kate and Leopold
Enya, Enya Performer "May it Be" from The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring
Goodman, JohnJohn Goodman
Randy Newman
Performers "If I Didn't Have You" from Monsters, Inc.
Hill, FaithFaith Hill Performer "There You'll Be" from Pearl Harbor
McCartney, PaulPaul McCartney Performer "Vanilla Sky" from Vanilla Sky

Ceremony information[edit]

Photo of an African-American woman with braided hair who is wearing a grey scarf and a denim jacket.
Whoopi Goldberg hosted the 74th Academy Awards.

The Academy wanted to find a new venue for the festivities amid limited seating and rehearsal time concerns with the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. In addition, problems arose regarding staging the Oscars at the Shrine Auditorium because there was difficulty of directing guests from the auditorium where the main event took place to the adjacent Exhibition Hall for the Governor's Ball.[22] In August 1997, AMPAS and Canadian development firm TrizecHahn went into negotiations over the development of an entertainment complex located on the corner of Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue adjacent to the Mann's Chinese Theatre.[23] Seven moths later, both the Academy and TrizecHahn agreed on a twenty-year lease that allowed for the ceremony to be staged at a new venue, which would later be called the Kodak Theatre, located within the property which was also situated near the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel site of the inaugural awards ceremony in 1929.[24][25] This was the first time the ceremony was held in Hollywood since the 32nd ceremony took place at the Pantages Theatre in 1960.[24]

In view of the return of the Oscars to Hollywood, the Academy hired film producer and Sony Pictures Entertainment chairman Laura Ziskin in September 2001 to oversee production of the telecast.[3] AMPAS president Frank Pierson explained the decision to hire Ziskin saying, "This show is one of the most difficult—if not the most difficult—producing jobs in show business. Laura Ziskin brings intelligence, experience and wit expressed in everything she has done."[26] This marked the first occurrence that a woman produced the Oscars solo. Four months later, Whoopi Goldberg was selected as host of the 2002 ceremony. In an article in the Los Angeles Times, Ziskin justified her choice of Goldberg commenting that she has "great warmth, with humor, humanity and social conscience, all qualities that I feel are essential for this year's show. I look forward to collaborating with Whoopi to put on a meaningful and entertaining evening."[27]

Furthermore, the September 11 attacks affected the telecast and its surrounding events. Despite speculation and suggestions that the festivities be postponed or canceled, AMPAS president Pierson wrote in a Variety column refusing to take such action stating that it would send the message that "the terrorists have won".[28][29] However, due to security concerns the Academy announced that red carpet bleacher seats would now be limited on a reservation basis based on a random selection and a background check.[30] In addition, filmmaker and director Woody Allen, who had previously refused to attend a ceremony, made a surprise appearance to present a film produced by fellow New Yorker and screenwriter Nora Ephron saluting New York City in film.[31]

Several other people participated in the production of the ceremony. Actors Glenn Close and Donald Sutherland served as announcers during the show.[32] The orchestra led by film composer and telecast musical supervisor John Williams, performed selections of film scores during a montage saluting film composers produced by Kyle Cooper.[33] Filmmaker Errol Morris filmed a vignette featuring several famous people discuss movie memories.[34] Director Penelope Spheeris produced a montage saluting 60 years of Oscar winning documentary feature films.[35][36] Cirque du Soleil performed a dance number inspired by movies and visual effects.[37]

Introduction of Best Animated Feature award[edit]

Beginning with this ceremony, AMPAS introduced a new competitive award that would honor animated feature films.[38] According to Academy communications director John Pavlik, the film must be at least 70 minutes in length, have a significant amount of animated characters, and be at least 75 percent animated in order to be qualified for consideration.[39] A minimum of eight qualifying films must be released within the calendar year to permit a slate of three nominees. If the number of films exceeds twelve, the nominee roster increases to five.[40] Prior to the introduction of this category, three Disney films (1937's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, 1988's Who Framed Roger Rabbit, and 1995's Toy Story) were all given Special Achievement Academy Awards.[41]

Box office performance of nominated films[edit]

At the time of the nominations announcement on February 12, the combined gross of the five Best Picture nominees at the US box office was $484 million, with an average of $96.9 million per film. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring was the highest earner among the Best Picture nominees with $271 million in domestic box office receipts.[42] The film was followed by A Beautiful Mind ($113 million), Moulin Rouge! ($57.1 million), Gosford Park ($22.2 million), and finally In the Bedroom ($19.5 million).[42]

