9K720 Iskander

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9K720 Iskander
SS-26 Stone
Moscow Victory Parade 2010 - Training on May 4 - img14.jpg
Russian Iskander missiles on a TEL at the 2010 Victory Day Parade rehearsal
Type Short-range ballistic missile
Place of origin Russia
Service history
In service 2006[1]-Present
Used by Russian Ground Forces
Production history
Manufacturer Votkinsk Plant State Production Association (Votkinsk) - missiles
Production Association Barricades (Volgograd) - ground equipment
KBM (Kolomna) - developer of the system
Specifications
Weight 3,800 kg (8,400 lb) for Iskander-E[2]
Length 7.3 m (24 ft)
Diameter 0.92 m (3 ft 0 in)
Warhead 480-700 kg HE fragmentation, submunition, penetration, fuel-air explosive, EMP for Iskander-E.[3][4]

Engine Single-stage solid propellant
Operational
range
400-500km (250-310 miles)[5] for Iskander-M
280 km (170 mi) for Iskander-E
Speed 2100 m/s cruising (hypersonic)[6]
Guidance
system
Inertial, optical homing, use of GPS / GLONASS in addition to the inertial guidance system[7]
Inertial and optical homing for Iskander-E
Accuracy 5–7 m (Iskander-M)
Launch
platform
Mobile TEL

The 9K720 Iskander (Russian: «Искандер»; NATO reporting name SS-26 Stone) is a mobile theater ballistic missile system produced and deployed by the Russian Federation.

History[edit]

The road-mobile Iskander was the second attempt to replace the Scud missile. The first attempt, the Oka, was eliminated under the INF Treaty. It takes its name from former Sovıet army-general and nuclear constructor Iskander Huseynov. The Iskander appears to have several different conventional warheads, including a cluster munitions warhead, a fuel-air explosive enhanced-blast warhead, a high explosive-fragmentation warhead, an earth penetrator for bunker busting and an electro-magnetic pulse device for anti-radar missions. The missile can also carry nuclear warheads.[1][8][9]

In September 2004, at a meeting with senior defense officials reporting to President Vladimir Putin on the drafting of a defense budget for 2005, then-Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov spoke about the completion of static tests of a new tactical missile system called the Iskander. He said that in 2005, the system would go into quantity production and toward the end of that year, Russia would have a brigade armed with it.[1]

In March 2005, a source in the Russian defense industry told Interfax-AVN the development of new missiles with a range of 500–600 km, based on existing Iskander-E tactical missile systems, was a possibility. He said, however, that it "may take up to five or six years".[1]

In 2006, serial production of the Iskander-M Tactical Ballistic Missile System launched, and the system was adopted by the Russian army.[1]

Description[edit]

The Iskander ballistic missile is superior to its predecessor, the Oka. The Iskander-M system is equipped with two solid-propellant single-stage guided missiles, model 9M723K1. Each one is controlled throughout the entire flight path and fitted with an inseparable warhead. Each missile in the launch carrier vehicle can be independently targeted in a matter of seconds. The mobility of the Iskander launch platform makes a launch difficult to prevent.

Targets can be located not only by satellite and aircraft but also by a conventional intelligence center, by a soldier who directs artillery fire or from aerial photos scanned into a computer. The missiles can be re-targeted during flight in the case of engaging mobile targets.[8] Another unique feature of Iskander-M (and Iskander-E)[10] is the optically guided warhead, which can also be controlled by encrypted radio transmission, including such as those from AWACS or UAV. The electro-optical guidance system provides a self-homing capability. The missile's on-board computer receives images of the target, then locks onto the target with its sight and descends towards it at supersonic speed.

