94th Infantry Division (Wehrmacht)
|94th Infantry Division|
September 1939 – January 1943
|General of the Artillery Georg Pfeiffer|
The 94th Infantry Division (German: 94. Infanteriedivision) was a German Army infantry division in World War II.
Formation and the west campaign
The 94th Infantry Division was raised in September 1939 as part of the fifth wave from men of Military District number 4 (Wehrkreis 4), which comprised Saxony and Thuringia. The division was then sent to the Saarland in December, should the French invade. The division then aided the 6th Army in their border-crossing the following year. Following a fatal car collision in August 1940, General of the Infantry Hellmuth Volkmann was replaced by Major General Georg Pfeiffer.
The east campaign and destruction
In June 1941, the 94th Division attacked the Soviet Union with a large number of other German divisions. However; until October 1942, the 94th was assigned to the occupied Ukraine. In June 1942, Major General Pfeiffer was promoted to Lieutenant General. During the Case Blue offensive, the division was sent with the 6th Army as a component of LI Corps to capture the industrial Russian city of Stalingrad, which was considered important in crushing Soviet morale. 94th Infantry Division was cut off from supplies and reinforcements outside of Stalingrad in the beginning of the "Russian winter", as a Soviet pincer-movement left the 6th Army surrounded.
Facing heavy losses on all sides of the pocket, Erich von Manstein took the last opportunity to pull a proven military commander for the 306th Infantry out of the wreckage. As a consequence, Lieutenant General Pfeiffer and his staff were flown out on December 11. The remnants of the 94th division were sent to captivity after the surrender of newly promoted Field Marshal Paulus in the last days of January 1943.
Recreation and final capitulation
The 94th was recreated later in 1943 and later moved to the Mediterranean, where the Allies opened up a new front in Italy. In Autumn 1944, remnants of the 95th Infantry and 278th Grenadier Divisions were reconstituted as part of the 94th Infantry. The division finally surrendered on 22 April 1945 after failing to hold off the Allies.
Order of battle
- General of the Infantry Helmuth Volkmann (25 September 1939 – 21 August 1940)
- General of the Artillery Georg Pfeiffer (21 August 1940 – 2 January 1944)
- Lieutenant General Bernhard Steinmetz (2 January 1944 – 22 April 1945)
- "92. Infanterie-Division". Axhishistory.com. Retrieved May 5, 2011.
- Mitcham, Samuel W. (2007). German Order of Battle: 1st–290th Infantry divisions in World War II. Stoddart.
- Antill, Peter (2007). Stalingrad 1942. Osprey Publishing. p. 27.
- Forczyk, Robert (2012). Red Christmas: The Tatsinskaya Airfield Raid 1942. Osprey Publishing. p. 20.
- Berger, Florian (2011). The Face of Courage: The 98 Men Who Received the Knight's Cross and the Close-Combat Clasp in Gold. Stackpole Books.