91st Division (United States)

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91st Training Division (Operations)
US 91st Infantry Division.svg
91st Infantry Division shoulder sleeve insignia
Active 1917 – 19, 1921 – 45, 1946 - 2008, 2010 - present
Country United States
Branch Army
Type Infantry
Role Training
Size Division
Garrison/HQ Fort Hunter Liggett[1]
Nickname "Wild West Division"(special designation)[2]
"Powder River"[3]
Engagements World War I
*St. Mihiel Offensive
*Meuse-Argonne Offensive
World War II
*Italian Campaign
Website 91st Training Division
Commanders
Current
commander
BG James T. Cook
Notable
commanders
MG Daniel C. Balough
Insignia
Distinctive unit insignia 91 Inf Div DUI.jpg
US infantry divisions (1939–present)
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90th Infantry Division 92nd Infantry Division

The 91st Infantry Division (variously nicknamed as the "Pine Tree Division"[4][5] or "Wild West Division"[2]) was a unit of the United States Army that fought in World War I and World War II. From 1946 until 2008, it was a part of the U.S. Army Reserve. It was briefly inactivated from 2008 until 2010 when it was elevated back to a division size element as the 91st Training Division (Operations).[1]

History[edit]

World War I and after[edit]

Constituted on 5 August 1917 at Camp Lewis, Washington, near Tacoma, the division soon thereafter departed for England in the summer of 1918. In September 1918, the division's first operation was in the St. Mihiel Offensive in France. Serving under the U.S. Army's V Corps, the division fought in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive and successfully helped to destroy the German First Guard Division and continued to smash through three successive enemy lines.[1][6]

Twelve days before the end of World War I, the division, as part of the VII Corps, helped drive the Germans east across the Escaut River. The division was awarded separate campaign streamers for its active role in the Lorraine, Meuse-Argonne and Ypres-Lys campaigns.[1][6]

In 1919, the 91st was inactivated at the Presidio of San Francisco. After being reconstituted in 1921 as part of the Organized Reserves, the division then served as an administrative control center for the next 21 years.[1][6]

World War II[edit]

As the first battles of World War II involving the United States were being fought in 1942, the division was reactivated at Camp White, Oregon. After initial training at Camp White, the division participation in the Oregon Maneuver combat exercise in the fall of 1943.[7][8] Then, the division departed for the European Continent. There, the 361st Regimental Combat Team was detached to participate in the battles for Rome and the Arno River. It became the first Fifth Army unit to reach the river. In September 1944, the division crossed the Sieve River, outflanked the famous Gothic Line, and captured the Futa Pass. For its part in combat, the division was awarded the North Apennines, Po Valley and Rome-Arno campaign streamers. The division was inactivated at Camp Rucker, Alabama, in December 1945.[1][6]

WWII statistics[edit]

Awards: MH-2 ; DSC-2 ; DSM-1 ; SS-528; LM-33; SM-43 ; BSM-4,152.

Theater:Mediterranean

Casualties: 8,744 (number of killed, wounded in action, captured, and missing)

Days of combat: 271

Campaign(s):

Rome-Arno (22 Jan 44 - 9 Sep 44)

North Apennines (10 Sep 44 - 4 April 45)

Po Valley (5 Apr 45 - 8 May 45)

Army Reserve[edit]

In December 1946, the 91st was reactivated at the Presidio of San Francisco as part of the U.S. Army Reserve. In 1959, the division was reorganized and redesignated as the 91st Division (Training). In 1993, the division was again reorganized and redesignated as the 91st Division (Exercise) and again in 1999 as the 91st Division (Training Support).[1][6]

Its previous headquarters were at Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (PRFTA), Dublin, California.[9]

In its 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission recommendations, the Department of Defense recommended relocating the 91st Division to Fort Hunter Liggett.[6]

The four brigades of the 91st Division were redesignated as separate brigades:

The 91st Division moved its headquarters to Fort Hunter Liggett on 1 May 2009.[1]

The 91st Division was reorganized and re-designated as the 91st Training Brigade (Operations) on 1 October 2009.[1]

The 91st Training Brigade (Operations) was re-designated as the 91st Training Division (Operations) on 1 October 2010.[1]

Notable members[edit]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "91st Training Division (Operations) History". United States Army. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Special Unit Designations". United States Army Center of Military History. 21 April 2010. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Story of the Powder River 91st Infantry Division
  4. ^ "Fort Baker". National Park Service. United States Department of the Interior. 20 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  5. ^ "THE HISTORY OF COMPANY °A" 275TH INFANTRY". 70th Infantry Division Association. Retrieved 30 July 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f "91st Division (Training Support)". GlobalSecurity.org. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  7. ^ Kramer, George, “Camp White”, The Oregon Encyclopedia, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, 23 October 2010.
  8. ^ Brogan, Phil F., East of the Cascades (Third Edition), Binford & Mort, Portland, Oregon, 1965, pp. 272–275.
  9. ^ "Camp Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (PRFTA)". Camp Parks Reserve Forces Training Area (PRFTA). GlobalSecurity.org. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 17 February 2011. 
  10. ^ White, G. Edward (1982). Earl Warren, a public life. ISBN 0-19-503121-0. By a leading scholar

External links[edit]