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|Place of origin|| Soviet Union
|Case type||Rimless, bottleneck|
The 9×39 mm is a Soviet / Russian rifle cartridge. It is based on the Russian 7.62×39 mm round, but with an enlarged neck to accommodate a 9 mm bullet. The cartridge was designed by N. Zabelin, L. Dvoryaninova and Y. Frolov of the TsNIITochMash in the 1980s. The intent was to create a subsonic cartridge for suppressed firearms for special forces units that had more power, range and penetration than handgun cartridges. The 5.45×39 mm cartridge introduced in 1974 for AK-74 lacks bullet weight for acceptable energy at subsonic velocities. The bullet of the 9×39 mm is approximately 16 g (250 gr), double that of the 7.62×39 mm, and is subsonic. This slow velocity does not produce a sonic boom, but does limit the effective range of a weapon when compared to non-suppressed assault rifles. The round has an effective lethal range of 300 to 400 meters and a maximum penetration of up to 10 mm of steel. Like the 5.45×39mm cartridge, 9×39mm SP-5 features an airpocket in the tip, which vastly improves its capability to yaw; with such a long projectile, yawing can be quite violent.
|Type||sniper||test (increased charge)||armor piercing||training||armor piercing||sniper (increased penetration)||armor piercing|
|Bullet weight||up to 16.8 grams||about 16 grams||up to 17.3 grams|
|Muzzle velocity||280–320 m/s||280–320 m/s||280–320 m/s|
|Muzzle Energy||658.5-860.1 J||678.1-885.7 J|
|Maximum penetration||up to 10 mm of steel||up to 10 mm of steel|
SP-5 (7N8) - The SP-5 (СП-5) (SP: Spetsialnyj Patron; "Special Cartridge") was developed by Nikolai Zabelin. It is a conventional lead core FMJ bullet, but developed for accuracy.
SP-5UZ - The SP-5UZ (СП5-УЗ) is an SP-5 variant with an increased charge intended for a factory-specific strength testing of the weapons.
SP-6 (7N9) - The SP-6 (СП-6) was developed by Yuri Frolov. It has a hardened metal armor piercing core. It can penetrate 2 mm (0.079 in) of steel at 500 meters or 6 mm (0.24 in)of steel, 2.8 mm (0.11 in) of titanium or 30 layers of Kevlar at 200 meters. At 100 meters it penetrates 8 mm (0.31 in) of steel, while retaining enough power to neutralize a soft target behind it.
SP-6UCh - The SP-6UCh (СП-6УЧ) is an SP-6 variant intended for training.
PAB-9 (7N12) - The SP-6's bullet is expensive, so an attempt was made to make a lower-cost version of the cartridge. The PAB-9 (ПАБ-9) used a stamped rather than machined steel core. It sacrificed too much performance to be usable. As of 2011[update], its usage is prohibited.
SPP - The SPP (СПП) (SPP: Snaiperskie Povishennaya Probivaemost; "Sniper - Increased Penetration") is a sniper round with an increased penetration.
BP - The BP (БП) (BP: Broneboin'ie Pulya; "Armor-Piercing Bullet") is an armor-piercing round.
- Jane's Infantry Weapons 1997-98 (23rd ed.). Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. p. 458. ISBN 0-7106-1548-5.
- Modern Firearms - Special Purpose Cartridges of USSR and Russia
- left to right : SP-5, SP-6, PAB-9, BP, SPP
- left to right : SP-5, SP-6, PAB-9, SPP, BP
- left to right : SP-6, BP (2006), PAB-9, BP (2008)