Of the top 50 grossing movies of the year, 46 nominations went to 14 films on the list.[43] Only The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2nd), Shrek (3rd), Monsters Inc. (4th), A Beautiful Mind (15th), Black Hawk Down (25th), Jimmy Neutron: Boy Genius (27th), Training Day (29th), Bridget Jones's Diary (31st), Ali (41st), and Moulin Rouge! (44th) were nominated for Best Picture, Best Animated Feature, or any of the directing, acting, or screenwriting awards.[43] The other top-50 box office hits that earned nominations were Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (1st), Pearl Harbor (7th), Vanilla Sky (19th), and AI: Artificial Intelligence (28th).[43]

Critical reviews[edit]

The show received a mixed reception from media publications. Some media outlets were more critical of the show. Television critic Robert Bianco of USA Today complained that the awards ceremony was "intensely narcissistic and characteristically, almost unrelievedly, dull."[44] Columnist Matthew Gilbert of the Boston Globe bemoaned that "TV's most-watched slug crawled back into town last night." He also sniped, "As usual, the technical awards formed a Bermuda triangle in the middle of the show, and the film-clip fests and production numbers numbed our brains."[45] The Sacramento Bee's Rick Kishman lamented that "It was the first time both best-acting Oscars went to African Americans...yet viewers had to fight hours and hours of boredom to care." He also quipped that the excessive amount of montage and tributes dragged down the proceedings.[46]

Other media outlets received the broadcast more positively. Orange County Register film critic Henry Sheehan praised Goldberg's performance as hosting writing that her "ensuing entrance a la Moulin Rouge was a comparative triumph and her boom-boom-boom succession of jokes put the show right on track."[35] Television columnist Joanne Ostrow of The Denver Post raved, "The nearly five-hour telecast was stunning, historic, slick, efficient, and helped along by some knockout clothes." She also commented that Washington and Berry's acceptance speeches and the Sidney Poitier tribute added to the historic and emotional mood of the festivities.[47] John Levesque of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer commended producer Ziskin for producing "the best Oscar telecast this TV watcher can remember." In addition, he wrote that "It was clear the 74th Academy Awards ceremony was something special: fresh, crisp, different from its predecessors."[48]

Ratings and reception[edit]

The American telecast on ABC drew in an average of 41.82 million people over its length, which was a 3% decrease from the previous year's ceremony.[49] The show also earned lower Nielsen ratings compared to the previous ceremony with 25.54% of households watching over a 40.34 share.[50] In addition, it garnered a lower 18–49 demo rating with a 16.13 rating over a 36.46 share among viewers in that demographic.[50]

In July 2002, the ceremony presentation received seven nominations at the 54th Primetime Emmys.[51] Two months later, the ceremony won one of those nominations for Debra Brown's choreography during the telecast.[52]

In Memoriam[edit]

The annual In Memoriam tribute, presented by actor Kevin Spacey, honored the following people.[53]

