From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Centuries:||7th century – 8th century – 9th century|
|Decades:||720s 730s 740s – 750s – 760s 770s 780s|
|Years:||750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759|
|Categories:||Births – Deaths – Architecture
Establishments – Disestablishments
This is a list of events occurring in the 750s, ordered by year.
- January 25 – Battle of the Zab: Abbasid forces under Abdallah ibn Ali defeat the Umayyads near the Great Zab river (Northern Iraq). Members of the Umayyad house are hunted down and killed. During the fightings the Abbasid army forms a spear wall, a tactic they adopt from their Syrian opponents. Most of the Umayyad forces, with cavalry charging, are destroyed and the rest are forced to retreat. Defeated by his rivals, caliph Marwan II flees westward to Egypt, perhaps attempting to reach Al-Andalus (modern Spain) where there are still significant Umayyad armies.
- August 6 – Marwan II is caught and killed at Faiyum by supporters of caliph Abdullah ibn Muhammad as-Saffah. Almost the entire Umayyad Dynasty is assassinated, prince Abd al-Rahman I escapes to Al-Andalus. The Abbasids assume control of the Islamic world and establish their capital at Kufa.
- Joseph Rabban, Jewish merchant chief, arrives with a group of Babylonian Jews on the Malabar Coast (present-day India). He is granted the rank of prince over the Jews of Cochin ruling a principality in Anjuvannam, near the seaport of Cranganore (approximate date).
- King Alfonso I of Asturias establishes the kingdom of Galicia, roughly northwest of the Iberian Peninsula.
- The town Slaný in the Central Bohemian Region (Czech Republic) is founded at the site of a salt spring.
- King Eadberht of Northumbria imprisons Cynewulf, bishop of Lindisfarne, at Bamburgh Castle. He besieges prince Offa, son of the late king Aldfrith in Lindisfarne Priory. Almost dead from hunger, he is dragged from his sanctuary and put to death.
- Battle of Mugdock: The Strathclyde Britons under king Teudebur defeat prince Talorgan of the Picts. Decline of the power of king Óengus I.
- The Ghana Empire begins (approximate date).
- Native Americans, in the area now known as the Four Corners, begin constructing and occupying pueblos.
- The city of Teotihuacan (modern Mexico) is destroyed and left in ruins, its palaces burned to the ground.
- The "Western Paradise" of Amitābha Buddha, detail of a wall painting in Cave 217, Dunhuang (China), is made during the Tang Dynasty (approximate date).
Food and drink
- In China during the Tang Dynasty bargeload of tea (a medicinal herb) come up the Grand Canal to Luoyang from Zhejiang (approximate date).
- June – Leo IV, son of emperor Constantine V, is crowned co-emperor at Constantinople. Only a year of so after his mother Irene has died, Constanstine's second wife Maria dies at approximately the same time as Leo's coronation.
- November – Pepin the Short, youngest son of Charles Martel, forces king Childeric III to retire to the monastery of Saint-Bertin. He proclaims himself as king of the Franks with support of pope Zachary and is crowned at Soissons by Boniface, bishop of Mainz. Pepin becomes as Pepin III the first Carolingian monarch of the Frankish Kingdom.
- King Aistulf of the Lombards captures Ravenna and the Romagna, ending the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. The last exarch Eutychius is killed by the Lombards. Aistulf threatens Rome, claiming a capitation tax. Zachary alarmed, appeals for aid from the Byzantine Empire but this is declined.
- Battle of Talas: First recorded encounter (and the last) between Arab and Chinese forces. The rulers of Tashkent and Ferghana are both nominal vassals of the Tang Dynasty; the Chinese have intervened on behalf of Ferghana in a conflict between the two, the Abbasid Caliphate competing with the Chinese for control of Central Asia have become involved. Arab forces from Samarkand has marched to challenge a Chinese army (30,000 men) under Gao Xianzhi. Gao has had a series of military victories in the region, but his Turkish contingent, Karluk mercenaries, defects. Out of 10,000 Tang troops, only 2,000 manage to return from the Talas River to China. The Arabs triumph, and they will remain the dominant force in Transoxiana for the next 150 years.
- Muslim introduction of papermaking: The first paper mill in the Islamic world begins production at Samarkand. From captured craftsmen taken at the Battle of Talas River have by some accounts revealed the technique of papermaking (although paper may have arrived from China much earlier via the Silk Road). Arab scholars will use paper to produce translations of Ancient Greek and Roman writings.
- Like the storm of 721, the storm of this year at the southern Chinese seaport of Yangzhou reportedly destroys over 1,000 ships engaged in canal and river traffic (approximate date).
- The Japanese poetry anthology Kaifūsō is assembled.
