78th United States Congress

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78th United States Congress
77th ← → 79th
USCapitol1956.jpg
United States Capitol (1956)

Duration: January 3, 1943 – January 3, 1945

Senate President: Henry A. Wallace
Senate Pres. pro tem: Carter Glass
House Speaker: Sam Rayburn
Members: 96 Senators
435 Representatives
4 Non-voting members
Senate Majority: Democratic
House Majority: Democratic

Sessions
1st: January 6, 1943 – December 21, 1943
2nd: January 10, 1944 – December 19, 1944

The Seventy-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, DC from January 3, 1943 to January 3, 1945, during the last two years of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Sixteenth Census of the United States in 1940. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.

Contents

Major events[edit]

Major legislation[edit]

Party summary[edit]

Senate[edit]

Party
(Shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic
(D)
Progressive (1924)
(P)
Republican
(R)
Other
End of the previous congress 64 1 28 3 96 0
Begin 58 1 36 0 95 1
End 57 38 96 0
Final voting share 59.4% 1.0% 39.6% 0.0%
Beginning of the next congress 57 1 38 0 96 0

House of Representatives[edit]

TOTAL members: 435

Leaders[edit]

[ Section contents: Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R)House: Majority (D), Minority (R) ]

Senate[edit]

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

  • Minority Leader:
  • Minority whip: No Republican whips were appointed from 1935 to 1944 since only 17 Republicans were in the Senate following the landslide reelection of President Franklin Roosevelt in 1936. Accordingly, the minutes of the Republican Conference for the period state: "On motion of Senator Hastings, duly seconded and carried, it was agreed that no Assistant Leader or Whip be elected but that the chairman be authorized to appoint Senators from time to time to assist him in taking charge of the interests of the minority." A note attached to the conference minutes added: "The chairman of the conference, Senator McNary, apparently appointed Senator Austin of Vermont as assistant leader in 1943 and 1944, until the conference adopted Rules of Organization."[1]

House of Representatives[edit]

Majority (Democratic) leadership[edit]

Minority (Republican) leadership[edit]

Members[edit]

Senate[edit]

Senators are popularly elected statewide every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election.

House of Representatives[edit]

The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.

Changes in membership[edit]

Senate[edit]

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation
Iowa
(2)
Vacant Seat remained vacant until Senator-elect completed his term as Governor of Iowa George A. Wilson
(R)
January 14, 1943
New Jersey
(1)
William Warren Barbour
(R)
Died November 22, 1943. A successor was appointed until an election. Arthur Walsh
(D)
November 26, 1943
Indiana
(3)
Frederick Van Nuys
(D)
Died January 25, 1944. A successor was appointed until an election. Samuel D. Jackson
(D)
January 28, 1944
Massachusetts
(2)
Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
(R)
Resigned February 3, 1944 to go on active duty in the US Army. Sinclair Weeks
(R)
February 8, 1944
Oregon
(2)
Charles L. McNary
(R)
Died February 25, 1944. Successor was appointed and subsequently won special election Guy Cordon
(R)
March 4, 1944
Washington
(3)
Homer Bone
(D)
Resigned November 13, 1944 to become Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 9th Circuit Warren Magnuson
(D)
December 14, 1944
Indiana
(3)
Samuel D. Jackson
(D)
Resigned November 14, 1944 after successor was elected William E. Jenner
(R)
November 7, 1944
South Carolina
(3)
Ellison Durant Smith
(D)
Died November 17, 1944. Wilton E. Hall
(D)
November 20, 1944
New Jersey
(1)
Arthur Walsh
(D)
Resigned December 7, 1944 after a successor was elected H. Alexander Smith
(R)
December 7, 1944
Massachusetts
(2)
Sinclair Weeks
(R)
Resigned December 19, 144 after a successor was elected. Vacant until the next Congress.
Senator-elect, Leverett Saltonstall, did not take office until January 4, 1945, after completion of his term as Governor of Massachusetts.

House of Representatives[edit]

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date successor
seated
Missouri 6th Vacant Rep. Philip A. Bennett died in previous Congress Marion T. Bennett (R) January 12, 1943
California 2nd Harry L. Englebright (R) Died May 13, 1943 Clair Engle (D) August 31, 1943
Kansas 2nd Ulysses S. Guyer (R) Died June 5, 1943 Errett P. Scrivner (R) September 14, 1943
Oklahoma 2nd John C. Nichols (D) Resigned July 3, 1943 to become vice-president of Transcontinental and Western Air. William G. Stigler (D) March 28, 1944
New York 32nd Francis D. Culkin (R) Died August 4, 1943 Hadwen C. Fuller (R) November 2, 1943
Pennsylvania 23rd James E. Van Zandt (R) Resigned September 24, 1943 after being called to active duty in the US Armed Forces. D. Emmert Brumbaugh (R) November 2, 1943
Kentucky 4th Edward W. Creal (D) Died October 13, 1943 Chester O. Carrier (R) November 30, 1943
Pennsylvania 2nd James P. McGranery (D) Resigned November 17, 1943 after being appointed an Assistant Attorney General Joseph Marmaduke Pratt (R) January 18, 1944
Pennsylvania 17th J. William Ditter (R) Died November 21, 1943 Vacant until the next Congress
Alabama 3rd Henry B. Steagall (D) Died November 22, 1943 George W. Andrews (D) March 14, 1944
Colorado 1st Lawrence Lewis (D) Died December 9, 1943 Dean M. Gillespie (R) March 7, 1944
New York 21st Joseph A. Gavagan (D) Resigned December 30, 1943 after being elected a justice of the New York Supreme Court James H. Torrens (D) February 29, 1944
Illinois 19th William H. Wheat (R) Died January 16, 1944 Rolla C. McMillen (R) June 13, 1944
Illinois 7th Leonard W. Schuetz (D) Died February 13, 1944 Vacant until the next Congress
New York 4th Thomas H. Cullen (D) Died March 1, 1944 John J. Rooney (D) June 6, 1944
New York 11th James A. O'Leary (D) Died March 16, 1944 Ellsworth B. Buck (R) June 6, 1944
Louisiana 3rd James Domengeaux (D) Resigned April 15, 1944 to join US Armed Forces James Domengeaux (D) Re-elected to fill his own vacancy November 7, 1944
California 16th Will Rogers, Jr. (D) Resigned May 23, 1944 to enter the US Army Vacant until the next Congress
Philippines At-large Joaquín Miguel Elizalde Resigned August 9, 1944 to become a member of the war cabinet of President Manuel L. Quezon Carlos P. Romulo August 10, 1944
Virginia 2nd Winder R. Harris (D) Resigned September 15, 1944 Ralph Hunter Daughton (D) November 7, 1944
Florida 3rd Robert L. F. Sikes (D) Resigned October 19, 1944 to enter the US Army Vacant until the next Congress
South Carolina 2nd Hampton P. Fulmer (D) Died October 19, 1944 Willa L. Fulmer (R) November 7, 1944
Florida At-large Robert A. Green (D) Resigned November 25, 1944 to enter the United States Navy Vacant until the next Congress
Tennessee 4th Albert Gore, Sr. (D) Resigned December 4, 1944 to enter the United States Army Vacant until the next Congress
Washington 1st Warren Magnuson (D) Resigned December 14, 1944 when appointed U.S. Senator Vacant until the next Congress
Pennsylvania At-large William I. Troutman (R) Resigned January 2, 1945 Vacant until the next Congress

Employees[edit]

Senate[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Party Whips". Senate.gov.