Before the In Memoriam montage was shown, Spacey requested a moment of silence in memory of the victims of the September 11th attacks.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Wilkes, Neil (March 5, 2002). "Arrival hosts announced". Variety (PMC). Retrieved October 9, 2013. 
  2. ^ "Halle Berry, Denzel Washington Win Big". Fox News (21st Century Fox). March 25, 2002. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b Archerd, Army (September 5, 2001). "Oscar’s new producer is first femme to solo". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Oscar Watch: Horvitz to direct 74th Awards". Variety (PMC). January 15, 2002. Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  5. ^ Archerd, Army (January 10, 2002). "Whoopi Goldberg Will Host Oscar Ceremony". Variety (PMC). Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  6. ^ Susman, Gary (January 10, 2002). "Big Whoopi". Entertainment Weekly (TimeWarner). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  7. ^ Horwitch, Laura (February 21, 2002). "Oscar Watch: Charlize Theron". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 11, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Welkos, Robert; King, Susan (March 25, 2002). "'Beautiful' Historic Night". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  9. ^ Lyman, Rick (March 25, 2002). "'Beautiful Mind' Wins; Best Actress Goes to Halle Berry". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  10. ^ Gorman, Bill (March 8, 2010). "Academy Awards Averages 41.3 Million Viewers; Most Since 2005". TV by the Numbers. Tribune Company. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010. Retrieved March 12, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Film World Awaits Oscar nominations". BBC News (BBC). February 12, 2002. Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  12. ^ a b Osborne 2013, p. 423
  13. ^ Means, Sean (February 13, 2002). "'Lord of the Rings' in Hobbit Heaven With 13 Oscar Nominations". The Salt Lake Tribune (MediaNews Group). p. A1. 
  14. ^ Means, Sean (March 25, 2002). "Hollywood Makes History". The Salt Lake Tribune (MediaNews Group). p. A1. 
  15. ^ Collins, Keith (January 16, 2003). "Pix precedents". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  16. ^ "The 74th Academy Awards (2002) Nominees and Winners". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). Retrieved November 19, 2011. 
  17. ^ Feiwell, Jill (January 25, 2002). "Honorary Oscar to Poitier". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  18. ^ Feiwell, Jill (January 25, 2002). "Acad to honor Redford". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  19. ^ Feiwell, Jill (January 24, 2002). "Hersholt award to Hiller". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  20. ^ "74th Academy Awards - Presenters and Performers". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS). March 24, 2002. Retrieved July 2, 2013. 
  21. ^ Gallo, Phil (March 24, 2002). "Review: ‘The 74th Annual Academy Awards’". Variety (PMC). Retrieved October 29, 2013. 
  22. ^ Pond 2005, p. 160
  23. ^ Zehrq, Leonard (August 29, 1997). "TrizecHahn in talks to house the Oscars Wants ceremony in Hollywood project". The Globe and Mail (The Globe and Mail Inc.). 
  24. ^ a b Newton, Jim (April 3, 1998). "Mayor Leads a Hurray for Hollywood". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  25. ^ Feiwell, Jill (June 7, 2001). "Oscar will have Kodak moment". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  26. ^ "Oscar gets new producer, new regulations". Lawrence Journal-World (The World Company). September 10, 2001. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  27. ^ Munoz, Lorenza (January 10, 2002). "Whoopi Goldberg Will Host Oscar Ceremony". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved November 1, 2011. 
  28. ^ Pierson, Frank (October 15, 2001). "Terrorists won’t be allowed to hijack Oscar". Variety (PMC). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  29. ^ Cieply, Michael (November 18, 2001). "The Unbearable Triteness of Oscar". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  30. ^ Munoz, Lorena (February 4, 2002). "The New Bleacher Features". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  31. ^ "Oscar-shy Allen's NY tribute". BBC News (BBC). March 25, 2002. Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  32. ^ Pond 2005, p. 292
  33. ^ Rosen, Steven (March 25, 2002). "Oscar salutes American film". The Denver Post (MediaNews Group). p. C1. 
  34. ^ Morris, Errol. "Oscar Movie". Errol Morris. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  35. ^ a b Sheehan, Henry (March 25, 2002). "Oscar surprises with wit and warmth". Orange County Register (Freedom Communications). p. E6. 
  36. ^ "74th edition to zero in on old-style glamour". Variety (PMC). March 4, 2002. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  37. ^ "Oscar Watch: Cirque du Soleil". Variety (PMC). February 24, 2002. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  38. ^ Solomon, Charles (October 11, 2000). "New Oscar Category Will Change Animation". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  39. ^ Wloszczyna, Susan (October 31, 2014). "Even 'toons must follow the rules". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  40. ^ Longino, Bob (December 9, 2001). "New Oscar slot heating up as battle of beasties". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (Cox Enterprises). 
  41. ^ Wloszczyna, Susan (October 31, 2001). "'Toons get their very own Oscar category". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  42. ^ a b "2001 Academy Award Nominations and Winner for Best Picture". Box Office Mojo (Amazon.com). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  43. ^ a b c "2001 Domestic Grosses". Box Office Mojo. Amazon.com. Retrieved January 21, 2014. 
  44. ^ Bianco, Robert (March 25, 2002). "Academy Awards 'return to normalcy'". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  45. ^ Gilbert, Matthew (March 25, 2002). "Despite Touches of Grace, It was an Oscar Crawl". Boston Globe (The New York Times Company). p. D11. 
  46. ^ Armstrong, Mark (March 25, 2002). "Longest Oscars, Lowest Ratings". E! (NBC Universal). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  47. ^ Ostrow, Joanne (March 25, 2002). "74th telecast first one of real color". The Denver Post (MediaNews Group). p. D1. 
  48. ^ Levesque, John (March 24, 2002). "Movie awards show finally makes good TV". Seattle Post-Intelligencer (Hearst Corporation). Retrieved January 15, 2014. 
  49. ^ Levin, Gary (March 27, 2002). "Least-watched Oscars still puts ABC at No. 1". USA Today (Gannett Company). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  50. ^ a b "Academy Awards ratings" (PDF). Television Bureau of Advertising. Retrieved June 27, 2013. 
  51. ^ "Primetime Emmy Award database". Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (ATAS). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  52. ^ Braxton, Greg (September 16, 2002). "HBO, NBC Are Big Winners in First Wave of Emmys". Los Angeles Times (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  53. ^ Poniewozik, James (March 25, 2002). "And the Oscar for Shameless Self-Congratulation Goes to...". Time (Time Warner). Retrieved January 14, 2014. 
  54. ^ Parker, Kahtleen (March 27, 2002). "Since Sept. 11, even Oscar has grown up". Chicago Tribune (Tribune Company). Retrieved January 21, 2014. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Official websites
News resources
Analysis
Other resources