- Kim Daeseong, chief minister of Silla orders the construction of the Bulguksa and Seokguram temples at Gyeongju (South Korea).
- The oldest surviving printed document, a Buddhist scripture, is printed in Korea.
- Theodore succeeds Theophylact as Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
- The Great Buddha at Tōdai-ji in Nara (Japan) is completed.
- King Pepin III (the Short) begins a Frankish military expedition down the Rhône valley and receives the submission of eastern Septimania (i.e. Nîmes, Melguelh, Agde and Béziers) after securing count Ansemund's allegiance.
- Siege of Narbonne: Pepin III lays siege to the fortress city of Narbonne, occupied by Gothic-Muslim forces. The garrison and residents are able to withstand the attacks thanks to the supplies provided by sea by the Arab fleet.
- Battle of Burford: King Cuthred of Wessex clashes with king Æthelbald of Mercia and takes the standard (a golden dragon). He manages to throw off his claim to Mercian overlordship.
- Death of king Teudebur of Alt Clut. His son, Dumnagual III, succeeds to the throne and loses Kyle to an invasion by both kings Óengus I of the Picts and Eadberht of Northumbria.
- Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, ruler of Ifriqiya (North Africa), dispatches an Muslim army and reconquers Tripolitania from the Ibadites (a puritanical Khaijite sect), driving their remnants south into the Nafusa Mountains (northwestern Libya).
- First Muslim assault on Sardinia under Abd al-Rahman ibn Habib al-Fihri, perhaps the beginning of the occupation of the island by the Muslim Arabs that lasts until 1005. He also attempts to invade Sicily, but finding the defenses too strong.
- Yaxun B'alam IV becomes king (ajaw) of the Maya city of Yaxchilan (modern Mexico) after a 10-year struggle for the throne.
- March 22 – Pope Zachary dies at Rome after a 11-year reign. He is succeeded by Stephen, but dies four days after and is not considered legitimate because he is not consecrated.
- March 26 – Pope Stephen II (sometimes referred to as Stephen III) succeeds Zachary as the 92nd pope of the Catholic Church. He marks the ending of the Byzantine Papacy.
- June – Stephen II recognizes the Carolingian Dynasty as legimate rulers of the Frankish Kingdom. He travels to Paris and appeals for Frankish support against the Lombards.
- Emperor Shōmu (retired since 749) takes part in the dedication ceremony of the Great Buddha (15 metres) at Tōdai-ji in Nara (Japan), and declares himself a Buddhist.
- Grifo, Frankish duke and illegitimate son of Charles Martel, rebels against king Pepin III (the Short) (his half-brother) in alliance with the Bretons. He flees to Italy to join king Aistulf of the Lombards but is caught and killed while passing the Alps.
- The town of Staraja Ladoga (Northern Russia) is founded by Scandinavians. The settlement becomes a prosperous trading outpost for jewelry, casual items, craft tools and dress adornments (approximate date).
- Sevar, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, dies after a 15-year reign. He is succeeded by Kormisosh who belongs to the Vokil clan (approximate date).
- Fall – Pope Stephen II travels to the Lombard capital of Pavia for negotiations with Aistulf. His terms for returning the Exarchate of Ravenna are declined.
- November – Stephen II crosses the passes of the Alps to Gaul. He leaves Rome unprotected under threat of a siege from the Lombards.
- Eoban is appointed bishop of Utrecht (modern Netherlands) by the missionary bishop Boniface.
- January 6 – Pope Stephen II re-consecrated Pepin III (the Short) as king of the Franks at the Basilica of Saint-Denis outside Paris, bestowing upon him the additional title of Patricius of the Romans and becomes the first recorded crowning of a civil ruler by a pope. Pepin assumes the role of ordained protector of the Catholic Church.
- July – Stephen II anoints Pepin's sons, Charles (later known as Charlemagne) and Carloman, consecrating them as patricians. At Quierzy he proclaims the Carolingian Dynasty holy and appeals for help against the Lombards. Finally, the Frankish nobles give their consent to a campaign in Lombardy.
- Summer – The Franks under Pepin III invade Italy and defeat the Lombards under king Aistulf in the Susa Valley (Piedmont). He enforces the terms including cession of the Exarchate of Ravenna to Rome.
- The oldest document mentioning the city of Ferrara (Northern Italy) is from this year (approximate date).
- June 10 – Caliph Abul Abbas al-Saffah dies of smallpox after a 4-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (Al-Mansur) as ruler of the Abbasid Caliphate.
- November – Abdallah ibn Ali, governor of Syria, launches a claim for the caliphate but is defeated by Muslim forces under Abu Muslim Khorasani at Nisibis (modern Turkey).