Boost phase thrust vector control (TVC) is accomplished by graphite vanes similar in layout to the V-2 and Scud series tactical ballistic missiles. In flight, the missile follows a quasi-ballistic path, performing evasive maneuvers in the terminal phase of flight and releasing decoys in order to penetrate missile defense systems. The missile never leaves the atmosphere as it follows a relatively flat trajectory. The missile is controlled during the whole flight with gas-dynamic and aerodynamic control surfaces. It uses a small scattering surface, special coatings and small size projections to reduce its radar signature.[11]

The Russian Iskander-M cruises at hypersonic speed of 2100–2600 m/s (Mach 6–7) at a height of 50 km. The Iskander-M weighs 4615 kg, carries a warhead of 710–800 kg, has a range of 400–480 km, and achieves a CEP (Circular error probable) of 5–7 meters. During flight it can maneuver at different altitudes and trajectories and can turn at up to 20 to 30 G to evade anti-ballistic missiles. For example, in one of the trajectory modes it can dive at the target at 90 degrees at the rate of 700–800 m/s performing anti-ABM maneuvers.[6][12] The missile is controlled in all phases.[13]

Iskander has achieved sufficient accuracy, range and reliability (ability to penetrate defenses) to function as an alternative to precision bombing for air forces that cannot expect to launch bombing or cruise missile fire missions reliably in the face of superior enemy fighters and air defenses. Training and competence requirements are much lower than for normal air force assets such as a fighter bomber squadron utilizing guided bombs.[citation needed]

Iskander is a tactical missile system designed to be used in theater level conflicts.[14] It is intended to use conventional warheads for the engagement of small and area targets (both moving and stationary), such as hostile fire weapons, air and antimissile defense weapons, command posts and communications nodes and troops in concentration areas, among others. The system can therefore destroy both active military units and targets to degrade the enemy's capability to wage war.

In 2007, a new missile for the system (and launcher), the R-500 (range of applications up to 2000 km and more[15]) Iskander-K (K stands for krylataya or "winged") cruise missile, was test fired.[16] Now complex "Iskander-M" is transmitted to the troops complete with cruise and ballistic missiles. In 2013, army missile brigades first received missiles equipped with a new control system.[17]

Uses passive and active jamming system, hidden in the body of the rocket. When approaching the target from the rocket separated false targets and small jammers and so on.[18] The missile uses stealth technology.[15]

Deployment and combat history[edit]

According to the Moscow Centre for Strategy and Technology Analysis, the Iskander-M system was combat-tested in the 2008 South Ossetia war with Georgia and it proved highly effective in destroying military targets and infrastructure.[19] Quoting unconfirmed reports,[who?] the Moscow Defense Brief stated that an Iskander missile was used for a high precision strike on the Georgian Separate Tank Battalion base in Gori, destroying 28 tanks. Russian officials have denied using of the Iskander missile against Georgia but official reports[who?] testify to the high effectiveness of the Iskander missiles, as one of the most devastating and accurate weapons in the Russian arsenal.[20] The Dutch government's investigation claims that a single, 5 mm fragment from an anti-personnel sub-munition, that was propelled by an Iskander missile, killed Dutch journalist Stan Storimans in Gori, which was home to various military targets and had been almost completely evacuated before the bombardment.[21]

In November 2008, then-Russian President Dmitry Medvedev stated in his first state of the nation speech that Russia would deploy Iskander missiles to Russia's western district of Kaliningrad "to neutralize, if necessary, a NATO missile defense system."[22][23] However, on September 17, 2009, US president Barack Obama announced the cancellation of the US missile defense project in Poland and the Czech Republic.[24] Following the announcement, on September 26, Medvedev stated in a press conference that he would in turn cancel the plans to deploy Iskander missiles to Kaliningrad.[25] According to the Stratfor.com e-mails leaked by Wikileaks, there are a number of Iskander brigades operational. The leaked Stratfor.com e-mail was dated 13 December 2009:[26]

On September 29, 2009, the Russian military announced plans to set up an extensive network of Iskander missiles throughout the country as part of the broader military reforms underway. According to now discharged General Vladimir Boldyrev, Iskander systems would be stationed in every defense district in Russia, but not in Kaliningrad.[27] On November 23, 2011, then-President Dmitri Medvedev again said that Russia may deploy Iskander tactical missiles in the Kaliningrad region as part of Russia’s reaction to the United States’ reformulated missile shield plans.[28]

In June 2013, it was revealed that Russia had deployed several Iskander-M ballistic missile systems in Armenia, which are currently stationed at undisclosed locations throughout the country.[29]

In December 2013, Russia confirmed that the Iskander missile system now had been deployed in Western Military District.[30]

Variants[edit]

  • Iskander-M – version for Russian armed forces. Range: 400 km with a potential for extension to INF Treaty violation of the no-exceed-limit of 500 km.[31][31][32]
  • Iskander-E – export version, specially designed to meet MTCR restrictions. Range: ~280 km.

