91st Cavalry Regiment (United States)
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (December 2012)|
|91st Cavalry Regiment (Airborne)|
|Branch||United States Army|
|Type||Light Airborne Reconnaissance|
|Role||Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting Acquisition|
|Part of||173rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Airborne)|
|Nickname||"The Airborne Cav"|
|Engagements||World War II
Operation Enduring Freedom
|LTC Kyle Reed|
|CPT Harold G. Holt
LTC Harry W. Candler
LTC Charles A. Ellis
LTC H. Bruss
LTC Christopher Kolenda
LTC Paul W. Fellinger
LTC Whit Wright
|Distinctive Unit Insignia|
|U.S. Cavalry Regiments|
|89th Cavalry Regiment||98th Cavalry|
The 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment (Airborne) is a light Airborne Reconnaissance Squadron currently serving as the 173rd Airborne Brigade's Reconnaissance, Surveillance and Targeting Acquisition (RSTA) Squadron based out of Conn Barracks in Schweinfurt, Germany. It is the only U.S. Army Airborne RSTA Squadron within the European, Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) area of responsibility. The 91st Reconnaissance Squadron was reactivated, reorganized and redesignated the 1st Squadron (Airborne), 91st Cavalry Regiment on 8 June 2006, at Conn Barracks in Schweinfurt, Germany. This reactivation was part of the transition of the 173rd Airborne Brigade to the U.S. Army's new modular force structure.
The 91st Reconnaissance Squadron was originally organized as a mechanized cavalry reconnaissance squadron in the 1st Cavalry Division. It was the oldest and most experienced squadron (battalion) size mechanized reconnaissance unit in the Army. It completed six campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, and Italy during World War II, while attached to various Infantry and Armored Divisions. The 91st Cav Recon Squadron was a nondivisional unit and reported directly to the Army's II Corps. The unit was deactivated on 23 June 1953. This reactivation was the first time the colors of the 1st Squadron (Airborne), 91st Cavalry Regiment had flown since the end of World War II. Organized as Task Force Saber, 1-91 CAV subsequently deployed twice with the International Security Assistance Force's (ISAF) Regional Command-East. During Operation Enduring Freedom VIII the Squadron deployed troops to the Nuristan, Kunar, Nangarhar, and Paktika Provinces of Eastern Afghanistan. During OEF X, the Squadron deployed troops to the Logar Province about 50 miles South of Kabul, the capital of Afghanistan. In June 2012, 1-91 CAV would return to Logar Province, Afghanistan once again in support of OEF XII-XIII. This time, the Squadron held a significant role as the Battle Space owner for nearly all of Logar Province. Soon after returning to Germany in March 2013, 1-91 CAV moved from Schweinfurt to Tower Barracks in Grafenwoehr due to a Brigade realignment and the imminent closure of Conn Barracks.
- 1st Armored Car Squadron (1928–1939)
- 1st Reconnaissance Squadron (1939–1941)
- 91st Reconnaissance Squadron (1941–1945)
- 91st Reconnaissance Battalion (1950)
- 91st Armored Cavalry Reconnaissance Battalion (1953)
- 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment (ABN) (2006–Present)
- Constituted in the R.A. on 16 October 1928 as the 1st Armored (Armd.) Car Squadron (Sq.), and assigned to the 1st Cav. Division (Div.). Concurrently, the 1st Armd. Car Troop (organized as Provisional Platoon, 1st Armd. Car Troop at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD, on 15 February 1928; redesignated 1st Armd. Car Troop on 10 June 1928) redesignated Troop A, 1st Armd. Car Sq. Remainder of squadron allotted to the Eighth Corps Area. Troop A transferred to Fort George G. Meade, MD, on 29 August 1928; to Fort Holabird, MD, on 1 October 1928; and finally to Fort Bliss, TX, arriving there on 10 November 1928. The squadron, less Troop A, was organized on 30 June 1932 with Organized Reserve (O.R.) personnel as an RAI unit with HQ at Fort Bliss. Reserve officers assigned to the squadron conducted summer training with Troop A at Fort Bliss. Redesignated 1st Rcn. Sq. on 1 March 1939. The remainder of the squadron was activated on 3 January 1941, less Reserve personnel, at Fort Bliss. Redesignated 91st Rcn. Sq. on 8 May 1941. Location 7 December 1941—Fort Bliss, TX.
Medal of Honor Recipients
- 1LT Gerry H. Kisters - 31 July 1943, Nicosia, Gagliano, Italy
- (From Citation) "...On 31 July 1943, near Gagliano, Sicily, a detachment of one officer and nine enlisted men, including Sergeant Kisters, advancing ahead of the leading elements of U.S. troops to fill a large crater in the only available vehicle route through Gagliano, was taken under fire by two enemy machineguns. Sergeant Kisters and the officer, unaided and in the face of intense small arms fire, advanced on the nearest machinegun emplacement and succeeded in capturing the gun and its crew of four. Although the greater part of the remaining small arms fire was now directed on the captured machinegun position, Sergeant Kisters voluntarily advanced alone toward the second gun emplacement. While creeping forward, he was struck five times by enemy bullets, receiving wounds in both legs and his right arm. Despite the wounds, he continued to advance on the enemy, and captured the second machinegun after killing three of its crew and forcing the fourth member to flee."
- 1LT Gerry H. Kisters was the first serviceman to be awarded both the Congressional Medal of Honor and the Distinguished Service Cross during World War II.
