96th Infantry Division (United States)
|96th Infantry Division|
Shoulder sleeve insignia
|Active||1942 – 46, 1946 –|
|Branch||U.S. Army (Reserve)|
|Engagements||World War II
*Battle of Okinawa
Battle of Leye
NATO intervention in Bosnia
*Operation Enduring Freedom
*Operation Iraqi Freedom
|Decorations||Presidential Unit Citation|
|US infantry divisions (1939–present)|
|95th Infantry Division||97th Infantry Division|
The division was first organized in October 1918, during the U.S. mobilization for World War I. The division was organized in the First World War "National Army" on 20 October 1918 at Camp Wadsworth, South Carolina. The 96th was one of the last divisions activated and the war ended before it could be sent overseas. It was thus demobilized on 7 January 1919. The division was reconstituted in the Organized Reserves on 24 June 1921 at Portland, Oregon.
World War II
- Activated: 15 August 1942.
- Overseas: 23 July 1944.
- Campaigns: Leyte, Southern Philippines. Okinawa, Ryukyus
- Presidential Unit Citation: 1.
- Awards: MH-5; DSC-12; DSM-1; SS-232; LM-4; SM-73; BSM-4,588; AM-84.
- Commanders: Maj. Gen. James L. Bradley commanded the division throughout its entire life in World War II.
- Returned to U.S.: 2 February 1946.
- Inactivated: 3 February 1946.
- Headquarters & Headquarters Company
- 381st Infantry Regiment
- 382nd Infantry Regiment
- 383rd Infantry Regiment
- 361st Field Artillery Battalion
- 362nd Field Artillery Battalion
- 363rd Field Artillery Battalion
- 921st Field Artillery Battalion
- 763rd Tank Battalion
- 96th Signal Company
- 796th Ordnance Company
- 96th Quartermaster Company
- 786th Quartermaster Company
- 96th Recon Troop
- 321st Engineer Battalion
- 321st Medical Battalion
- 96th CIC Detachment
- 314th Japanese-American Intell. (operated with 382nd IR)
World War II combat chronicle
As part of the reorganization of the U.S. Army divisions from "square" to "triangular," the two infantry brigade headquarters were converted to provide personnel for other units and the 380th Infantry Regiment was disbanded. The 192nd Infantry Brigade headquarters company was converted into the division's 96th Reconnaissance Troop, while the 191st Infantry Brigade headquarters formed the core of the division's headquarters company. After initial training at Camp White in southern Oregon, the 96th Infantry Division participation in the Oregon Maneuver combat exercise in the fall of 1943.
The division trained in Hawaiian Islands from July to September 1944 before entering combat in an assault landing in Leyte Gulf, Philippine Islands, between Tanauan and Dulag, 20 October 1944. Enemy resistance in the beachhead area was quickly broken and the division had advanced to and secured the Tanauan-Dagami-Tabontabon sector by 9 November after heavy fighting. The division continued to wipe out resistance on the island, engaging in small unit actions, patrolling, probing, and wiping out pockets of Japanese. Chalk Ridge was taken 12 December 1944, and major organized resistance was at an end by Christmas Day. The next three months were spent in mopping up, security duty, training, and loading for the coming invasion of Okinawa.
The division left the Philippines 27 March 1945 for Okinawa, making an assault landing on the island on 1 April. The landing was unopposed and a beachhead was established, between 1 to 3 April 1945. Resistance stiffened considerably as the division advanced to Kakazu Ridge, where fighting was fierce, from 7 to 16 April 1945. The 96th assaulted and cracked the fanatically-defended enemy defense line, Tanabaru Nishibaru, 17–23 April, and after advancing slightly against extremely determined resistance, was relieved on 30 April by the 77th Infantry Division. The division trained and rested 1–9 May, while elements mopped up bypassed enemy pockets and then returned to the offensive, 10 May 1945, attacking and capturing Conical-Sugar Hill Ridge, 21 May, thus breaking the right flank of the Shuri defenses. Heavy rains the following week slowed down the advance. The offensive was resumed, 30 May, against weakening enemy resistance; Japanese north of Yonabaru-Shuri-Naha Road area were cleared out. Resistance stiffened again, 3 June, and Laura Hill was taken, 14 June 1945, only after a bloody fight; the last important Japanese defense position, the Yuza-Dake, Yaeju-Dake Hill mass, was secured by 17 June, and on 22 June all resistance was declared at an end.Many of the landmark names and other locations of the massive engagement have been changed by modern Japanese.