Operators[edit]

  •  Russia - In service with the Western Military District since 2010.[33] Also, missiles are deployed in the Armenia.[29] Two deliveries in 2013.[34] Missile units in Krasnodar and Stavropol territories as well as in the Republic of Adygea in the 49th Army of the Southern Military District, and a missile brigade in the Eastern Military District received Iskander-M in 2013.[35][36] One more delivery in July 2014.[37] All scheduled 120 complexes.[38]
  •  Syria 26 units [39]

Possible future operators[edit]

  •  Iran has expressed interest in obtaining the system. In May 2009, the President of Belarus Alexander Lukashenko, referring to selling the system to Iran, stated: "We will sacredly fulfill our agreements with Iran President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and expect more activity in projects earmarked for joint implementation".[44]

Details[edit]

Range of a 9K720 Iskander missile centered in Kaliningrad (280[15] km).

Specifications[edit]

  • Manufacturer: Votkinsk Plant State Production Association (Votkinsk) - missiles
    Production Association Barricades (Volgograd) - ground equipment
    KB Mashynostroyeniya (KBM, Kolomna) - developer of the system
  • Launch range:
    • maximum: 500 km (Iskander-M, unofficial), 280 km (export version)
    • minimum: 50 km[45]
  • Accuracy:
    • 30–70 m (export version Iskander-E without homing system)[46]
    • 5–7 m with terminal phase optoelectronic homing system (Iskander-M)[45]
  • time to launch: up to 4 min from highest readiness, up to 16 min from march[45]
  • Interval between launches: less than a minute[45]
  • Operating temperature range: -50 °C to +50 °C[45]
  • Burnout Velocity: ~2100 m/s
  • Number of missiles:
    • on 9P78E launcher: 2 (export version)[45]
    • on 9T250E transloader: 2
  • assigned service life: 10 years (Iskander-E)[45]
  • Crew: 3 (launcher truck)

System components[edit]

An Iskander transporter-erector-launcher
Iskander missiles (right) and an OTR-21 Tochka missile (left) on static display
An Iskander missile in launch position

The full Iskander system includes[45]

  • missiles
  • transporter-erector-launcher vehicle (chassis of 8x8 MZKT-79306 ASTROLOG truck)[47]
  • Transporter and loader vehicle (chassis of 8x8 MZKT-79306 ASTROLOG truck)
  • Command and staff vehicle (chassis of KAMAZ six wheel truck)
  • Information preparation station vehicle (chassis of KAMAZ six wheel truck)
  • Maintenance and repair vehicle (chassis of KAMAZ six wheel truck)
  • Life support vehicle (chassis of KAMAZ six wheel truck)
  • Depot equipment set
  • set of equipment for TEL training class
  • set of equipment for CSV training class
  • Training posters
  • Training missile mock-up

Intended targets[edit]

The system is intended to use conventional warheads for the engagement of point and area targets, including:

  • hostile fire weapons (missile systems, multiple launch rocket systems, long-range artillery pieces)
  • air and missile defense weapons, aerodrome
  • fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft at airfields
  • command posts and communications nodes
  • troops in concentration areas
  • critical civilian infrastructure facilities

Can hit strongly protected targets (bunkers)[11]