- Jianzhen, Chinese Buddhist monk, arrives in Nara where he is welcomed by former emperor Shōmu and empress Kōmyō. During his visit Jianzhen introduces sugar to the Japanese court, using it to mask the flavors of foul-tasting herbal tea.
- A Tang census shows that 75% of the Chinese live north of the Chang Jiang (Yangtze) River. The capital of Chang'an has a population of 2 million and more than 25 other cities have well over 500,000 citizens (approximate date).
- February – Council of Hieria: Emperor Constantine V summons a Christian council in the palace of Hieria in Constantinople. The council, under the presidency of bishop Theodosius of Ephesus, support the policy of the Iconoclasm and condemning the use of religious images (icons) in the Byzantine Empire. Constantine increases the persecution of the monasteries, hundreds of monks and nuns are mutilated of put to death.
- June 5 – Boniface, Anglo-Saxon missionary, is killed by a band of pagans at Dokkum in Frisia while reading the Scriptures to Christian converts. He is later buried in the Abbey of Fulda entrusted by his Bavarian disciple Sturm.
- September – Abd al-Rahman I, a member of the Umayyad Dynasty, lands with a Muslim invasion force at Almuñécar in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), where the next year he will establish the Caliphate of Córdoba ("Golden Caliphate").
- The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle's description under this date (now dated 757) of king Sigeberht of Wessex being deposed by Cynewulf is notably fuller than earlier entries.
- December 16 – General An Lushan begins the Anshi Rebellion against emperor Xuan Zong of the Tang Dynasty (China). His army surges down from Fanyang (near modern Beijing) and moves rapidly along the Grand Canal. Meanwhile, Xuan Zong sends Feng Changqing, governor of Fanyang, to build up defenses at the eastern capital of Luoyang.
- Trisong Detsen becomes emperor of Tibet. During his reign he plays a pivotal role in the introduction of Buddhism and the establishment of the Nyingma or "Ancient" school of Tibetan Buddhism.
- Empress Kōken introduces the Tanabata festival to Japan.
- Byzantine–Bulgarian War: Emperor Constantine V builds a series of fortifications along the Byzantine frontier on the Danube, and starts settling Christian Armenians and Syrian in the Thracesian Theme. In response Kormisosh, ruler (khagan) of the Bulgarian Empire, demands the payment of tribute. Constantine refuses and the Bulgars raid into Thrace, reaching the Anastasian Wall stretching between the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara (40 km in front of Constantinople).
- Constantine V sends a Byzantine expeditionary force (500 ships and 6,000 cavalry) to Thrace and defeats the Bulgars along the Lower Danube, near the fortified tradepost of Vichina (modern Romania). Kormisosh is forced to accept a peace treaty and confirms the existing frontier. Due the constant political crisis, the Bulgarian Empire is on the verge of destruction. Kormisish is desposed during a palace coup and succeeded by Vinekh, a member of the Vokil clan.
- King Aistulf of the Lombards again threaten Rome with a view to making it his capital, but the Franks under Pepin III ("the Short") arrives with his sons Charles and Carloman, defeats Aistulf, and confers the Donation of Pepin which establishes the Papal States (including lands of Ravenna and the Pentapolis). Pepin has taken territory that legally belong to the Byzantine Empire; he gives them to pope Stephen II.
- Aistulf dies in a hunting accident and is succeeded by Desiderius as king of the Lombards. Ex-king Ratchis attemps unsuccessfully to seize the throne but is opposed by Stephen II.
- Battle of Newburgh-on-Tyne: Kings Óengus I of the Picts and Eadberht of Northumbria attack king Dumnagual III of Strathclyde at Dumbarton Castle (modern Scotland). However, Eadberht's entire force is subsequently wiped out, probably by the Britons.
- King Cuthred of Wessex dies after a 16-year reign. He is succeeded by his distant kinsman Sigeberht.
- May – Prince Abd al-Rahman I and his followers capture the city of Sevilla without violence. He defeats the Muslim forces under Yusuf ibn 'Abd al-Rahman al-Fihri in a battle for control of the Iberian Peninsula. Al-Rahman establishes the Emirate of Córdoba in Al-Andalus (modern Spain), and proclaims himself emir. During his reign trade and culture flourish, and sees the construction of Islamic architecture (including the Great Mosque of Córdoba).
- January – An Lushan Rebellion: The Chinese eastern capital of Luoyang falls to the 200,000 army of the rebel general An Lushan, who defeats loyalist forces under Feng Changqing. The rebels cross the Yellow River, and march on to capture the cities Chenliu and Yingyang (modern Zhengzhou, Henan).