The division patrolled an area from Chan to Ogusuku until 30 June. After resting in July, the division left Okinawa for Mindoro, in the Philippines, and engaged in a training program. The division left the Philippines, 17 January 1946, for the United States.
The division commenced its Army Reserve role in December 1946, commanded by Colonel Ross J. Wilson of Kalispell, Montana. The division headquarters was Fort Missoula, Montana. Major units were located at Great Falls, Montana, Phoenix, Arizona, and Salt Lake City. The division appears to have kept the 381st, 382nd, and 383rd Infantry Regiments. In August 1948, Colonel LeRoy H. Anderson of Conrad, Montana was appointed as the Commander. The headquarters moved to Helena, Montana, and then transferred to Fort Douglas, Utah in 1962. Major General Michael B. Kauffman was named commander, followed by Brigadier General Ray D. Free. The division was inactivated in December 1965.
On 22 December 1967, the Department of the Army announced that Salt Lake City, Utah had been chosen as the site for one of the eighteen new nationwide Army Reserve Command (ARCOM) headquarters. The ARCOM would command all Army Reserve units in Utah, Idaho and Montana. In March 1968, the numericals "96" were assigned to the command. Also in March the 259th Quartermaster Battalion, an ARCOM unit in Pleasant Grove, Utah was ordered to active duty. In September, the 259th transferred overseas for duty in Vietnam and served with distinction, being awarded the Meritorious Unit Commendation. It was released from active duty on 18 September 1969. Sterling R. Ryser succeeded Major General Free as ARCOM commander in early 1969. In 1971 with the consolidation of Fourth and Fifth Army areas, the 96th ARCOM's span of command was increased to include North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado. In 1973 the command was again reorganized, gaining the state of New Mexico and losing North and South Dakota.
Since 1974, 96th ARCOM units have trained with their regular Army counterparts throughout the United States, Europe, and Asia. Franklin McKean was appointed Commanding General in 1975, followed by Larry Morris in 1979. In 1984, the ARCOM was again reorganized, losing New Mexico and regaining North and South Dakota. Richard O. Christiansen was appointed as Commanding General. In 1985, the 96th ARCOM was geographically the largest Army Reserve Command in the United States. The ARCOM consists of 94 units and 9,320 reservists, augmented by 243 full-time soldiers and 288 civilian employees. On 9 April 1989 Donald M. Bagley was appointed Commanding General.
In 1991, 3rd Battalion, 87th Infantry Regiment, located in Colorado, was mobilized for security duties in Germany during the Gulf War. After the end of the Cold War, the command was finally redesignated the 96th Regional Readiness Command. Subordinate units of the 96th RRC have been deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan, and Djibouti in support of the Global War on Terror from 2001. Units have also been deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina as part of peacekeeping operations in the Balkans.
The 96th Sustainment Brigade deployed for Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2009. The brigade returned to the United States in May, 2010.
- Global Security.org, U.S. Army 96th Regional Readiness Command
- Kramer, George, “Camp White”, The Oregon Encyclopedia, Portland State University, Portland, Oregon, 23 October 2010.
- Brogan, Phil F., East of the Cascades (Third Edition), Binford & Mort, Portland, Oregon, 1965, pp. 272–275.
- History of the 96th Infantry Division and 96th Army Reserve Command
- Thomas D. Dinackus, 2000, 10-2.
- Deadeyes, The Story of the 96th Infantry Division; by Capt. John C. Willems, Capt. Orlando R. Davidson, and Tee. 4 Joseph A. Kahl, unit historians;
- The Infantry Journal, Washington 6, D. C.; 1947.
- The Army Almanac: A Book of Facts Concerning the Army of the United States U.S. Government Printing Office, 1950
- United States Army Center of Military History, Components of Infantry Divisions in World War 2
- 96th Infantry Division Deadeye Association Association for veterans, families, and supporters of the 96th Infantry Division, 96th Regional Readiness Command, and 96th Sustainment Brigade