Distinguished Service Cross Recipients
- 1LT Gerry H. Kisters - 7 May 1943, Ferryville, Tunisia
- (From Citation) "...In May 1943, Ferryville, Tunisia, Sergeant Kisters made several individual reconnaissance missions, returning each time with timely and valuable information concerning location of artillery emplacements. Alone, and while subjected to enemy heavy artillery and concentrated machine gun fire, and individual rifle fire, Sergeant Kisters crept forward on an artillery piece which was firing on our forces. By the effective use of his hand grenades and rifle fire, Sergeant Kisters wiped out the entire crew."
- SGT Peter T. Perkins - 3 Aug 1943, Sicily, Italy
- (Synopsis, Citation Needed) "...Sergeant Peter T. Perkins (ASN: 18009273), United States Army, was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross (Posthumously) for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving with the 91st Reconnaissance Squadron, in action against enemy forces on 27 July 1943. Sergeant Perkins' intrepid actions, personal bravery and zealous devotion to duty at the cost of his life, exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army."
- LTC Charles A. Ellis - 2–3 July 1944, Serrazzone, Fonano, Italy
- (Synopsis, Citation Needed) "...The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Charles A. Ellis, Lieutenant Colonel (Cavalry), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy in action against enemy forces on 2 and 3 July 1944. Lieutenant Colonel Ellis' intrepid actions, personal bravery and zealous devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the United States Army."
|Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army)||2007–2008||for service in Afghanistan|
|Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army)||2009–2010||for service in Afghanistan|
|Valorous Unit Award (Army) Anvil Troop Only||2007–2008||for service in Afghanistan|
|French Croix de guerre, World War II (with Palm)||1943||embroidered CENTRAL ITALY|
- European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign (EAME). There were 16 campaigns in the EAME Theater. The EAME streamer is green with a brown stripe on each edge. The center
Distinctive Unit Insignia
- A Gold color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches (2.86 cm) in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Per bend wavy Or and Sable, a motor wheel with speed lines in chief and a horseshoe points in chief, counterchanged. Attached below the Shield a Gold scroll bearing the motto "ALERT" in Black letters.
- The shield includes yellow, the color of the Cavalry, thus denoting the origin of the organization in that service. The horseshoe also carries out the same idea. The speeding wheel, enhanced by speed lines, creates the impression of the lightning speed of the modern armored force. The motto "Alert" is appropriate, and fittingly expresses the sentiments of the unit.
- The distinctive unit insignia was originally approved for the 91st Reconnaissance Squadron on 6 August 1942. It was redesignated for the 91st Reconnaissance Battalion on 25 May 1950. The insignia was redesignated for the 91st Armored Cavalry Reconnaissance Battalion on 22 October 1953. The insignia was redesignated for the 91st Cavalry Regiment, with the description and symbolism updated on 1 March 2006.
Coat Of Arms
- Per bend wavy Or and Sable, a motor wheel with speed lines in chief and a horseshoe points in chief, counterchanged.
- From a wreath Or and Sable, in front of a sun in splendor Proper, a stylized spearhead point down of the second bearing a parachute Argent superimposed by wings conjoined of the first, surmounted by a saber palewise Gules, point down, thereon a bayonet and arrow in saltire of the last.
- Yellow is the color of the Cavalry and denotes the origin of the organization in that branch of the service. The horseshoe also carries out the same idea. The speeding wheel, enhanced by speed lines creates the impression of the lightning speed of the modern armored force.
- The sun in splendor symbolizes the hot, dry desert that covers much of northern Africa, denoting the unit's campaign in Tunisia. The lone parachute and spearhead suggest the unit being the first into battle to spearhead the way for others to follow. It also alludes to the lineage as the First Armored Car Troop and the unit's World War II campaign. The wings refer to the freedom the Regiment protects. The arrow, saber, and bayonet represent strength, teamwork, and cohesion, signifying a combined arms organization.
- The coat of arms was originally approved for the 91st Reconnaissance Squadron on 6 August 1942. It was redesignated for the 91st Reconnaissance Battalion on 25 May 1950. The insignia was redesignated for the 91st Armored Cavalry Reconnaissance Battalion on 22 October 1953. It was redesignated for the 91st Cavalry Regiment and amended to include a crest on 3 April 2006.
World War II Configuration
- 91st Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (1941–1943)
- Headquarters Troop
- A Troop (Recon, Scout Car)
- B Troop (Recon, Scout Car)
- C Troop (Recon, Bantaam)
- E Troop (Light Tank)
- 91st Cavalry Reconnaissance Squadron (1943–1945)
- Headquarters Troop, with Pioneer and Demolitions Platoon
- A Troop (Recon, Scout Car)
- B Troop (Recon, Scout Car)
- C Troop (Recon, Bantaam)
- D Troop (Support Troop)
- E Troop (Light Tank)
- F Troop (Heavy Guns)
- 1st Squadron, 91st Cavalry Regiment (Airborne)
- HHT Troop (CMD GRP, MED, COMMO, FIST)
- A Troop (Recon Scout)
- B Troop (Recon Scout)
- C Troop (Infantry, Sniper, Mortar)
- D Troop (Support, Maintenance/Transportation)
- United States Army branch insignia
- Coats of arms of U.S. Armor and Cavalry Regiments
- Cavalry (United States)
- Historical register and dictionary of the United States Army, from ..., Volume 1 By Francis Bernard Heitman 
- Encyclopedia of United States Army insignia and uniforms By William K. Emerson (page 51).