- Battle of Yongqiu: A Tang garrison (2,000 men) under Zhang Xun, successfully defends their fortress against the rebel army at Yongqiu. Zang achieves a victory after a 4-month siege and prevents the rebels to capture the fertile Tang territory south of the Huai River.
- February 5 – An Lushan declares himself emperor at Luoyang, establishing a new empire, called the Great Yan. He pushes on towards the primary Tang capital at Chang'an (now Xi'an). An decides to seize southern China, to cut off loyalist reinforcements. Meanwhile, numerous soldiers join the rebellion.
- May – Emperor Xuan Zong hires 4,000 Muslim mercenaries to help defend Chang'an against the rebels. Loyalist forces take defensible positions in the mountain passes, but chancellor Yang Guozhong give orders to leave their posts. An Lushan crushes the Tang troops, leaving the capital wide open.
- July 14 – Xuan Zong flees along with the imperial court the capital of Chang'an for Sichuan as rebel forces advance through the Tongguan pass toward the city. Meanwhile, An Lushan is ailing, perhaps with diabetes. He is nearly blind and suffers from extreme irascibility.
- July 15 – Xuan Zong is ordered by his Imperial Guards to execute Yang Guozhong by forcing him to commit suicide or face a mutiny. He permits his consort Yang Guifei to be strangled by his chief eunuch. An Lushan has also other members of the emperor's family killed.
- August 12 – Xuan Zong abdicates the throne after a 44-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Su Zong as emperor of the Tang Dynasty. He hires 22,000 Muslim mercenaries to reinforce his decimated army at Lingzhou.
- January 29 – An Lushan, leader of a revolt against the Tang Dynasty and emperor of Yan, is murdered by his own son, An Qingxu.
- March 9 – A major earthquake strikes Palestine and Syria.
- December 8 – Du Fu returns to Chang'an as a member of Emperor Xuanzong's court, after having escaped the city during the An Lushan Rebellion.
- The Battle of Suiyang is fought.
- Offa becomes king of Mercia (to 796). He is noted for Offa's Dyke, built as a defence against Welsh marauders.
- Fruela I becomes king of Asturias.
- Tassilo III, duke of the Bavarians, recognizes the supremacy of Frankish king Pepin the Short.
- Emperor Junnin succeeds Empress Kōken on the throne of Japan.
- During the turmoil of the An Shi Rebellion, the Chinese seaport Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian raiders. The port is shut down for the next five decades while foreign vessels dock at Hanoi instead, yet Guangzhou thrives again once it is reopened to foreign trade in the early 9th century.
- June 11 – Abbasid Arabs and Uyghur Turks arrive simultaneously at Chang'an, the Tang Chinese capital, in order to offer tribute to the imperial court. The Arabs and Turks bicker and fight over diplomatic prominence at the gate, in order to present tribute before the other. A settlement was reached when both were allowed to enter at the same time, but through two different gates to the palace.
- King Desiderius of the Lombards captures Spoleto and Benevento.
- Swithred is succeeded by Sigeric as King of Essex.
- The Franks capture Narbonne; the Saracens are completely driven out of France.
- Battle of the Rishki Pass: Byzantine Emperor Constantine V invades Bulgaria again, but this time his army is ambushed in the mountain passes of the Stara Planina.
- Exceptional winter in England. Frost begins October 1 and ends February 26 760.
- Japanese poet Otomo no Yakamochi compiles the first Japanese poetry anthology, Man'yōshū.
- The Abbasid Caliphate launches the conquest of Tabaristan. Its ruler, Khurshid of Tabaristan, flees to Daylam.
- December 24 – Tang Dynasty poet Du Fu departs for Chengdu, where he is hosted by fellow poet Pei Di.
- Saint Bregwin is appointed Archbishop of Canterbury.
- The Tōshōdai-ji Buddhist Temple is founded in Nara, Japan.
- David Nicolle (2009). The Great Islamic Conquests 632–750 AD, p. 79. ISBN 978-1-84603-273-8
- Higham, pp. 148–149; Kirby, p. 150; York, Kings, p. 89
- Stringer, Keith (1998). Alexander, Grant, ed. Medieval Scotland. Columbia University Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7486-1110-2.
- Pierre Riché, The Carolingians: A Family Who Forged Europe (Philadelphia, 1993), p. 65.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 42. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- Kazhdan (1991), p. 1600
- Greenfield, Stanley Brian (1986). A New Critical History of Old English Literature. New York University Press. p. 60. ISBN 0-8147-3088-4.
- Sargent, Denny. Shinto and Its Festivals.
- Runciman S., A History of the First Bulgarian Empire, London G.Bell & Sons, 1930, pp. 37, 289
- Gilbert Meynier (2010) L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; pp.26.
- Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.