Comparable systems[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e 9K720 Iskander-M (SS-26 Stone) – Program GlobalSecurity retrieved on 11-15-08
  2. ^ a b Iskander / SS-26 specs GlobalSecurity Retrieved on 11-15-08
  3. ^ "Iskander/SS-26", Federation of American Scientists
  4. ^ http://missilethreat.com/missiles/iskander-ss-26/
  5. ^ http://defense-update.com/products/i/iskander.htm
  6. ^ a b SS-26 Iskander-M
  7. ^ http://www.arms-expo.ru/news/archive/dmitriy-rogozin-iskandery-budut-razmescheny-v-kaliningrade10-11-2011-16-00-00/?sphrase_id=2017576
  8. ^ a b 9K720 Iskander-M (SS-26 Stone) GlobalSecurity Retrieved on 11-15-08
  9. ^ http://en.ria.ru/world/20131217/185654740/NATO-Members-Alarmed-by-Russian-Nuclear-Missile-Deployment.html
  10. ^ http://www.kbm.ru/production/otrk/37.html
  11. ^ a b http://rbase.new-factoria.ru/missile/wobb/iscander/iscander.shtml
  12. ^ SS-26 Stone Iskander 9M72 9P78E Ballistic missile system
  13. ^ http://vpk-news.ru/articles/5354
  14. ^ Missiles of the world - SS-26
  15. ^ a b c http://rnns.ru/14897-udarnaja-sila-raketnaja-pautina.html
  16. ^ Iskander Missile System Retrieved on 11-18-08
  17. ^ http://arms-tass.su/?page=article&aid=125546&cid=25
  18. ^ http://vpk-news.ru/articles/19095
  19. ^ Russia’s rapid reaction. The International Institute for Strategic Studies Volume 14 Issue 07 September 2008 Georgia crisis special issue.
  20. ^ Iskander the Great Moscow Defense Brief
  21. ^ Official Dutch government investigation stating that SS26 propelled cluster bomb that killed Dutch journalist (PDF)
  22. ^ Medvedev hopes for 'second wind' with U.S. under Obama, RussiaToday, 2008-11-06
  23. ^ Russia to deploy short-range missiles near Poland Associated Press Retrieved on 11-15-08
  24. ^ "Obama cancels missile defense and changes transatlantic politics". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). September 25, 2009. 
  25. ^ News Conference with Medvedev following G20 Summit Retrieved on 2009-10-10[dead link]
  26. ^ Lauren Goodrich (Stratfor analyst), Eurasia [Fwd: INSIGHT - RUSSIA - Iskander Missile], released by Wikileaks, 27 February 2012
  27. ^ Russia announces plans for extensive short-range missile network Retrieved on 2009-10-10
  28. ^ Russia’s radar to counter missile shield, says Medvedev
  29. ^ a b Harutyunyan, Sargis (3 June 2013). "Advanced Russian Missiles ‘Deployed In Armenia’". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 22 June 2013. 
  30. ^ http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20131216/185614387/Russia-Confirms-Tactical-Missile-Deployment-on-NATO-Borders.html http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20131219/185723285/Putin-Says-No-Iskanders-Deployed-in-Kaliningrad.html
  31. ^ a b Russia to compensate for INF losses with Iskander missile system RIA Novosti Retrieved on 11-18-08
  32. ^ INF (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces) INF Treaty. Retrieved 11-18-08.
  33. ^ http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20101214/161766995.html http://en.ria.ru/military_news/20130212/179432505/Russian-Army-Chief-Visits-Missile-Academy.html
  34. ^ http://www.arms-expo.ru/049057054050124051051056055051.html http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20131114/976887621.html
  35. ^ http://ria.ru/defense_safety/20131219/985060165.html
  36. ^ http://topwar.ru/36249-po-prezhnemu-bogi-voyny.html
  37. ^ http://www.kbm.ru/ru/press-centre/420.html
  38. ^ http://www.arms-expo.ru/news/archive/iskander-nauchili-vzryvat-metro-po-fotografii-14-11-2011-16-44-00/?sphrase_id=2017576
  39. ^ http://www.military-today.com/missiles/iskander.htm
  40. ^ Belarus buys missile systems Iskander Retrieved on 11-18-08
  41. ^ Russia to deliver Iskander missile systems to Belarus Retrieved on 11-18-08
  42. ^ Belarus Not Planning to Deploy Russian Missiles to Counter U.S. Bloomberg Retrieved on 11-18-08
  43. ^ Belarus puts Russian missiles on shopping list Russia Today Retrieved on 11-18-08
  44. ^ Belarus 'selling Iran Iskander-M missiles Presstv.ir Retrieved on March 1, 2010
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h promotional CD of KBM
  46. ^ http://www.army-technology.com/projects/iksander-system/
  47. ^ "Iskander (SS-26 Stone) Short-Range Ballistic Missile". Military-Today. 2010-12-31. Retrieved 2011-05-15. 
  • Russia's Arms Catalog 2004

External links[edit]